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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Delphi consensus statement: Quality Indicators for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Comprehensive Care Units.
J Crohns Colitis
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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While it is commonly accepted that Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Comprehensive Care Units (ICCUs) facilitate the delivery of quality care to Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients, it remains unclear how an ICCU should be defined or evaluated. The aim of the present study was to develop a comprehensive set of Quality Indicators (QIs) of structure, process, and outcomes for defining and evaluating an ICCU.
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Primary and metastatic renal hemangiopericytoma.
Arch. Esp. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Haemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor that occurs more frequently in soft tissues and is extremely rare in the kidney.
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Clinical utility of (18) F-fluorocholine PET-CT in biochemical relapse of prostate cancer after radical treatment. Results of a multicentre study.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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This study evaluated the usefulness of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT in restaging patients with a history of prostate adenocarcinoma who faced biochemical relapse after early radical treatment, and correlated the technique's disease detection rate with a set of variables and clinical and pathological parameters.
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In Vivo Disruption of an Rb-E2F-Ezh2 Signaling Loop Causes Bladder Cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Bladder cancer is a highly prevalent human disease in which retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway inactivation and epigenetic alterations are common events. However, the connection between these two processes is still poorly understood. Here, we show that the in vivo inactivation of all Rb family genes in the mouse urothelium is sufficient to initiate bladder cancer development. The characterization of the mouse tumors revealed multiple molecular features of human bladder cancer, including the activation of E2F transcription factor and subsequent Ezh2 expression and the activation of several signaling pathways previously identified as highly relevant in urothelial tumors. These mice represent a genetically defined model for human high-grade superficial bladder cancer. Whole transcriptional characterizations of mouse and human bladder tumors revealed a significant overlap and confirmed the predominant role for Ezh2 in the downregulation of gene expression programs. Importantly, the increased tumor recurrence and progression in human patients with superficial bladder cancer is associated with increased E2F and Ezh2 expression and Ezh2-mediated gene expression repression. Collectively, our studies provide a genetically defined model for human high-grade superficial bladder cancer and demonstrate the existence of an Rb-E2F-Ezh2 axis in bladder whose disruption can promote tumor development. Cancer Res; 74(22); 6565-77. ©2014 AACR.
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Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from a moderate halophile strain of Aspergillus caesiellus isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications.
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Tumour-infiltrating Gr-1+ myeloid cells antagonize senescence in cancer.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Aberrant activation of oncogenes or loss of tumour suppressor genes opposes malignant transformation by triggering a stable arrest in cell growth, which is termed cellular senescence. This process is finely tuned by both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms that regulate the entry of tumour cells to senescence. Whether tumour-infiltrating immune cells can oppose senescence is unknown. Here we show that at the onset of senescence, PTEN null prostate tumours in mice are massively infiltrated by a population of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells that protect a fraction of proliferating tumour cells from senescence, thus sustaining tumour growth. Mechanistically, we found that Gr-1(+) cells antagonize senescence in a paracrine manner by interfering with the senescence-associated secretory phenotype of the tumour through the secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Strikingly, Pten-loss-induced cellular senescence was enhanced in vivo when Il1ra knockout myeloid cells were adoptively transferred to PTEN null mice. Therapeutically, docetaxel-induced senescence and efficacy were higher in PTEN null tumours when the percentage of tumour-infiltrating CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells was reduced using an antagonist of CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2). Taken together, our findings identify a novel non-cell-autonomous network, established by innate immunity, that controls senescence evasion and chemoresistance. Targeting this network provides novel opportunities for cancer therapy.
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Treatment recommendations for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and related disorders: IWWM-7 consensus.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinct B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder for which clearly defined criteria for the diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and treatment strategy have been proposed as part of the consensus panels of International Workshops on WM (IWWM). As part of the IWWM-7 and based on recently published and ongoing clinical trials, the panels updated treatment recommendations. Therapeutic strategy in WM should be based on individual patient and disease characteristics (age, comorbidities, need for rapid disease control, candidacy for autologous transplantation, cytopenias, IgM-related complications, hyperviscosity, and neuropathy). Mature data show that rituximab combinations with cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone, bendamustine, or bortezomib/dexamethasone provided durable responses and are indicated for most patients. New monoclonal antibodies (ofatumumab), second-generation proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib), mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors are promising and may expand future treatment options. A different regimen is typically recommended for relapsed or refractory disease. In selected patients with relapsed disease after long-lasting remission, reuse of a prior effective regimen may be appropriate. Autologous stem cell transplantation may be considered in young patients with chemosensitive disease and in newly diagnosed patients with very-high-risk features. Active enrollment of patients with WM in clinical trials is encouraged.
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Detection of MYD88 L265P Mutation by Real-Time Allele-Specific Oligonucleotide Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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MYD88 L265P mutation has been reported in ?90% of Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM) patients and immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathies of uncertain significance (MGUS), as well as in some cases of lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The present study aimed to develop a real-time allele-specific oligonucleotide PCR (ASO-RQ-PCR) to detect the MYD88 L265P mutation. We first evaluated the reproducibility and sensitivity of the technique with a diluting experiment of a previously known positive sample. Then, we evaluated the applicability of the methodology by analyzing 30 selected patients (10 asymptomatic WM, 10 symptomatic WM, and 10 IgM MGUS) as well as 10 healthy donors. The quantitative ASO-PCR assay could detect the MYD88 L265P mutation at a dilution of 0.25%, showing an inverse correlation between the tumor cell percentage and the cycle threshold (CT) value, thus allowing for tumor burden quantitation. In addition, mutated cases were distinguished from the unmutated by >10 cycles of difference between CTs. To sum up, ASO-RQ-PCR is an inexpensive, robust, and optimized method for the detection of MYD88 L265P mutation, which could be considered as a useful molecular tool during the diagnostic work-up of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
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New prospects in the diagnosis and treatment of immune-mediated inner ear disease.
World J Methodol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) represents a very fertile research field and the advancements in the understanding of this disease have a direct application not only in patients affected with this condition but also in other inner ear disorders that share the same injury mechanism, damage to the inner ear hair cells. AIED also presents many challenges that have still to be overcome. Firstly, access to the inner ear is limited, as many interventions such as biopsies can result in great irreversible damage. Secondly, there are no completely specific markers for AIED. Lack of a definitive diagnosis can result in the treatment of patients not affected with the disease and, therefore, no response. Finally, some patients become refractory to glucocorticoids and new therapies are needed. This review offers an overview of the animal models that have contributed to the understanding of AIED pathophysiology, the value of currently available diagnostic tests, and therapeutic options, with a special focus on new therapies for non responders or patients refractory to glucocorticoids. Among these new options for therapy, biological agents have been tested recently, whereas gene and stem cell therapy may have a role in the future. The intratympanic route of administration avoids the systemic side effects associated with currently used drugs, and may become a more frequent approach in the future.
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The prediction of human intestinal absorption based on the molecular structure.
Curr. Drug Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Human Intestinal Absorption (HIA) has been modeled many times by using classification models. However, regression models are scarce. Here, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are implemented for this purpose. A dataset of structurally diverse chemicals with their respective experimental HIA were used to design robust, true predictive and widespread applicable ANN models. An input variables pool was made up of structural invariants calculated by using either Dragon or our software Desmol 1. The selection of best variables was performed following three steps using the entire dataset of molecules. Firstly, variables poorly correlated with the experimental data were eliminated. Secondly, input variable selection was performed by stepwise multilinear regression. Thirdly, correlation matrix in the set of selected variables was then obtained to eliminate those variables strongly intercorrelated. Backpropagation ANNs were trained for these variables finally selected as inputs, and HIA as output. The training and selection procedure to find robust models consisted of randomly partitioning the dataset into three sets: training set, with 50% of the population, test set with 25%, and validation set with the other 25%. With each partitioning, diverse numbers of hidden nodes were assayed to optimize the performance in the prediction for the three sets. Models with r(2) greater than 0.6 for the three sets were considered as robust. A randomization test following all these steps was performed, and the poor results obtained confirm the validity of the method presented in this paper to predict HIA for datasets of structurally diverse organic compounds.
