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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
An RCOR1 loss-associated gene expression signature identifies a prognostically significant DLBCL subgroup.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Effective treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is plagued by heterogeneous responses to standard therapy, and molecular mechanisms underlying unfavorable outcomes in lymphoma patients remain elusive. Here, we profiled 148 genomes with 91 matching transcriptomes in an R-CHOP-treated DLBCL cohort to uncover molecular subgroups linked to treatment failure. Systematic integration of high-resolution genotyping arrays and RNA-seq data revealed novel deletions in RCOR1 to be associated with unfavorable progression free survival (P = 0.001). Integration of expression data from the clinical samples with data from RCOR1 knockdowns in the lymphoma cell lines KM-H2 and Raji yielded an RCOR1 loss-associated gene signature comprising of 233 genes. This signature identified a subgroup of patients with unfavorable overall survival (OS) (P = 0.023). The prognostic significance of the 233-gene signature for OS was reproduced in an independent cohort comprising 195 R-CHOP treated patients (P = 0.039). Additionally, we discovered that within the IPI low risk group, the gene signature provides additional prognostic value that was independent of the cell-of-origin phenotype. Taken together, we present a novel and reproducible molecular subgroup of DLBCL, impacting risk-stratification of R-CHOP treated DLBCL patients and revealing a possible new avenue for therapeutic intervention strategies.
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FOXO1 repression contributes to block of plasma cell differentiation in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The survival of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) cells depends on activation of NF-?B, JAK/STAT, and IRF4. Whereas these factors typically induce the master regulator of plasma cell (PC) differentiation PRDM1/BLIMP-1, levels of PRDM1 remain low in cHL. FOXO1, playing a critical role in normal B-cell development, acts as a tumor suppressor in cHL, but has never been associated with induction of PC differentiation. Here we show that FOXO1 directly upregulates the full-length isoform PRDM1? in cHL cell lines. We also observed a positive correlation between FOXO1 and PRDM1 expression levels in primary Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells. Further, we show that PRDM1? acts as a tumor suppressor in cHL at least partially by blocking MYC. Here we provide a link between FOXO1 repression and PRDM1? downregulation in cHL and identify PRDM1? as a tumor suppressor in cHL. The data support a potential role for FOXO transcription factors in normal PC differentiation.
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Etiologic heterogeneity among non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) comprises biologically and clinically heterogeneous subtypes. Previously, study size has limited the ability to compare and contrast the risk factor profiles among these heterogeneous subtypes.
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Bromodomain inhibition in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - giving MYC a brake.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Bromodomains are conserved protein regions that function as epigenetic readers by recognizing specific histone modifications. The common association of bromodomains with enhancer and super-enhancer regions in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma contributes to its pathogenesis. Bromodomain inhibition reduces tumor growth largely through the disruption of transcriptional networks driven by oncogenic MYC.
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Rituximab extended schedule or re-treatment trial for low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma: eastern cooperative oncology group protocol e4402.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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In low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL), maintenance rituximab (MR) has been shown to improve progression-free survival when compared with observation. It is not known whether MR provides superior long-term disease control compared with re-treatment rituximab (RR) administered on an as-needed basis. E4402 (RESORT) was a randomized clinical trial designed to compare MR against RR.
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CD30 expression in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a population-based study from British Columbia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease with variable therapeutic responses and alternative therapies are needed for patients with unfavourable treatment outcomes after standard treatment with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). One promising candidate is brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate targeting CD30-expressing cells. However, CD30 (TNFRSF8) expression patterns in DLBCL are not well described thus far. Here, we examined CD30 expression in a population-based cohort of immunocompetent patients from British Columbia with de novo DLBCL using immunohistochemistry. 385 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DLBCL in tissue microarrays were evaluated. 95 cases (25%) harboured CD30+ tumour cells. Using a > 0% cut-off, CD30 expression was predictive of superior 5-year progression-free survival within R-CHOP treated germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL (86% vs. 64%, P = 0·020), which was independent of the International Prognostic Index. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was identified in 11 (3%) cases, all of which were non-GCB (P = 0·001) and almost exclusively positive for CD30 expression (10/11) (P < 0·001). We conclude CD30 is expressed in a substantial proportion of DLBCL and CD30 immunohistochemistry may be a useful prognostic marker in R-CHOP treated GCB-DLBCL. The significant association of CD30 with EBV-positive non-GCB DLBCL suggests a distinct pathobiology for these cases.
