Lobular neoplasia is increasingly being detected, probably due to the widespread screening for breast malignancies. The understanding of lobular neoplasia is undergoing a paradigm shift, from being considered a predictor of recurrence to being considered a pre-invasive lesion, based on molecular studies suggesting a clonal link with invasive lobular cancer. The management of patients diagnosed to have lobular neoplasia is in evolution, with the increasing need for risk stratification and hence the necessity to identify this entity separately as either lobular carcinoma in-situ and atypical lobular hyperplasia. The indications for wide local excision for patients diagnosed to have lobular neoplasia on biopsy are being defined. The evidence for preventive strategies like hormonal treatment with Tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors for high risk patients is increasing, with the results from prospective interventional trials. The role of screening magnetic resonance imaging for surveillance of high risk patients with lobular neoplasia is under evaluation.
Isolated testicular metastasis from rectal cancer is rare. We describe the case of a patient who presented with a locally advanced rectal malignancy and underwent multimodality treatment with low anterior resection, postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. He developed a painless testicular nodule while on follow-up, five years after the diagnosis of primary rectal cancer. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of orchidectomy specimen were compatible with a metastatic adenocarcinoma of rectal origin. We hypothesize that this phenomenon of isolated relapse in a sanctuary site could be due to the altered biology and pattern of metastasis as a result of effective adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. Treatment of late isolated relapse in the testis needs to be ascertained.
There is a lack of instruments that focus on the specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) issues that affect older people with cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a HRQOL questionnaire module to supplement the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core questionnaire, the EORTC QLQ-C30 for older (>70years) patients with cancer.
The aim of this study was to determine whether serum concentrations of micronutrients, antioxidants and vitamins predict rate of disease progression in untreated, localised prostate cancer. Patients with localised prostatic adenocarcinoma on a prospective study of active surveillance underwent monitoring with serial PSA levels and repeat prostate biopsies. Disease progression was defined as either adverse histology on repeat biopsy (primary Gleason grade >or=4 or >50% positive cores of total) or radical treatment for PSA velocity >1 ng ml(-1) year(-1). Time to disease progression was analysed with respect to baseline levels of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, lycopene, retinol and selenium. One hundred four patients were evaluable, with a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Thirty-eight patients experienced disease progression, 13 biochemical and 25 histologic progression. Median time to disease progression was 2.62 years. No significant association was seen between time to disease progression and baseline serum levels of alpha-tocopherol (p = 0.86), gamma-tocopherol (p = 0.84), alpha-carotenoid (p = 0.66), beta-carotene (p = 0.65), lycopene (p = 0.0.15), retinol (p = 0.76) or selenium (p = 0.76). No significant association was seen between serum levels of the micronutrients, antioxidants or vitamins and either adverse histology on repeat biopsy or PSA velocity. Our data do not support the hypothesis that high serum concentrations of micronutrients, antioxidants and vitamins prevent disease progression in men with localised prostate cancer.
Review of the spectrum of breast cancer tumor subtypes, which include basal-like, triple-negative and BRCA1-positive tumors, suggest that they have overlapping clinical, pathologic and molecular features, which are different from endocrine responsive breast cancers. Although response to chemotherapy is high in the neoadjuvant setting, the overall prognosis of this subset of tumors remains poor. Gene-profiling studies of this heterogeneous subset have lead to a better understanding of the molecular pathology of these aggressive tumors and the identification of possible therapeutic targets. Ongoing clinical studies of newer targeted agents, along with optimal chemotherapy, portend an improved clinical outcome for patients with aggressive basal-like/triple-negative breast cancer in the future.
To optimize tracheoesophageal (TO) speech after total laryngectomy, it is vital to have a robust tool of assessment to help investigate deficiencies, document changes, and facilitate therapy. We sought to evaluate and validate electroglottography (EGG) as an important tool in the multidimensional assessment of TO speech. This study is a cross-sectional study of the largest cohort of TO speakers treated by a single surgeon. A second group of normal laryngeal speakers served as a control group. EGG analysis of both groups using connected speech and sustained vowels was performed. Two trained expert raters undertook perceptual evaluation using two accepted scales. EGG measures were then analyzed for correlation with treatment variables. A separate correlation analysis was performed to identify EGG measures that may be associated with perceptual dimensions. Our data from EGG analysis are similar to data obtained from conventional acoustic signal analysis of TO speakers. Sustained vowel and connected speech parameters were poorer in TO speakers than in normal laryngeal speakers. In perceptual evaluation, only grade (G) of the GRBAS scale and Overall Voice Quality appeared reproducible and reliable. T stage, pharyngeal reconstruction and method of closure, cricopharyngeal myotomy, and postoperative complications appear to be correlated with the EGG measures. Five voice measures-jitter, shimmer, average frequency, normalized noise energy, and irregularity-correlated well with the key dimensions of perceptual assessment. EGG is an important assessment tool of TO speech, and can now be reliably used in a clinical setting.
Background. Ewings sarcoma of extraskeletal origin is uncommon and that is of primary renal origin in adults are rare. There is no consensus on the optimal management of Ewings tumors of renal origin. Methods. A retrospective review of the clinical features, treatment, and outcome of adult patients with primary renal extra-skeletal Ewings sarcoma who were treated at the Royal Marsden hospital from January 1993-December 2007 is reported. Results. Seven adult patients with primary renal Ewings sarcoma were identified. All four patients with nonmetastatic disease had radical nephrectomy and received adjuvant chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy. Two developed metastatic disease while on adjuvant chemotherapy, and one patient relapsed after 55 months. The three patients with metastatic disease at presentation did not have nephrectomy and were treated with chemotherapy. All three patients had disease progression with a dismal outcome. Only one patient in the whole group is alive and disease free. The median overall survival was 62.8 months, and the median disease-free survival in patients with nonmetastatic disease after combined modality treatment was 30.3 months. Conclusion. Primary adult renal Ewings sarcoma is an aggressive tumor with a propensity for early metastasis. Radical nephrectomy with adjuvant combination chemotherapy produced the best results but the outlook remained poor with only one patient experiencing long disease-free survival.
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