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Multiparameter flow cytometry for staging of solitary bone plasmacytoma: new criteria for risk of progression to myeloma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Solitary plasmacytoma represents a heterogeneous group of patients; approximately half develop multiple myeloma (MM) in 2 or 3 years, whereas others remain disease-free at 10 years. By definition, these patients do not have morphologic bone marrow (BM) plasma cell (PC) infiltration. Here, we investigated whether sensitive BM evaluation of patients with solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP; n = 35) and extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP; n = 29) through multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) would unravel the presence of clonal PCs in otherwise disease-free BM, and whether BM clonality predicted higher risk of progression. BM clonal PCs were detected in 17 of 35 SBP (49%) and 11 of 29 EMP (38%) patients. Seventy-one percent of flow-positive vs only 8% of flow-negative SBP patients evolved to MM (median time to progression of 26 months vs not reached; hazard ratio, 17.4; P < .001). No significant differences were observed among EMP cases. Our results highlight the importance of MFC for sensitive BM evaluation of SBP patients, to predict risk of developing treatment-requiring MM and to plan disease monitoring.
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Risk of multiple myeloma is associated with polymorphisms within telomerase genes and telomere length.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Compelling biological and epidemiological evidences point to a key role of genetic variants of the TERT and TERC genes in cancer development. We analyzed the genetic variability of these two gene regions using samples of 2,267 multiple myeloma (MM) cases and 2,796 healthy controls. We found that a TERT variant, rs2242652, is associated with reduced MM susceptibility (OR?=?0.81; 95% CI: 0.72-0.92; p?=?0.001). In addition we measured the leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a subgroup of 140 cases who were chemotherapy-free at the time of blood donation and 468 controls, and found that MM patients had longer telomeres compared to controls (OR?=?1.19; 95% CI: 0.63-2.24; ptrend ?=?0.01 comparing the quartile with the longest LTL versus the shortest LTL). Our data suggest the hypothesis of decreased disease risk by genetic variants that reduce the efficiency of the telomerase complex. This reduced efficiency leads to shorter telomere ends, which in turn may also be a marker of decreased MM risk.
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ESHAP as salvage therapy for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The management of relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR-HL) remains a challenge for hematologists and oncologists. Salvage chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard of care for RR-HL. However, one of the most controversial aspects is which the best salvage protocol could be. We retrospectively analyzed 82 consecutive RR-HL who received etoposide, steroids, ara-C, and cisplatin (ESHAP) as salvage therapy followed by ASCT. Fifty percent of patients were refractory and 23 % early relapses. Overall response rate (ORR) was 67 % (50 % complete remission (CR)). Ninety one percent of patients (75/82) were transplanted. With a mean follow-up of 87 ± 53 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and time to tumor progression (TTP) for the whole population were 52 and 56 months, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival was 72.6 %. Achieving CR after ESHAP was associated with a longer PFS (78 vs 16 % 5-year PFS, respectively, P < 0.01) and TTP (80 vs 19 % 5-year TTP, respectively, P < 0.01). However, there were no differences for overall survival (OS) when comparing CR and partial response (PR) after ESHAP. Toxicity was low and <10 % of patients developed neutropenic fever, with no toxic deaths. Mobilization was possible in 94 % of patients. ESHAP is a safe and efficient therapeutic option for patients with RR-HL who are candidates for ASCT, since it combines a high response rate and mobilizing potential with a low toxicity profile.
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Transcriptome analysis reveals molecular profiles associated with evolving steps of monoclonal gammopathies.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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A multistep model has been proposed of disease progression starting in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance continuing through multiple myeloma, sometimes with an intermediate entity called smoldering myeloma, and ending in extramedullary disease. To gain further insights into the role of the transcriptome deregulation in the transition from a normal plasma cell to a clonal plasma cell, and from an indolent clonal plasma cell to a malignant plasma cell, we performed gene expression profiling in 20 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, 33 with high-risk smoldering myeloma and 41 with multiple myeloma. The analysis showed that 126 genes were differentially expressed in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering myeloma and multiple myeloma as compared to normal plasma cell. Interestingly, 17 and 9 out of the 126 significant differentially expressed genes were small nucleolar RNA molecules and zinc finger proteins. Several proapoptotic genes (AKT1 and AKT2) were down-regulated and antiapoptotic genes (APAF1 and BCL2L1) were up-regulated in multiple myeloma, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, compared to monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. When we looked for those genes progressively modulated through the evolving stages of monoclonal gammopathies, eight snoRNA showed a progressive increase while APAF1, VCAN and MEGF9 exhibited a progressive downregulation. In conclusion, our data show that although monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering myeloma and multiple myeloma are not clearly distinguishable groups according to their gene expression profiling, several signaling pathways and genes were significantly deregulated at different steps of the transformation process.
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Bortezomib cumulative dose, efficacy, and tolerability with three different bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimens in previously untreated myeloma patients ineligible for high-dose therapy.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Substantial efficacy has been demonstrated with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone in phase III studies in transplant-ineligible myeloma patients using various twice-weekly and once-weekly bortezomib dosing schedules. In VISTA, the regimen comprised four 6-week twice-weekly cycles, plus five 6-week once-weekly cycles. In the GIMEMA MM-03-05 study, the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was either per VISTA ('GIMEMA twice-weekly'), or comprised nine 5-week once-weekly cycles ('GIMEMA once-weekly'). In the GEM2005MAS65 study, the regimen comprised one 6-week twice-weekly cycle, plus five 5-week once-weekly cycles. We evaluated the cumulative bortezomib dose administered during bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone, as well as efficacy and tolerability, using patient-level study data. Over all bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone cycles (nine in VISTA/GIMEMA; six in GEM2005MAS65), the median cumulative bortezomib dose administered was 38.5, 42.1, 40.3, and 32.9 mg/m(2) in VISTA, GIMEMA twice-weekly, GIMEMA once-weekly, and GEM2005MAS65, respectively, and the respective proportions of planned bortezomib dose actually delivered were 57.0%, 62.3%, 86.1%, and 90.4%. Response rates following bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone were 74-87% and appeared generally similar between studies. Three-year survival rates were 67.9-75.7% across studies. Grade 3/4 peripheral neuropathy rates were 13% in VISTA and 14% in GIMEMA twice-weekly, but were lower at 2% in GIMEMA once-weekly and 7% in GEM2005MAS65. Discontinuations and bortezomib dose reductions due to peripheral neuropathy were reduced in GIMEMA once-weekly versus VISTA and GIMEMA twice-weekly. Exclusive or predominant use of once-weekly bortezomib dosing in GIMEMA once-weekly and GEM2005MAS65 resulted in high efficacy, comparable with that demonstrated in VISTA, and similar cumulative bortezomib dose with reduced toxicity. Trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: VISTA (Identifier:00111319), GIMEMA MM-03-05 (Identifier:01063179), and GEM2005MAS65 (Identifier:00443235).
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Enhancing chemotherapy efficacy in pten-deficient prostate tumors by activating the senescence-associated antitumor immunity.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Prosenescence therapy has recently emerged as a novel therapeutic approach for treating cancer. However, this concept is challenged by conflicting evidence showing that the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) of senescent tumor cells can have pro- as well as antitumorigenic effects. Herein, we report that, in Pten-null senescent tumors, activation of the Jak2/Stat3 pathway establishes an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that contributes to tumor growth and chemoresistance. Activation of the Jak2/Stat3 pathway in Pten-null tumors is sustained by the downregulation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN11/SHP2, providing evidence for the existence of a novel PTEN/SHP2 axis. Importantly, treatment with docetaxel in combination with a JAK2 inhibitor reprograms the SASP and improves the efficacy of docetaxel-induced senescence by triggering a strong antitumor immune response in Pten-null tumors. Altogether, these data demonstrate that immune surveillance of senescent tumor cells can be suppressed in specific genetic backgrounds but also evoked by pharmacological treatments.