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Lenalidomide Combined With R-CHOP Overcomes Negative Prognostic Impact of Non-Germinal Center B-Cell Phenotype in Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Phase II Study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Lenalidomide has significant single-agent activity in relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We demonstrated that lenalidomide can be safely combined with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone); this new combination is known as R2CHOP. The goal of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy of this combination in newly diagnosed DLBCL.
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The tumour microenvironment in B cell lymphomas.
Nat. Rev. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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B cell lymphomas are cancers that arise from cells that depend on numerous highly orchestrated interactions with immune and stromal cells in the course of normal development. Despite the recent focus on dissecting the genetic aberrations within cancer cells, it has been increasingly recognized that tumour cells retain a range of dependence on interactions with the non-malignant cells and stromal elements that constitute the tumour microenvironment. A fundamental understanding of these interactions gives insight into the pathogenesis of most B cell lymphomas and, moreover, identifies novel therapeutic opportunities for targeting oncogenic pathways, both now and in the future.
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A transgenic mouse model demonstrating the oncogenic role of mutations in the polycomb-group gene EZH2 in lymphomagenesis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The histone methyltransferase EZH2 is frequently mutated in germinal center-derived diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. To further characterize these EZH2 mutations in lymphomagenesis, we generated a mouse line where EZH2(Y641F) is expressed from a lymphocyte-specific promoter. Spleen cells isolated from the transgenic mice displayed a global increase in trimethylated H3K27, but the mice did not show an increased tendency to develop lymphoma. As EZH2 mutations often coincide with other mutations in lymphoma, we combined the expression of EZH2(Y641F) by crossing these transgenic mice with Eµ-Myc transgenic mice. We observed a dramatic acceleration of lymphoma development in this combination model of Myc and EZH2(Y641F). The lymphomas show histologic features of high-grade disease with a shift toward a more mature B-cell phenotype, increased cycling and gene expression, and epigenetic changes involving important pathways in B-cell regulation and function. Furthermore, they initiate disease in secondary recipients. In summary, EZH2(Y641F) can collaborate with Myc to accelerate lymphomagenesis demonstrating a cooperative role of EZH2 mutations in oncogenesis. This murine lymphoma model provides a new tool to study global changes in the epigenome caused by this frequent mutation and a promising model system for testing novel treatments.
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Loss of signalling via G?13 in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Germinal centre B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (GCB-DLBCL) is a common malignancy, yet the signalling pathways that are deregulated and the factors leading to its systemic dissemination are poorly defined. Work in mice showed that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-2 (S1PR2), a G?12 and G?13 coupled receptor, promotes growth regulation and local confinement of germinal centre B cells. Recent deep sequencing studies of GCB-DLBCL have revealed mutations in many genes in this cancer, including in GNA13 (encoding G?13) and S1PR2 (refs 5,6, 7). Here we show, using in vitro and in vivo assays, that GCB-DLBCL-associated mutations occurring in S1PR2 frequently disrupt the receptor's Akt and migration inhibitory functions. G?13-deficient mouse germinal centre B cells and human GCB-DLBCL cells were unable to suppress pAkt and migration in response to S1P, and G?13-deficient mice developed germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma. Germinal centre B cells, unlike most lymphocytes, are tightly confined in lymphoid organs and do not recirculate. Remarkably, deficiency in G?13, but not S1PR2, led to germinal centre B-cell dissemination into lymph and blood. GCB-DLBCL cell lines frequently carried mutations in the G?13 effector ARHGEF1, and Arhgef1 deficiency also led to germinal centre B-cell dissemination. The incomplete phenocopy of G?13- and S1PR2 deficiency led us to discover that P2RY8, an orphan receptor that is mutated in GCB-DLBCL and another germinal centre B-cell-derived malignancy, Burkitt's lymphoma, also represses germinal centre B-cell growth and promotes confinement via G?13. These findings identify a G?13-dependent pathway that exerts dual actions in suppressing growth and blocking dissemination of germinal centre B cells that is frequently disrupted in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma.