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C1013G/CXCR4 acts as a driver mutation of tumor progression and modulator of drug resistance in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) plays a crucial role in modulating cell trafficking in hematopoietic stem cells and clonal B cells. We screened 418 patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and described the presence of the C1013G/CXCR4 warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis-associated mutation in 28.2% (37/131) of patients with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenström macroglobulinemia [WM]), being either absent or present in only 7% of other B-cell lymphomas. In vivo functional characterization demonstrates its activating role in WM cells, as demonstrated by significant tumor proliferation and dissemination to extramedullary organs, leading to disease progression and decreased survival. The use of a monoclonal antibody anti-CXCR4 led to significant tumor reduction in a C1013G/CXCR4 WM model, whereas drug resistance was observed in mutated WM cells exposed to Bruton's tyrosine kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, but not proteasome inhibitors. These findings demonstrate that C1013G/CXCR4 is an activating mutation in WM and support its role as a critical regulator of WM molecular pathogenesis and as an important therapeutic target.
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QSAR multi-target in drug discovery: a review.
Curr Comput Aided Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The main purpose of the present review is to summarize the most significant works up to date in the field of multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR), in order to emphasize the importance that this technique has acquired over the last decade. Unlike traditional QSAR techniques, mt-QSAR permits to calculate the probability of activity of a given compound against different biological or pharmacological targets. In simple terms, a single equation for multiple outputs. To emphasize more the importance of the mt-QSAR in the field of drug discovery, we also present a novel mt-QSAR model, made on purpose by our research group, for the prediction of the susceptibility of Gram + and Gram - anaerobic bacteria.
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Prognostic value of deep sequencing method for minimal residual disease detection in multiple myeloma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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We assessed the prognostic value of minimal residual disease (MRD) detection in multiple myeloma (MM) patients using a sequencing-based platform in bone marrow samples from 133 MM patients in at least very good partial response (VGPR) after front-line therapy. Deep sequencing was carried out in patients in whom a high-frequency myeloma clone was identified and MRD was assessed using the IGH-VDJH, IGH-DJH, and IGK assays. The results were contrasted with those of multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) and allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR). The applicability of deep sequencing was 91%. Concordance between sequencing and MFC and ASO-PCR was 83% and 85%, respectively. Patients who were MRD(-) by sequencing had a significantly longer time to tumor progression (TTP) (median 80 vs 31 months; P < .0001) and overall survival (median not reached vs 81 months; P = .02), compared with patients who were MRD(+). When stratifying patients by different levels of MRD, the respective TTP medians were: MRD ?10(-3) 27 months, MRD 10(-3) to 10(-5) 48 months, and MRD <10(-5) 80 months (P = .003 to .0001). Ninety-two percent of VGPR patients were MRD(+). In complete response patients, the TTP remained significantly longer for MRD(-) compared with MRD(+) patients (131 vs 35 months; P = .0009).
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[Reversible porencephalic cyst related to shunt dysfunction].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The surgical treatment of hydrocephalus is one of the most commonly procedures of modern pediatric neurosurgical practice, and cerebrospinal fluid shunts are the main means of treatment of hydrocephalus, being independent of site of obstruction and ventricular shunt complications are frequent, especially in children. The most common complications are shunt obstructions, mechanical disconnections, overdrainage and infection.
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Direct involvement of the CreA transcription factor in penicillin biosynthesis and expression of the pcbAB gene in Penicillium chrysogenum.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The transcription factor CreA is the main regulator responsible for carbon repression in filamentous fungi. CreA is a wide domain regulator that binds to regulatory elements in the promoters of target genes to repress their transcription. Penicillin biosynthesis and the expression of penicillin biosynthetic genes are subject to carbon repression. However, evidence of the participation of CreA in this regulation is still lacking, and previous studies on the promoter of the pcbC gene of Aspergillus nidulans indicated the lack of involvement of CreA in its regulation. Here we present clear evidence of the participation of CreA in carbon repression of penicillin biosynthesis and expression of the pcbAB gene, encoding the first enzyme of the pathway, in Penicillium chrysogenum. Mutations in cis of some of the putative CreA binding sites present in the pcbAB gene promoter fused to a reporter gene caused an important increase in the measured enzyme activity in glucose-containing medium, whereas activity in the medium with lactose was not affected. An RNAi strategy was used to attenuate the expression of the creA gene. Transformants expressing a small interfering RNA for creA showed higher penicillin production, and this increase was more evident when glucose was used as carbon source. These results confirm that CreA plays an important role in the regulation of penicillin biosynthesis in P. chrysogenum and opens the possibility of its utilization to improve the industrial production of this antibiotic.
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Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health.
Global Health
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an 'Integrated Innovation™' approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the 'Rising Stars in Global Health' award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future.
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Akt signaling leads to stem cell activation and promotes tumor development in epidermis.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Hair follicle stem cells (HF-SCs) alternate between periods of quiescence and proliferation, to finally differentiate into all the cell types that constitute the hair follicle. Also, they have been recently identified as cells of origin in skin cancer. HF-SCs localize in a precise region of the hair follicle, the bulge, and molecular markers for this population have been established. Thus, HF-SCs are good model to study the potential role of oncogenic activations on SC physiology. Expression of a permanently active form of Akt (myrAkt) in basal cells leads to Akt hyperactivation specifically in the CD34(+)Itga6(H) population. This activation causes bulge stem cells to exit from quiescence increasing their response to proliferative stimuli and affecting some functions such as cell migration. HF-SC identity upon Akt activation is preserved; in this sense, increased proliferation does not result in stem cell exhaustion with age suggesting that Akt activation does not affect self-renewal an important aspect for normal tissue maintenance and cancer development. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of HF-SC isolated from myrAkt and wild-type epidermis underscores changes in metabolic pathways characteristic of cancer cells. These differences manifest during a two-step carcinogenesis protocol in which Akt activation in HF-SCs results in increased tumor development and malignant transformation.
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A novel TctA citrate transporter from an activated sludge metagenome: structural and mechanistic predictions for the TTT family.
Proteins
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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We isolated a putative citrate transporter of the tripartite tricarboxylate transporter (TTT) class from a metagenomic library of activated sludge from a sewage treatment plant. The transporter, dubbed TctA_ar, shares ?50% sequence identity with TctA of Comamonas testosteroni (TctA_ct) and other ?-Proteobacteria, and contains two 20-amino acid repeat signature sequences, considered a hallmark of this particular transporter class. The structures for both TctA_ar and TctA_ct were modeled with I-TASSER and two possible structures for this transporter family were proposed. Docking assays with citrate resulted in the corresponding sets of proposed critical residues for function. These models suggest functions for the 20-amino acid repeats in the context of the two different architectures. This constitutes the first attempt at structure modeling of the TTT family, to the best of our knowledge, and could aid functional understanding of this little-studied family.
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Antiprotozoan lead discovery by aligning dry and wet screening: prediction, synthesis, and biological assay of novel quinoxalinones.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Protozoan parasites have been one of the most significant public health problems for centuries and several human infections caused by them have massive global impact. Most of the current drugs used to treat these illnesses have been used for decades and have many limitations such as the emergence of drug resistance, severe side-effects, low-to-medium drug efficacy, administration routes, cost, etc. These drugs have been largely neglected as models for drug development because they are majorly used in countries with limited resources and as a consequence with scarce marketing possibilities. Nowadays, there is a pressing need to identify and develop new drug-based antiprotozoan therapies. In an effort to overcome this problem, the main purpose of this study is to develop a QSARs-based ensemble classifier for antiprotozoan drug-like entities from a heterogeneous compounds collection. Here, we use some of the TOMOCOMD-CARDD molecular descriptors and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to derive individual linear classification functions in order to discriminate between antiprotozoan and non-antiprotozoan compounds as a way to enable the computational screening of virtual combinatorial datasets and/or drugs already approved. Firstly, we construct a wide-spectrum benchmark database comprising of 680 organic chemicals with great structural variability (254 of them antiprotozoan agents and 426 to drugs having other clinical uses). This series of compounds was processed by a k-means cluster analysis in order to design training and predicting sets. In total, seven discriminant functions were obtained, by using the whole set of atom-based linear indices. All the LDA-based QSAR models show accuracies above 85% in the training set and values of Matthews correlation coefficients (C) vary from 0.70 to 0.86. The external validation set shows rather-good global classifications of around 80% (92.05% for best equation). Later, we developed a multi-agent QSAR classification system, in which the individual QSAR outputs are the inputs of the aforementioned fusion approach. Finally, the fusion model was used for the identification of a novel generation of lead-like antiprotozoan compounds by using ligand-based virtual screening of 'available' small molecules (with synthetic feasibility) in our 'in-house' library. A new molecular subsystem (quinoxalinones) was then theoretically selected as a promising lead series, and its derivatives subsequently synthesized, structurally characterized, and experimentally assayed by using in vitro screening that took into consideration a battery of five parasite-based assays. The chemicals 11(12) and 16 are the most active (hits) against apicomplexa (sporozoa) and mastigophora (flagellata) subphylum parasites, respectively. Both compounds depicted good activity in every protozoan in vitro panel and they did not show unspecific cytotoxicity on the host cells. The described technical framework seems to be a promising QSAR-classifier tool for the molecular discovery and development of novel classes of broad-antiprotozoan-spectrum drugs, which may meet the dual challenges posed by drug-resistant parasites and the rapid progression of protozoan illnesses.
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Urinary MCP-1/creatinine in Henoch-Schönlein purpura and its relationship with nephritis.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) plays a direct role in the infiltration of macrophages and monocytes during the early stages of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) nephritis. The aim of this study was to compare the urinary MCP-1/creatinine levels in children with and without HSP nephritis and determine if they are associated with the severity of renal lesions.
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Phenotypic, genomic and functional characterization reveals no differences between CD138++ and CD138low subpopulations in multiple myeloma cell lines.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), it remains an incurable disease potentially due to the presence of resistant myeloma cancer stem cells (MM-CSC). Although the presence of clonogenic cells in MM was described three decades ago, the phenotype of MM-CSC is still controversial, especially with respect to the expression of syndecan-1 (CD138). Here, we demonstrate the presence of two subpopulations--CD138++ (95-99%) and CD138low (1-5%)--in eight MM cell lines. To find out possible stem-cell-like features, we have phenotypically, genomic and functionally characterized the two subpopulations. Our results show that the minor CD138low subpopulation is morphologically identical to the CD138++ fraction and does not represent a more immature B-cell compartment (with lack of CD19, CD20 and CD27 expression). Moreover, both subpopulations have similar gene expression and genomic profiles. Importantly, both CD138++ and CD138low subpopulations have similar sensitivity to bortezomib, melphalan and doxorubicin. Finally, serial engraftment in CB17-SCID mice shows that CD138++ as well as CD138low cells have self-renewal potential and they are phenotypically interconvertible. Overall, our results differ from previously published data in MM cell lines which attribute a B-cell phenotype to MM-CSC. Future characterization of clonal plasma cell subpopulations in MM patients' samples will guarantee the discovery of more reliable markers able to discriminate true clonogenic myeloma cells.
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Semaphorin7A promotes tumor growth and exerts a pro-angiogenic effect in macrophages of mammary tumor-bearing mice.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Semaphorins are a large family of molecules involved in axonal guidance during the development of the nervous system and have been recently shown to have both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic properties. Specifically, semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A) has been reported to have a chemotactic activity in neurogenesis and to be an immune modulator through ?1?1integrins. SEMA7A has been shown to promote monocyte chemotaxis and induce them to produce proinflammatory mediators. In this study we explored the role of SEMA7A in a murine model of breast cancer. We show that SEMA7A is highly expressed by DA-3 murine mammary tumor cells in comparison to normal mammary cells (EpH4), and that peritoneal elicited macrophages from mammary tumor-bearing mice also express SEMA7A at higher levels compared to those derived from normal mice. We also show that murine macrophages treated with recombinant murine SEMA7A significantly increased their expression of proangiogenic molecule CXCL2/MIP-2. Gene silencing of SEMA7A in peritoneal elicited macrophages from DA-3 tumor-bearing mice resulted in decreased CXCL2/MIP-2 expression. Mice implanted with SEMA7A silenced tumor cells showed decreased angiogenesis in the tumors compared to the wild type tumors. Furthermore, peritoneal elicited macrophages from mice bearing SEMA7A-silenced tumors produce significantly (p < 0.01) lower levels of angiogenic proteins, such as CXCL2/MIP-2, CXCL1, and MMP-9, compared to those from control DA-3 mammary tumors. We postulate that SEMA7A in mammary carcinomas may skew monocytes into a pro-tumorigenic phenotype to support tumor growth. SEMA7A could prove to be valuable in establishing new research avenues toward unraveling important tumor-host immune interactions in breast cancer patients.
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[Hirschsprungs disease: the immunohistochemistry as ancillary method for the diagnosis.]
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Background: the confirmatory diagnosis of Hirschsprungs disease is made by histopathological study. However, this procedure is limited with only hematoxylin and eosin staining, especially in biopsies of premature babies or when non-expert pathologists make the evaluation. The immunohistochemistry from ganglia cell calretinin has been used to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis. Our objective was to show the benefits of this antibody in diagnosis of Hirschsprungs disease in biopsy specimens. Methods: we evaluated patients with histopathological diagnosis of Hirschsprungs disease made by hematoxylin and eosin staining. We determined if there was enough paraffin block for immunohistochemistry with two markers: calretinin and neurofilaments. Three controls of autopsy of children under 3 years of age with other diagnosis were included. Results: of a total of 48 cases with histopathological diagnosis of Hirschsprungs disease only 13 had adequate tissue for immunohistochemistry. The immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis in nine cases. In the other four cases there were initial misdiagnosis due to evidence of calretinin (ganglion cells) and, thus, Hirschsprungs disease was discarded. Conclusions: the use of immunohistochemistry allows confirming the diagnosis of Hirschsprungs disease and reduce the risk of a false-positive result with only hematoxylin and eosin staining.
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Semaphorin7A: branching beyond axonal guidance and into immunity.
Immunol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Semaphorins are a family of proteins that were originally described for their role in axonal guidance. Studies now show that semaphorins encompass many physiological functions outside of the nervous system, including immune responses. Semaphorin7A (SEMA7A) belongs to the "immune" semaphorin group and has been shown to play a crucial role in regulating immune responses. In this review, we discuss the structure and function of SEMA7A as well as its role of SEMA7A in innate and adaptive immunity. We further describe SEMA7As involvement in inflammatory disease and its emergent role in cancer.
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CHI3L1 plays a role in cancer through enhanced production of pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors.
Immunol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) have been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. The biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 in cancer have not yet been completely elucidated. In this review, we describe the role of CHI3L1 in inducing pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors that could promote tumor growth and metastasis.