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Advanced-stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma compared with classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a matched pair outcome analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Due to disease rarity, there is limited information regarding the optimal therapy and outcome for patients with advanced-stage nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL). Forty-two patients with NLPHL by the Revised European-American Lymphoma/World Health Organization classification with advanced-stage disease were identified and paired 1:2 with a matched control with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) matched by age, gender, stage, decade of diagnosis, and treatment received. The median follow-up was 11.3 years (range, 1.9 to 35.5 years) for NLPHL patients and 10.7 years (range, 1.6 to 26.3 years) for CHL patients. The majority received doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD)-like chemotherapy. Although the 10-year overall survival (OS) (P = .579) and HL freedom from treatment failure (HL-FFTF) were similar between NLPHL and CHL patients (75% vs 73%; P = .610), the time to progression (TTP), which also includes the development of secondary aggressive lymphoma, was inferior in NLPHL (10-year, 63% vs 73%; P = .040). Splenic involvement was associated with an inferior 10-year TTP in patients treated with ABVD (48% vs 71%; P = .049) and an increased cumulative incidence of secondary aggressive lymphoma (P = .014) providing a rationale for further evaluation of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) with rituximab in NLPHL.
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Gene expression signatures delineate biological and prognostic subgroups in peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with generally poor clinical outcome. Currently 50% of PTCL cases are not classifiable: PTCL-not otherwise specified (NOS). Gene-expression profiles on 372 PTCL cases were analyzed and robust molecular classifiers and oncogenic pathways that reflect the pathobiology of tumor cells and their microenvironment were identified for major PTCL-entities, including 114 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), 31 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive and 48 ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 14 adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and 44 extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma that were further separated into NK-cell and gdT-cell lymphomas. Thirty-seven percent of morphologically diagnosed PTCL-NOS cases were reclassified into other specific subtypes by molecular signatures. Reexamination, immunohistochemistry, and IDH2 mutation analysis in reclassified cases supported the validity of the reclassification. Two major molecular subgroups can be identified in the remaining PTCL-NOS cases characterized by high expression of either GATA3 (33%; 40/121) or TBX21 (49%; 59/121). The GATA3 subgroup was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = .01). High expression of cytotoxic gene-signature within the TBX21 subgroup also showed poor clinical outcome (P = .05). In AITL, high expression of several signatures associated with the tumor microenvironment was significantly associated with outcome. A combined prognostic score was predictive of survival in an independent cohort (P = .004).
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Diagnostic accuracy of a defined immunophenotypic and molecular genetic approach for peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas. A North American PTCL study group project.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The diagnosis of peripheral T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas (PTNKCL) is difficult with few standards for required ancillary studies. We evaluated a series of PTNKCLs using a tiered approach to immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic characterization to document diagnostic accuracy and clinical relevance. Seven hematopathologists reviewed 374 cases that included PTNKCL and non-PTNKCL cases to mimic diagnostic practice. Cases received tier 0, 1, and 2 diagnoses by 3 independent pathologists, on the basis of hematoxylin and eosin stains and progressive immunohistochemistry panels. A tier 2b diagnosis was rendered when gene rearrangement data were available, and a final consensus diagnosis was rendered after discussion of each case. Across all 374 cases, consensus agreement was 92.5%. For PTNKCLs, World Health Organization subclassification was possible in 16.5%, 37.1%, 82.8%, and 85.9% of individual reviewer diagnoses at tier 0, 1, 2, and 2b, respectively. Gene rearrangement contributed to a change in diagnosis in 51 of 647 (8%) individual reviews. Following this algorithm may provide prognostic information on the basis of individual marker expression in common PTNKCL types (CD4 in peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified and PD-1 in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma). This evidence-based approach to the diagnosis of PTNKCL informs practicing pathologists, clinical trial designers, and policy-makers regarding required ancillary studies.
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MYC and BCL2 protein expression predicts survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease and "double-hit" DLBCL, with both MYC and BCL2 translocations has a poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated whether MYC and BCL2 protein expression in tissue would predict survival in DLBCL. The study included 106 cases of de novo DLBCL treated with rituximab and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) or CHOP-like regimens. The results were validated on an independent cohort of 205 DLBCL patients. Patients with low expression of BCL2 (?30%) and MYC (?50%) had the best prognosis, whereas those with high BCL2 (>30%) and MYC (>50%) had the worst outcome. In multivariate analysis, the combination of the BCL2 and MYC was an independent predictor of overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) (P = 0·015 and P = 0·005, respectively). The risk of death was nine times greater for patients with high BCL2 and MYC compared to those with low expression. High BCL2 and MYC was a strong predictor of poor OS (P < 0·001) and EFS (P = 0·0017) in patients with the germinal centre B-cell (GCB) type, but not in the non-GCB type. In DLBCL, high co-expression of MYC and BCL2 was an independent predictor of poor survival, and could be used to stratify patients for risk-adapted therapies.