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WhiB7, an Fe-S-dependent Transcription Factor That Activates Species-specific Repertoires of Drug Resistance Determinants in Actinobacteria.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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WhiB-like (Wbl) proteins are well known for their diverse roles in actinobacterial morphogenesis, cell division, virulence, primary and secondary metabolism, and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Gene disruption experiments showed that three different Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium smegmatis, Streptomyces lividans, and Rhodococcus jostii) each exhibited a different whiB7-dependent resistance profile. Heterologous expression of whiB7 genes showed these resistance profiles reflected the hosts repertoire of endogenous whiB7-dependent genes. Transcriptional activation of two resistance genes in the whiB7 regulon, tap (a multidrug transporter) and erm(37) (a ribosomal methyltransferase), required interaction of WhiB7 with their promoters. Furthermore, heterologous expression of tap genes isolated from Mycobacterium species demonstrated that divergencies in drug specificity of homologous structural proteins contribute to the variation of WhiB7-dependent drug resistance. WhiB7 has a specific tryptophan/glycine-rich region and four conserved cysteine residues; it also has a peptide sequence (AT-hook) at its C terminus that binds AT-rich DNA sequence motifs upstream of the promoters it activates. Targeted mutagenesis showed that these motifs were required to provide antibiotic resistance in vivo. Anaerobically purified WhiB7 from S. lividans was dimeric and contained 2.1 ± 0.3 and 2.2 ± 0.3 mol of iron and sulfur, respectively, per protomer (consistent with the presence of a 2Fe-2S cluster). However, the properties of the dimers absorption spectrum were most consistent with the presence of an oxygen-labile 4Fe-4S cluster, suggesting 50% occupancy. These data provide the first insights into WhiB7 iron-sulfur clusters as they exist in vivo, a major unresolved issue in studies of Wbl proteins.
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PIK3CA gene alterations in bladder cancer are frequent and associate with reduced recurrence in non-muscle invasive tumors.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Bladder cancer (BC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world, being the non-muscle invasive tumors (NMIBC) the most frequent. NMIBC shows a very high frequency of recurrence and, in certain cases, tumor progression. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which controls cell growth, tumorigenesis, cell invasion and drug response, is frequently activated in numerous human cancers, including BC, in part through alterations of PIK3CA gene. However, the significance of PIK3CA gene alterations with respect to clinicopathological characteristics, and in particular tumor recurrence and progression, remains elusive. Here, we analyzed the presence of mutations in FGFR3 and PIK3CA genes and copy number alterations of PIK3CA gene in bladder tumor and their correspondent paired normal samples from 87 patients. We observed an extremely high frequency of PIK3CA gene alterations (mutations, copy gains, or both) in tumor samples, affecting primarily T1 and T2 tumors. A significant number of normal tissues also showed mutations and copy gains, being coincident with those found in the corresponding tumor sample. In low-grade tumors PIK3CA mutations associated with FGFR3 mutations. Alterations in PIK3CA gene resulted in increased Akt activity in tumors. Interestingly, the presence of PIK3CA gene alterations, and in particular gene mutations, is significantly associated with reduced recurrence of NMIBC patients. Importantly, the presence of FGFR3 mutations may influence the clinical outcome of patients bearing alterations in PIK3CA gene, and increased recurrence was associated to FGFR3 mutated, PIK3CA wt tumors. These findings may have high relevance in terms of using PI3K-targeted therapies for BC treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Detailed characterization of multiple myeloma circulating tumor cells shows unique phenotypic, cytogenetic, functional, and circadian distribution profile.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Circulating myeloma tumor cells (CTCs) as defined by the presence of peripheral blood (PB) clonal plasma cells (PCs) are a powerful prognostic marker in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the biological features of CTCs and their pathophysiological role in MM remains unexplored. Here, we investigate the phenotypic, cytogenetic, and functional characteristics as well as the circadian distribution of CTCs vs paired bone marrow (BM) clonal PCs from MM patients. Our results show that CTCs typically represent a unique subpopulation of all BM clonal PCs, characterized by downregulation (P < .05) of integrins (CD11a/CD11c/CD29/CD49d/CD49e), adhesion (CD33/CD56/CD117/CD138), and activation molecules (CD28/CD38/CD81). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorter-sorted CTCs also unraveled different cytogenetic profiles vs paired BM clonal PCs. Moreover, CTCs were mostly quiescent and associated with higher clonogenic potential when cocultured with BM stromal cells. Most interestingly, CTCs showed a circadian distribution which fluctuates in a similar pattern to that of CD34(+) cells, and opposite to stromal cell-derived factor 1 plasma levels and corresponding surface expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 on clonal PCs, suggesting that in MM, CTCs may egress to PB to colonize/metastasize other sites in the BM during the patients resting period.
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RNAi-mediated silencing of Myc transcription inhibits stem-like cell maintenance and tumorigenicity in prostate cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Several studies link disease progression, recurrence, and treatment failures to the cancer stem-like cell (CSC) subpopulation within the heterogeneous tumor cell population. Myc is a transcription factor having a central function in stem cell biology and in human cancers. Hence, Myc represents an attractive target to develop CSC-specific therapies. Recent findings suggest that Myc transcription can be silenced using an RNA interference (RNAi)-based strategy that targets noncoding promoter-associated RNA (paRNA) overlapping the transcription start site. In this study, we investigated the effects of silencing Myc transcription on prostate CSC in cell culture and xenograft models of human prostate cancer. Treatment with an effective promoter-targeting siRNA reduced the fraction of CSCs, leading to reduced self-renewal, tumor-initiating, and metastatic capability. Combined analysis of stem-like cells and senescence markers indicated that Myc silencing triggered a phenotypic shift and senescence in the CSC subpopulation. Notably, systemic delivery of the promoter-targeting siRNA in the xenograft model produced a striking suppression in the development of prostate tumors. Our results support a pivotal role for Myc in CSC maintenance and show that Myc targeting via RNAi-based transcriptional silencing can trigger CSC senescence and loss of their tumor-initiating capability. More generally, our findings demonstrate the efficacy of RNAi-based transcriptional strategies and the potential to target regulatory noncoding paRNAs for therapeutic applications.
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Primary therapy of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) with weekly bortezomib, low-dose dexamethasone, and rituximab (BDR): long-term results of a phase 2 study of the European Myeloma Network (EMN).
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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In this phase 2 multicenter trial, we evaluated the activity of bortezomib, dexamethasone, and rituximab (BDR) combination in previously untreated symptomatic patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). To prevent immunoglobulin M (IgM) "flare," single agent bortezomib (1.3 mg/m(2) IV days 1, 4, 8, and 11; 21-day cycle), was followed by weekly IV bortezomib (1.6 mg/m(2) days 1, 8, 15, and 22) every 35 days for 4 additional cycles, followed by IV dexamethasone (40 mg) and IV rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) in cycles 2 and 5. Fifty-nine patients were treated; 45.5% and 40% were high and intermediate risk per the International Prognostic Scoring System for WM. On intent to treat, 85% responded (3% complete response, 7% very good partial response, 58% partial response [PR]). In 11% of patients, an increase of IgM ?25% was observed after rituximab; no patient required plasmapheresis. After a minimum follow-up of 32 months, median progression-free survival was 42 months, 3-year duration of response for patients with ?PR was 70%, and 3-year survival was 81%. Peripheral neuropathy occurred in 46% (grade ?3 in 7%); only 8% discontinued bortezomib due to neuropathy. BDR is rapidly acting, well tolerated, and nonmyelotoxic, inducing durable responses in previously untreated WM.
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Microcharacterization of a natural blue pigment used in wall paintings during the Romanesque period in northern Spain.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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In Romanesque wall paintings in Aragon (Spain), the pigment used for creating blue was a very characteristic mineral, aerinite, which came from local ores in the southern Pyrenees. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction, and reflectance spectroscopy were used to make a detailed microcharacterization of this rare blue pigment in order to improve the knowledge of its composition and possible variability, from samples of medieval paintings and some mineral ores. New analytical data on the chemical composition of the blue pigment are reported here, together with the characterization of its microstructure, and the heterogeneity of the natural pigment made by the features of the ore itself. X-ray diffraction pattern and color parameters of the mineral ores are also included. The data obtained by SEM-EDX will assist identification of this pigment by electron microscopy. The natural variability in composition observed in the samples may be used to explain formation of the extracted mineral and to compare several ore sources. Connection of the ore composition with the pigments used in Romanesque wall paintings will help both provenance and attribution studies.