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The reliability of immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor microenvironment in follicular lymphoma: a validation study from the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The cellular microenvironment in follicular lymphoma is of biological and clinical importance. Studies on the clinical significance of non-malignant cell populations have generated conflicting results, which may partly be influenced by poor reproducibility in immunohistochemical marker quantification. In this study, the reproducibility of manual scoring and automated microscopy based on a tissue microarray of 25 follicular lymphomas as compared to flow cytometry is evaluated. The agreement between manual scoring and flow cytometry was moderate for CD3, low for CD4, and moderate to high for CD8, with some laboratories scoring closer to the flow cytometry results. Agreement in manual quantification across the 7 laboratories was low to moderate for CD3, CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 frequencies, moderate for CD21, low for MIB1 and CD68, and high for CD10. Manual scoring of the architectural distribution resulted in moderate agreement for CD3, CD4 and CD8, and low agreement for FOXP3 and CD68. Comparing manual scoring to automated microscopy demonstrated that manual scoring increased the variability in the low and high frequency interval with some laboratories showing a better agreement with automated scores. Manual scoring reliably identified rare architectural patterns of T-cell infiltrates. Automated microscopy analyses for T-cell markers by two different instruments were highly reproducible and provided acceptable agreement with flow cytometry. These validation results provide explanations for the heterogeneous findings on the prognostic value of the microenvironment in follicular lymphoma. We recommend a more objective measurement, such as computer-assisted scoring, in future studies of the prognostic impact of microenvironment in follicular lymphoma patients.
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Duodenal follicular lymphoma: comprehensive gene expression analysis with insights into pathogenesis.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly duodenal follicular lymphoma (DFL), is a rare variant of FL with indolent clinical behavior, and this disease is included in the 2008 World Health Organization classification system. In contrast to nodal follicular lymphoma (NFL), DFL occurs most frequently in the second part of the duodenum, lacks follicular dendritic cell meshworks and has memory B-cell characteristics. However, its molecular pathogenesis is still unclear. In the present study, we examined 10 DFL, 18 NFL and 10 gastric MALT lymphoma samples using gene expression analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments and immunohistochemical analysis for 72 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from an independent series, including 32 DFL, 19 gastric MALT lymphoma and 27 NFL samples, were performed for validation of microarray data. Gene expression profiles of the three lymphoma types were compared using 2918 differentially expressed genes (DEG) and results suggested that DFL shares characteristics of MALT lymphoma. Among these DEG, CCL20 and MAdCAM-1 were upregulated in DFL and MALT but downregulated in NFL. In contrast, protocadherin gamma subfamily genes were upregulated in DFL and NFL. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated concordant results. Double immunofluorescence studies revealed that CCL20 and CCR6 were co-expressed in both DFL and MALT. We hypothesize that increased expression of CCL20 and MAdCAM-1 and co-expression of CCL20 and CCR6 may play an important role in tumorigenesis.
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Genomic rearrangements involving programmed death ligands are recurrent in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The pathogenesis of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is incompletely understood. Recently, specific genotypic and phenotypic features have been linked to tumor cell immune escape mechanisms in PMBCL. We studied 571 B-cell lymphomas with a focus on PMBCL. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization here, we report that the programmed death ligand (PDL) locus (9p24.1) is frequently and specifically rearranged in PMBCL (20%) as compared with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Rearrangement was significantly correlated with overexpression of PDL transcripts. Utilizing high-throughput sequencing techniques, we characterized novel translocations and chimeric fusion transcripts involving PDLs at base-pair resolution. Our data suggest that recurrent genomic rearrangement events underlie an immune privilege phenotype in a subset of B-cell lymphomas.
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Essential role of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex in lymphoma revealed by rare germline polymorphisms.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Constitutive activation of NF-?B is a hallmark of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), owing to upstream signals from the B-cell receptor (BCR) and MYD88 pathways. The linear polyubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) attaches linear polyubiquitin chains to I?B kinase-?, a necessary event in some pathways that engage NF-?B. Two germline polymorphisms affecting the LUBAC subunit RNF31 are rare among healthy individuals (?1%) but enriched in ABC DLBCL (7.8%). These polymorphisms alter RNF31 ?-helices that mediate binding to the LUBAC subunit RBCK1, thereby increasing RNF31-RBCK1 association, LUBAC enzymatic activity, and NF-?B engagement. In the BCR pathway, LUBAC associates with the CARD11-MALT1-BCL10 adapter complex and is required for ABC DLBCL viability. A stapled RNF31 ?-helical peptide based on the ABC DLBCL-associated Q622L polymorphism inhibited RNF31-RBCK1 binding, decreased NF-?B activation, and killed ABC DLBCL cells, credentialing this protein-protein interface as a therapeutic target.