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Developmental and tumoral vascularization is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Tumor vessel dysfunction is a pivotal event in cancer progression. Using an in vivo neovascularization model, we identified G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) as a key angiogenesis regulator. An impaired angiogenic response involving immature vessels was observed in mice hemizygous for Grk2 or in animals with endothelium-specific Grk2 silencing. ECs isolated from these animals displayed intrinsic alterations in migration, TGF-? signaling, and formation of tubular networks. Remarkably, an altered pattern of vessel growth and maturation was detected in postnatal retinas from endothelium-specific Grk2 knockout animals. Mouse embryos with systemic or endothelium-selective Grk2 ablation had marked vascular malformations involving impaired recruitment of mural cells. Moreover, decreased endothelial Grk2 dosage accelerated tumor growth in mice, along with reduced pericyte vessel coverage and enhanced macrophage infiltration, and this transformed environment promoted decreased GRK2 in ECs and human breast cancer vessels. Our study suggests that GRK2 downregulation is a relevant event in the tumoral angiogenic switch.
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Contribution of genome-environment interaction to pre-eclampsia in a Havana Maternity Hospital.
MEDICC Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy worldwide and is among the leading causes of maternal mortality in Cuba. It is a complex, multifactoral disease, in which interaction of genetic and environmental factors should not be overlooked if the goal is proper risk assessment to support personalized preventive genetic counseling and more effective prenatal care to prevent pregnancy complications.
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Toll-like receptors and cytokines are upregulated during Helicobacter pylori infection in children.
Helicobacter
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Helicobacter pylori infection is mainly acquired during childhood, and establishes a chronic infection that may lead to peptic ulcer or gastric cancer during adulthood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed by distinct cell types throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and play an important role in regulation of the innate immune response. Few works have addressed TLRs expression in gastric epithelia of adults, and scarce studies have done it in children. The aim of this work was to analyze the expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-? in the gastric mucosa of children with and without H. pylori infection.
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Circulating clonotypic B-cells in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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The B-cell compartment where the multiple myeloma stem cell resides, remains unclear. We investigated the potential presence of mature surface-membrane immunoglobulin-positive B lymphocytes clonally-related to the tumoral bone marrow plasma cells among different subsets of peripheral blood B-cells from 10 patients (7 multiple myeloma and 3 monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance). Presence of clonotypic immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements was determined in multiple highly-purified fractions of PB B-lymphocytes including surface membrane IgM+ CD27- naive B-lymphocytes, plus surface membrane IgG+, IgA+ and IgM+ memory CD27+ B-cells, and normal circulating plasma cells, in addition to (mono)clonal plasma cells, by a highly-specific and sensitive allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction directed to the CDR3 sequence of the rearranged IGH gene of tumor plasma cells from individual patients. Our results showed systematic absence of clonotypic rearrangements in all different B-cell subsets analyzed, including, M-component isotype-matched memory B-lymphocytes, at frequencies <0.03 cells/mL (range: 0.0003-0.03 cells/mL); the only exception were the myeloma plasma cells detected and purified from the peripheral blood of 4/7 myeloma patients. These results indicate that circulating B-cells from patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopaties of undetermined significance are usually devoided of clonotypic B-cells while the presence of immunophenotypically aberrant myeloma plasma cells in peripheral blood of myeloma patients is a relatively frequent finding.
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HLA specificities are related to development and prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The role of the HLA system in tumor antigen presentation could be involved in susceptibility and disease control. We analyzed the phenotypic frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 in 250 DLBCLs, comparing them with 1940 healthy individuals. We also evaluated the influence of HLA polymorphisms on survival in those patients treated with curative intention using cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP)-like regimen without (n = 64, 26%) or with (n = 153, 61%) rituximab. DLBCL patients have a higher phenotypic frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 (29% vs 19.5%, P = .0008, Pc = .0104) and a lower frequency of HLA-C*03 (6.4% vs 17.9%, P < .0005, Pc = .007) compared with healthy individuals. Irrespective of the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index, those patients receiving a CHOP-like plus rituximab regimen and carrying the HLA-B44 supertype had worse 5-year progression-free (54% vs 71%, P = .019) and 5-year overall (71% vs 92%, P = .001) survival compared with patients without this supertype. Our data suggest that some HLA polymorphisms influence the development and outcome of DLBCL, allowing the identification of an extremely good-risk prognostic subgroup. However, these results are preliminary and need to be validated in order to exclude a possible population effect.
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The Rho exchange factors Vav2 and Vav3 favor skin tumor initiation and promotion by engaging extracellular signaling loops.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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The catalytic activity of GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs) is considered critical to maintain the typically high activity of Rho GTPases found in cancer cells. However, the large number of them has made it difficult to pinpoint those playing proactive, nonredundant roles in tumors. In this work, we have investigated whether GEFs of the Vav subfamily exert such specific roles in skin cancer. Using genetically engineered mice, we show here that Vav2 and Vav3 favor cooperatively the initiation and promotion phases of skin tumors. Transcriptomal profiling and signaling experiments indicate such function is linked to the engagement of, and subsequent participation in, keratinocyte-based autocrine/paracrine programs that promote epidermal proliferation and recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells. This is a pathology-restricted mechanism because the loss of Vav proteins does not cause alterations in epidermal homeostasis. These results reveal a previously unknown Rho GEF-dependent pro-tumorigenic mechanism that influences the biology of cancer cells and their microenvironment. They also suggest that anti-Vav therapies may be of potential interest in skin tumor prevention and/or treatment.
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Keratinocyte cell lines derived from severe generalized recessive Epidermolysis Bullosa patients carrying a highly recurrent COL7A1 homozygous mutation: models to assess cell and gene therapies in vitro and in vivo.
Exp. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by deficiency of type VII collagen due to COL7A1 mutations such as c.6527insC, recurrently found in the Spanish RDEB population. Assessment of clonal correction-based therapeutic approaches for RDEB requires large expansions of cells, exceeding the replication capacity of human primary keratinocytes. Thus, immortalized RDEB cells with enhanced proliferative abilities would be valuable. Using either the SV40 large T antigen or papillomavirus HPV16-derived E6-E7 proteins, we immortalized and cloned RDEB keratinocytes carrying the c.6527insC mutation. Clones exhibited high proliferative and colony-forming features. Cytogenetic analysis revealed important differences between T antigen-driven and E6-E7-driven immortalization. Immortalized cells responded to differentiation stimuli and were competent for epidermal regeneration and recapitulation of the blistering RDEB phenotype in vivo. These features make these cell lines useful to test novel therapeutic approaches including those aimed at editing mutant COL7A1.
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Cutaneous metastasis of primitive neuroectodermal lung tumor.
Dermatol. Online J.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Primary sarcomas of the chest are rare. Although primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) usually develops in the chest wall, it has been described as a primary pulmonary tumor. We present an unusual case of PNET arising in the lung of an 89-year-old man.
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Clinical applicability and prognostic significance of molecular response assessed by fluorescent-PCR of immunoglobulin genes in multiple myeloma. Results from a GEM/PETHEMA study.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Minimal residual disease monitoring is becoming increasingly important in multiple myeloma (MM), but multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR) techniques are not routinely available. This study investigated the prognostic influence of achieving molecular response assessed by fluorescent-PCR (F-PCR) in 130 newly diagnosed MM patients from Grupo Español Multidisciplinar de Melanoma (GEM)2000/GEM05 trials (NCT00560053, NCT00443235, NCT00464217) who achieved almost very good partial response after induction therapy. As a reference, we used the results observed with simultaneous MFC. F-PCR at diagnosis was performed on DNA using three different multiplex PCRs: IGH D-J, IGK V-J and KDE rearrangements. The applicability of F-PCR was 91·5%. After induction therapy, 64 patients achieved molecular response and 66 non-molecular response; median progression-free survival (PFS) was 61 versus 36 months, respectively (P = 0·001). Median overall survival (OS) was not reached (NR) in molecular response patients (5-year survival: 75%) versus 66 months in the non-molecular response group (P = 0·03). The corresponding PFS and OS values for patients with immunophenotypic versus non-immunophenotypic response were 67 versus 42 months (P = 0·005) and NR (5-year survival: 95%) versus 69 months (P = 0·004), respectively. F-PCR analysis is a rapid, affordable, and easily performable technique that, in some circumstances, may be a valid approach for minimal residual disease investigations in MM.