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Recurrent somatic mutations of PTPN1 in primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Classical Hodgkin lymphoma and primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) are related lymphomas sharing pathological, molecular and clinical characteristics. Here we discovered by whole-genome and whole-transcriptome sequencing recurrent somatic coding-sequence mutations in the PTPN1 gene. Mutations were found in 6 of 30 (20%) Hodgkin lymphoma cases, in 6 of 9 (67%) Hodgkin lymphoma-derived cell lines, in 17 of 77 (22%) PMBCL cases and in 1 of 3 (33%) PMBCL-derived cell lines, consisting of nonsense, missense and frameshift mutations. We demonstrate that PTPN1 mutations lead to reduced phosphatase activity and increased phosphorylation of JAK-STAT pathway members. Moreover, silencing of PTPN1 by RNA interference in Hodgkin lymphoma cell line KM-H2 resulted in hyperphosphorylation and overexpression of downstream oncogenic targets. Our data establish PTPN1 mutations as new drivers in lymphomagenesis.
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Phase 2 study of VcR-CVAD with maintenance rituximab for untreated mantle cell lymphoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study (E1405).
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Rituximab, bortezomib, modified hyper-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, dexamethasone (VcR-CVAD) induction chemoimmunotherapy and maintenance rituximab (MR) were evaluated for efficacy and safety in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group protocol E1405. Patients with previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma received VcR-CVAD chemotherapy every 21 days for 6 cycles, followed by MR for 2 years. Transplant-eligible patients had the option of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) consolidation instead of MR. The primary end point was the complete response (CR) rate to VcR-CVAD. The secondary end points were overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicities. Seventy-five eligible patients with a median age of 62 (range 40-76) were enrolled. The ORR was 95% and a CR was achieved in 68% of patients. After a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 3-year PFS and OS were 72% and 88%, respectively. No substantial difference in PFS or OS was observed between patients treated with MR (n = 44) vs ASCT (n = 22). There were no unexpected toxicities. VcR-CVAD produced high ORR and CR rates in mantle cell lymphoma. MR after VcR-CVAD induction performed similarly to ASCT and may improve response duration. Randomized clinical trials comparing MR against ASCT should be considered and randomized clinical trials evaluating bortezomib's contribution to conventional therapy are under way. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00433537.
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Determining cell-of-origin subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using gene expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The assignment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into cell-of-origin (COO) groups is becoming increasingly important with the emergence of novel therapies that have selective biological activity in germinal center B cell-like or activated B cell-like groups. The Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project's Lymph2Cx assay is a parsimonious digital gene expression (NanoString)-based test for COO assignment in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET). The 20-gene assay was trained using 51 FFPET biopsies; the locked assay was then validated using an independent cohort of 68 FFPET biopsies. Comparisons were made with COO assignment using the original COO model on matched frozen tissue. In the validation cohort, the assay was accurate, with only 1 case with definitive COO being incorrectly assigned, and robust, with >95% concordance of COO assignment between 2 independent laboratories. These qualities, along with the rapid turnaround time, make Lymph2Cx attractive for implementation in clinical trials and, ultimately, patient management.
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BCL2 antibodies targeted at different epitopes detect varying levels of protein expression and correlate with frequent gene amplification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Patients with aggressive, BCL2 protein-positive (+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) often experience rapid disease progression that is refractory to standard therapy. However, there is potential for false-negative staining of BCL2 using the standard monoclonal mouse 124 antibody that hinders the identification of these high-risk DLBCL patients. Herein, we compare 2 alternative rabbit monoclonal antibodies (E17 and SP66) to the 124 clone in staining for BCL2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded DLBCL tissues. Overall, in 2 independent DLBCL cohorts, E17 and SP66 detected BCL2 expression more frequently than 124. In the context of MYC expression, cases identified as BCL2 (+) with SP66 demonstrated the strongest correlation with worse overall survival. The 124 clone failed to detect BCL2 expression in the majority of translocation (+), amplification (+), and activated B-cell DLBCL cases in which high levels of BCL2 protein are expected. Using dual in situ hybridization as a new tool to detect BCL2 translocation and amplification, we observed similar results as previously reported for fluorescence in situ hybridization for translocation but a higher amplification frequency, indicating that BCL2 amplification may be underreported in DLBCL. Among the discrepant cases, phosphorylation of BCL2 at T69 and/or S70 was more common than in the concordant cases and may contribute to the 124 false negatives, in addition to previously associated mutations within the epitope region. The accurate detection of BCL2 expression is important in the prognosis and treatment of DLBCL particularly with new anti-BCL2 therapies.