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ETS transcription factor ESE1/ELF3 orchestrates a positive feedback loop that constitutively activates NF-?B and drives prostate cancer progression.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Chromosomal translocations leading to deregulated expression of ETS transcription factors are frequent in prostate tumors. Here, we report a novel mechanism leading to oncogenic activation of the ETS factor ESE1/ELF3 in prostate tumors. ESE1/ELF3 was overexpressed in human primary and metastatic tumors. It mediated transforming phenotypes in vitro and in vivo and induced an inflammatory transcriptome with changes in relevant oncogenic pathways. ESE1/ELF3 was induced by interleukin (IL)-1? through NF-?B and was a crucial mediator of the phenotypic and transcriptional changes induced by IL-1? in prostate cancer cells. This linkage was mediated by interaction of ESE1/ELF3 with the NF-?B subunits p65 and p50, acting by enhancing their nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity and by inducing p50 transcription. Supporting these findings, gene expression profiling revealed an enrichment of NF-?B effector functions in prostate cancer cells or tumors expressing high levels of ESE1/ELF3. We observed concordant upregulation of ESE1/ELF3 and NF-?B in human prostate tumors that was associated with adverse prognosis. Collectively, our results define an important new mechanistic link between inflammatory signaling and the progression of prostate cancer.
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Evaluating gene expression profiling by quantitative polymerase chain reaction to develop a clinically feasible test for outcome prediction in multiple myeloma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The gene expression profiles (GEPs) of 96 selected genes were analysed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with a TaqMan low-density array card in isolated tumour plasma cells (PCs) from 157 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients. This qPCR-based GEP correctly classified cases following the Translocation-cyclin D classification. Classic prognostic parameters and qPCR-based GEP predicted MM patient outcome and, although multivariate analyses revealed that cytogenetic risk (standard vs. high risk) was the variable that most strongly predicted prognosis, GEP added significant information for risk stratification. Considering only the standard risk cytogenetic patients, multivariate analyses revealed that high ?2-microglobulin, low CDKN1A and high SLC19A1 gene expression levels independently predicted a short time-to-progression (TTP), while high International Staging System stage, low CDKN2B and high TBRG4 gene expression predicted poor overall survival (OS). A gene expression risk score enabled the division of standard risk patients into two groups with different TTPs (83% vs. 38% at 3 years, P < 0·0001) and OS rates (88% vs. 61% at 5 years; P = 0·003). This study demonstrates that quantitative PCR is a robust, accurate and feasible technique for implementing in the daily routine as a surrogate for GEP-arrays.
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Tension pneumocephalus as a result of endonasal surgery: an uncommon intracranial complication.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Tension pneumocephalus (TP) is a clinical entity characterized by continued build-up of air within the cranial cavity, leading to abnormal pressure exerted upon the brain and subsequent neurologic deterioration, due to development of a mass effect and potentially a herniation syndrome. Intracranial complications of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and other endonasal procedures are fortunately very rare, occurring in less than 3 % of cases. We report 4 cases of small bone defects (<3 mm) in the anterior cranial base accompanied by TP, caused by ESS and other endonasal procedures. The pathophysiology and management of this clinical entity is discussed with a pertinent literature. Four patients with small (<3 mm) skull base defects were identified. All patients presented with active cerebrospinal fluid leaks. CT scans showed intracranial tension pneumocephalus. Using image-guided endoscopic techniques, all defects were addressed with multi-layer repair. Closure was achieved in all patients on the first attempt, with an average follow-up of 36 months. Tension pneumocephalus is a rare event that can occur as a result of traumatic or iatrogenic violation of the dura and should be considered in all patients presenting with altered mental status after endoscopic sinus surgery or other surgical and diagnostic procedures that violate either the cranial or spinal dura. Because of the potential for rapid clinical deterioration and death, prompt brain imaging is warranted to rule out the diagnosis, and urgent neurosurgical consultation is indicated for definitive management.
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QSAR methods for the discovery of new inflammatory bowel disease drugs.
Expert Opin Drug Discov
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents an important class of chronic gastrointestinal tract disease. And although there are already several useful treatments to reduce and control the symptoms, there is still no cure. One drug discovery technique used is the computer-aided (in silico) discovery approach which has largely demonstrated efficacy. Computational techniques, when used in combination with traditional drug discovery methodology, greatly increase the chance of drug discovery in a sustainable and economical fashion.
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Modeling anti-allergic natural compounds by molecular topology.
Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Molecular topology has been applied to the search of QSAR models able to identify the anti-allergic activity of a wide group of heterogeneous compounds. Through the linear discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks, correct classification percentages above 85% for both the training set and the test set have been obtained. After carrying out a virtual screening with a natural product library, about thirty compounds with theoretical anti-allergic activity have been selected. Among them, hesperidin, naringin, salinomycin, sorbitol, curcumol, myricitrin, diosmin and kinetin stand out. Some of these compounds have already been referenced as having anti-allergic activity.
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Novel potential agents for ulcerative colitis by molecular topology: suppression of IL-6 production in Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 cell lines.
Mol. Divers.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an immune-mediated chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammatory disease. Interleukin (IL)-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays a key role in the uncontrolled intestinal inflammatory process, which is a main characteristic of UC. In this work, a quantitative structure-activity relationship model based on molecular topology (MT) has been built up to predict the IL-6 mediated anti-UC activity. After an external validation of the model, a virtual screening of the MicroSource Pure Natural Products Collection and Sigma-Aldrich databases was carried out looking for potential new active compounds. From the entire set of compounds labeled as active by the model, four of them, namely alizarin-3-methylimino-N,N-diacetic acid (AMA), Calcein, (+)-dibenzyl-L-tartrate (DLT), and Ro 41-0960, were tested in vitro by determination of IL-6 production in two cell lines (RAW 264.7 and Caco-2). The results demonstrate that three of them were able to significantly reduce IL-6 levels in both cell lines and particularly one, namely Ro 41-0960. These results confirm MTs efficacy as a tool for the selection of compounds potentially active in UC.
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Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other microbial pathogens using improved synthetic antibacterial peptides.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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The lack of effective therapies for treating tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis is notoriously resistant to most available antibiotics, we identified synthetic short cationic antimicrobial peptides that were active at low micromolar concentrations (less than 10 ?M). These small peptides (averaging 10 amino acids) had remarkably broad spectra of antimicrobial activities against both bacterial and fungal pathogens and an indication of low cytotoxicity. In addition, their antimicrobial activities displayed various degrees of species specificity that were not related to taxonomy. For example, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus were the best surrogates to predict peptide activity against M. tuberculosis, while Mycobacterium smegmatis was a poor surrogate. Principle component analysis of activity spectrum profiles identified unique features associated with activity against M. tuberculosis that reflect their distinctive amino acid composition; active peptides were more hydrophobic and cationic, reflecting increased tryptophan with compensating decreases in valine and other uncharged amino acids and increased lysine. These studies provide foundations for development of cationic antimicrobial peptides as potential new therapeutic agents for TB treatment.
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[Congenital medulloblastoma associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst.]
Neurocirugia (Astur)
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Arachnoid cysts are very common lesions in paediatric patients, with treatment depending on their location and symptomatology. They are usually solitary cysts but may be associated with other central nervous system diseases such as tumours and congenital deformities. We describe the case of a neonate diagnosed with an arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern treated by endoscopy. After the operation, the childs condition worsened; a CT scan revealed a midline posterior fossa tumour not visible in the preoperative neuroradiological tests. The tumour, a medulloblastoma, was partially removed. Given the childs age and the poor prognosis, oncological treatment was not undertaken. The association between medulloblastoma and arachnoid cyst is very rare, and we could find only one such case in the literature.