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Variability in DNA methylation defines novel epigenetic subgroups of DLBCL associated with different clinical outcomes.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with variable biology and clinical behavior. The current classification does not fully explain the biological and clinical heterogeneity of DLBCLs. In this study, we carried out genomewide DNA methylation profiling of 140 DLBCL samples and 10 normal germinal center B cells using the HpaII tiny fragment enrichment by ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction assay and hybridization to a custom Roche NimbleGen promoter array. We defined methylation disruption as a main epigenetic event in DLBCLs and designed a method for measuring the methylation variability of individual cases. We then used a novel approach for unsupervised hierarchical clustering based on the extent of DNA methylation variability. This approach identified 6 clusters (A-F). The extent of methylation variability was associated with survival outcomes, with significant differences in overall and progression-free survival. The novel clusters are characterized by disruption of specific biological pathways such as cytokine-mediated signaling, ephrin signaling, and pathways associated with apoptosis and cell-cycle regulation. In a subset of patients, we profiled gene expression and genomic variation to investigate their interplay with methylation changes. This study is the first to identify novel epigenetic clusters of DLBCLs and their aberrantly methylated genes, molecular associations, and survival.
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An enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated in the rituximab era.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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The International Prognostic Index (IPI) has been the basis for determining prognosis in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) for the past 20 years. Using raw clinical data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) database collected during the rituximab era, we built an enhanced IPI with the goal of improving risk stratification. Adults (n=1,650) with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) diagnosed over a 10-year period at 7 NCCN cancer centers were included. Clinical features were assessed for their prognostic significance, with statistical efforts to further refine the categorization of age and normalized LDH. This new NCCN-IPI identified 5 predictors (age, LDH, sites of involvement, Ann Arbor stage, ECOG performance status) and assigned a maximum of 8 points. Four risk groups were formed: low (0-1), low-intermediate (2-3), high-intermediate (4-5) and high (6-8). Compared to the IPI, the NCCN-IPI better discriminated low and high risk subgroups (5-year overall survival [OS]: 96% vs 33%) than the IPI (5 year OS: 90% vs 54%), respectively. When validated using an independent cohort from the British Columbia Cancer Agency (n=1,138), it also demonstrated enhanced discrimination for both low and high risk patients. The NCCN-IPI is easy to apply and more powerful than the IPI for predicting survival in the rituximab era.
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Newly identified mechanisms in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas uncovered by next-generation sequencing.
Semin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Application of molecular techniques to study the genetics and gene expression alterations in non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) has revealed examples of common genetic events shared across individual disease types as well as extensive heterogeneity within specific diseases. For example, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be effectively divided into two broad molecular subgroups in which genetic changes unique to each subgroup continue to be further determined. The broad availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) now affords the ability to fully characterize the genetics of individual tumor types and application of this to some common NHLs has provided a wealth of new information. NGS-based research in NHL has unraveled a complex set of genetic alterations that underlie each of the DLBCL molecular subgroups. For example, these and studies of other NHLs have indicated a variety of mechanisms by which nuclear factor- ?B (NF-?B) is deregulated in mature B-cell neoplasms and have also found extensive common features between germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL and other germinal center-derived lymphomas. Overall, NGS has identified new players in each of the studied diseases and provided promising new therapeutic targets for NHL.
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Activation of the STAT3 Signaling Pathway Is Associated With Poor Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With R-CHOP.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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We previously reported that constitutive STAT3 activation is a prominent feature of the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCL). In this study, we investigated whether STAT3 activation can risk stratify patients with DLBCL.
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EZH2 mutations are frequent and represent an early event in follicular lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Gain of function mutations in the H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2 represent a promising therapeutic target in germinal center lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the frequency and distribution of EZH2 mutations in a large cohort of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) (n = 366) and performed a longitudinal analysis of mutation during the disease progression from FL to transformed FL (tFL) (n = 33). Mutations were detected at 3 recurrent mutation hot spots (Y646, A682, and A692) in 27% of FL cases with variant allele frequencies (VAF) ranging from 2% to 61%. By comparing VAF of EZH2 with other mutation targets (CREBBP, MLL2, TNFRSF14, and MEF2B), we were able to distinguish patients harboring clonal EZH2 mutation from rarer cases with subclonal mutations. Overall, the high incidence of EZH2 mutations in FL and their stability during disease progression makes FL an appropriate disease to evaluate EZH2 targeted therapy.