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[Paediatric neurocysticercosis: two case reports].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larvae of Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system in humans. Considered an endemic parasitosis in developing countries including Latin America, Asia and Africa while in Europa, the cases of neurocysticercosis are anecdotal.
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Polymorphisms in regulators of xenobiotic transport and metabolism genes PXR and CAR do not affect multiple myeloma risk: a case-control study in the context of the IMMEnSE consortium.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The exposure to pesticides and toxic compounds in xenobiotic transport and metabolism genes has been shown to affect risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM). Therefore, we hypothesized that genetic variations in xenobiotic transport and metabolism regulator genes PXR (NR1I2) and CAR (NR1I3) could determine a difference in MM susceptibility. Ten tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for PXR and seven for the CAR genes were selected and genotyped in 627 MM cases and 883 controls collected in the context of the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium. None of the 17 SNPs investigated showed significant association with MM risk either alone or when combined in haplotypes. Significant SNP-SNP interactions were not found, neither with 58 previously genotyped polymorphisms in ABC transporters. We can therefore exclude that common genetic variants in the xenobiotic transport and metabolism regulator genes PXR and CAR affect MM risk.
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Advances in the molecular modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship-based design for antihistamines.
Expert Opin Drug Discov
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Nowadays the use of antihistamines (AH) is increasing steadily. These drugs are able to act on a variety of pathological conditions of the organism. A number of computer-aided (in silico) approaches have been developed to discover and develop novel AH drugs. Among these methods stand the ones based on drug-receptor docking, thermodynamics, as well as the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR).
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[Primary cranial vault lymphoma].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Primary bone lymphomas account for 3-7% of all malignant bone tumours and less than 2% of lymphomas in adults. Having the cranial vault as their primary location is very infrequent.
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Modeling natural anti-inflammatory compounds by molecular topology.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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One of the main pharmacological problems today in the treatment of chronic inflammation diseases consists of the fact that anti-inflammatory drugs usually exhibit side effects. The natural products offer a great hope in the identification of bioactive lead compounds and their development into drugs for treating inflammatory diseases. Computer-aided drug design has proved to be a very useful tool for discovering new drugs and, specifically, Molecular Topology has become a good technique for such a goal. A topological-mathematical model, obtained by linear discriminant analysis, has been developed for the search of new anti-inflammatory natural compounds. An external validation obtained with the remaining compounds (those not used in building up the model), has been carried out. Finally, a virtual screening on natural products was performed and 74 compounds showed actual anti-inflammatory activity. From them, 54 had been previously described as anti-inflammatory in the literature. This can be seen as a plus in the model validation and as a reinforcement of the role of Molecular Topology as an efficient tool for the discovery of new anti-inflammatory natural compounds.
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The mycobacterial transcriptional regulator whiB7 gene links redox homeostasis and intrinsic antibiotic resistance.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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Intrinsic drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis limits therapeutic options for treating tuberculosis. The mycobacterial transcriptional regulator whiB7 contributes to intrinsic resistance by activating its own expression and many drug resistance genes in response to antibiotics. To investigate whiB7 activation, we constructed a GFP reporter to monitor its expression, and we used it to investigate the whiB7 promoter and to screen our custom library of almost 600 bioactive compounds, including the majority of clinical antibiotics. Results showed whiB7 was transcribed from a promoter that was conserved across mycobacteria and other actinomycetes, including an AT-rich sequence that was likely targeted by WhiB7. Expression was induced by compounds having diverse structures and targets, independent of the ability of whiB7 to mediate resistance, and was dependent on media composition. Pretreatment with whiB7 activators resulted in clinically relevant increases in intrinsic drug resistance. Antibiotic-induced transcription was synergistically increased by the reductant dithiothreitol, an effect mirrored by a whiB7-dependent shift to a highly reduced cytoplasm reflected by the ratio of reduced/oxidized mycothiol. These data provided evidence that intrinsic resistance resulting from whiB7 activation is linked to fundamental changes in cell metabolism.
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Benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation in primary refractory myeloma? Different outcomes in progressive versus stable disease.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Several studies of autologous stem cell transplantation in primary refractory myeloma have produced encouraging results. However, the outcome of primary refractory patients with stable disease has not been analyzed separately from the outcome of patients with progressive disease.
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[Tumours of the nerve root sheath in the spine].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Spinal schwannomas account for about 30% of intradural spinal cord tumors in adults. More are solitary tumors, which can occur throughout the spinal canal. The multiple form of neurofibromas is known as von Recklinghausen disease. AIM. To analyze clinical and radiologic characteristics, treatment and evolution of patients with spinal nerve sheath tumor.
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Patient-derived olfactory mucosa cells but not lung or skin fibroblasts mediate axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion neurons.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2011
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Although human olfactory mucosa derived cells (OMC) have been used in animal models and clinical trials with CNS repair purposes, the exact identity of these cells in culture with respect to their tissue of origin is not fully understood and their neuroregenerative capacity in vitro has not yet been demonstrated. In this study we have compared human OMC with human ensheathing glia from olfactory bulb (OB) and human fibroblasts from skin and lung. Our results indicate that these different cultured cell types exhibit considerable overlap of antigenic markers such that it is presently not possible to distinguish them immunocytochemically. However, in rat retinal ganglion neuron coculture assays the axonal regenerative activity of OMC and OB ensheathing glia was dramatically higher than that exhibited by all fibroblast samples, confirming neuroregenerative activity as a unique property shared by cultured cells derived from the human olfactory system.
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Outcome according to cytogenetic abnormalities and DNA ploidy in myeloma patients receiving short induction with weekly bortezomib followed by maintenance.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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Cytogenetic abnormalities (CAs) such as t(4;14), t(14;16) or del(17p), and nonhyperdiploidy are associated with poor prognosis in multiple myeloma. We evaluated the influence of CAs by FISH and DNA ploidy by flow cytometry on response and survival in 232 elderly, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients receiving an induction with weekly bortezomib followed by maintenance therapy with bortezomib-based combinations. Response was similar in the high-risk and standard-risk CA groups, both after induction (21% vs 27% complete responses [CRs]) and maintenance (39% vs 45% CR). However, high-risk patients showed shorter progression-free survival (PFS) than standard-risk patients, both from the first (24 vs 33 months; P = .04) and second randomization (17 vs 27 months; P = .01). This also translated into shorter overall survival (OS) for high-risk patients (3-year OS: 55% vs 77%; P = .001). This adverse prognosis applied to either t(4;14) or del(17p). Concerning DNA ploidy, hyperdiploid patients showed longer OS than nonhyperdiploid patients (77% vs 63% at 3 years; P = .04), and this was more evident in patients treated with bortezomib, thalidomide, and prednisone (77% vs 53% at 3 years; P = .02). The present schema does not overcome the negative prognosis of high-risk CAs and nonhyperdiploidy. This trial was registered with www.ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00443235.
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Genetics and molecular epidemiology of multiple myeloma: the rationale for the IMMEnSE consortium (review).
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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There is strong evidence suggesting the presence of a genetic component in the aetiology of multiple myeloma (MM). However no genetic risk factors have been unequivocally established so far. To further our understanding of the genetic determinants of MM risk, a promising strategy is to collect a large set of patients in a consortium, as successfully done for other cancers. In this article, we review the main findings in the genetic susceptibility and pharmacogenetics of MM and present the strategy of the IMMEnSE (International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch) consortium in contributing to determine the role of genetic variation in pharmacogenetics and in MM risk.
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[Intracranial meningiomas: II. Diagnosis and treatment].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
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Meningiomas are the most frequent group of intracranial tumours. In most cases, they are histologically benign tumours, although the fact that they may be located in anatomical areas that are difficult to reach with surgical techniques often means that their treatment must be complemented with oncological therapies.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.