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Genome-wide copy number analyses reveal genomic abnormalities involved in transformation of follicular lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Follicular lymphoma (FL), the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the western world, is characterized by the t(14;18) translocation, which is present in up to 90% of cases. We studied 277 lymphoma samples [198 FL and 79 transformed FL (tFL)] using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to identify the secondary chromosomal abnormalities that drive the development of FL and its transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Common recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in FL included gains of 2, 5, 7, 6p, 8, 12, 17q, 18, 21, and X and losses on 6q and 17p. We also observed many frequent small abnormalities, including losses of 1p36.33-p36.31, 6q23.3-q24.1, and 10q23.1-q25.1 and gains of 2p16.1-p15, 8q24.13-q24.3, and 12q12-q13.13, and identified candidate genes that may be driving this selection. Recurrent abnormalities more frequent in tFL samples included gains of 3q27.3-q28 and chromosome 11 and losses of 9p21.3 and 15q. Four abnormalities, gain of X or Xp and losses of 6q23.2-24.1 or 6q13-15, predicted overall survival. Abnormalities associated with transformation of the disease likely impair immune surveillance, activate the NF-?B pathway, and deregulate p53 and B-cell transcription factors.
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Mechanism-based epigenetic chemosensitization therapy of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Although aberrant DNA methylation patterning is a hallmark of cancer, the relevance of targeting DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) remains unclear for most tumors. In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) we observed that chemoresistance is associated with aberrant DNA methylation programming. Prolonged exposure to low-dose DNMT inhibitors (DNMTI) reprogrammed chemoresistant cells to become doxorubicin sensitive without major toxicity in vivo. Nine genes were recurrently hypermethylated in chemoresistant DLBCL. Of these, SMAD1 was a critical contributor, and reactivation was required for chemosensitization. A phase I clinical study was conducted evaluating azacitidine priming followed by standard chemoimmunotherapy in high-risk patients newly diagnosed with DLBCL. The combination was well tolerated and yielded a high rate of complete remission. Pre- and post-azacitidine treatment biopsies confirmed SMAD1 demethylation and chemosensitization, delineating a personalized strategy for the clinical use of DNMTIs.
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Bevacizumab and cyclosphosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone in combination for patients with peripheral T-cell or natural killer cell neoplasms: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study (E2404).
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma have poor survival with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Because angiogenesis plays an important role in the biology of PTCL, a fully humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, bevacizumab (A), was studied in combination with standard cyclosphosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy (ACHOP) to evaluate its potential to improve outcome in these patients. Patients were treated with 6-8 cycles of ACHOP followed by eight doses of maintenance A (15 mg/kg every 21 days). Forty-six patients were enrolled on this phase 2 study from July 2006 through March 2009. Forty-four patients were evaluable for toxicity and 39 were evaluable for response, progression and survival. A total of 324 cycles (range: 2-16, median 7) were administered to 39 evaluable patients and only nine completed all planned treatment. The overall response rate was 90% with 19 (49%) complete response/complete response unconfirmed (CR/CRu) and 16 (41%) a partial response (PR). The 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 44% at a median follow-up of 3 years. The median PFS and overall survival (OS) rates were 7.7 and 22 months, respectively. Twenty-three patients died (21 from lymphoma, two while in remission). Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included febrile neutropenia (n = 8), anemia (n = 3), thrombocytopenia (n = 5), congestive heart failure (n = 4), venous thrombosis (n = 3), gastrointestinal hemorrhage/perforation (n = 2), infection (n = 8) and fatigue (n = 6). Despite a high overall response rate, the ACHOP regimen failed to result in durable remissions and was associated with significant toxicities. Studies of novel therapeutics are needed for this patient population, whose clinical outcome remains poor.
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MicroRNA signature obtained from the comparison of aggressive with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas: potential prognostic value in mantle-cell lymphoma.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) has a variable natural history but is incurable with current therapies. MicroRNAs (miRs) are useful in prognostic assessment of cancer. We determined an miR signature defining aggressiveness in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and assessed whether this signature aids in MCL prognosis.
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Treatment and outcomes in patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: the BC Cancer Agency experience.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To review the treatment and outcomes of patients with primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL).
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Mutational and structural analysis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using whole-genome sequencing.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a genetically heterogeneous cancer composed of at least 2 molecular subtypes that differ in gene expression and distribution of mutations. Recently, application of genome/exome sequencing and RNA-seq to DLBCL has revealed numerous genes that are recurrent targets of somatic point mutation in this disease. Here we provide a whole-genome-sequencing-based perspective of DLBCL mutational complexity by characterizing 40 de novo DLBCL cases and 13 DLBCL cell lines and combining these data with DNA copy number analysis and RNA-seq from an extended cohort of 96 cases. Our analysis identified widespread genomic rearrangements including evidence for chromothripsis as well as the presence of known and novel fusion transcripts. We uncovered new gene targets of recurrent somatic point mutations and genes that are targeted by focal somatic deletions in this disease. We highlight the recurrence of germinal center B-cell-restricted mutations affecting genes that encode the S1P receptor and 2 small GTPases (GNA13 and GNAI2) that together converge on regulation of B-cell homing. We further analyzed our data to approximate the relative temporal order in which some recurrent mutations were acquired and demonstrate that ongoing acquisition of mutations and intratumoral clonal heterogeneity are common features of DLBCL. This study further improves our understanding of the processes and pathways involved in lymphomagenesis, and some of the pathways mutated here may indicate new avenues for therapeutic intervention.
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Genome-wide methylation analyses identify a subset of mantle cell lymphoma with a high number of methylated CpGs and aggressive clinicopathological features.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell neoplasm with an aggressive clinical behavior characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) and cyclin D1 overexpression. To clarify the potential contribution of altered DNA methylation in the development and/or progression of MCL, we performed genome-wide methylation profiling of a large cohort of primary MCL tumors (n = 132), MCL cell lines (n = 6) and normal lymphoid tissue samples (n = 31), using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. DNA methylation was compared to gene expression, chromosomal alterations and clinicopathological parameters. Primary MCL displayed a heterogeneous methylation pattern dominated by DNA hypomethylation when compared to normal lymphoid samples. A total of 454 hypermethylated and 875 hypomethylated genes were identified as differentially methylated in at least 10% of primary MCL. Annotation analysis of hypermethylated genes recognized WNT pathway inhibitors and several tumor suppressor genes as frequently methylated, and a substantial fraction of these genes (22%) showed a significant downregulation of their transcriptional levels. Furthermore, we identified a subset of tumors with extensive CpG methylation that had an increased proliferation signature, higher number of chromosomal alterations and poor prognosis. Our results suggest that a subset of MCL displays a dysregulation of DNA methylation characterized by the accumulation of CpG hypermethylation highly associated with increased proliferation that may influence the clinical behavior of the tumors.
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Survival of patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma after first relapse or progression: spectrum of disease and rare long-term survivors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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A number of novel therapies are under investigation in relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL); however, their relative impact on outcome is unknown. We examined the survival of patients with PTCL after relapse or progression in the absence of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and explored factors influencing survival. The three most common subtypes encountered in North America were evaluated: PTCL not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL; anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] positive and ALK negative.
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Pharmacological and genomic profiling identifies NF-?B-targeted treatment strategies for mantle cell lymphoma.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive malignancy that is characterized by poor prognosis. Large-scale pharmacological profiling across more than 100 hematological cell line models identified a subset of MCL cell lines that are highly sensitive to the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling inhibitors ibrutinib and sotrastaurin. Sensitive MCL models exhibited chronic activation of the BCR-driven classical nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway, whereas insensitive cell lines displayed activation of the alternative NF-?B pathway. Transcriptome sequencing revealed genetic lesions in alternative NF-?B pathway signaling components in ibrutinib-insensitive cell lines, and sequencing of 165 samples from patients with MCL identified recurrent mutations in TRAF2 or BIRC3 in 15% of these individuals. Although they are associated with insensitivity to ibrutinib, lesions in the alternative NF-?B pathway conferred dependence on the protein kinase NIK (also called mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase 14 or MAP3K14) both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, NIK is a new therapeutic target for MCL treatment, particularly for lymphomas that are refractory to BCR pathway inhibitors. Our findings reveal a pattern of mutually exclusive activation of the BCR-NF-?B or NIK-NF-?B pathways in MCL and provide critical insights into patient stratification strategies for NF-?B pathway-targeted agents.
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A phase II study of sorafenib (BAY 43-9006) in recurrent diffuse large B cell lymphoma: an eastern cooperative oncology group study (E1404).
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are not candidates for or recur after autologous stem cell transplant have a poor overall prognosis. We conducted a phase II study of sorafenib (formerly BAY 43-9006) in the treatment of relapsed DLBCL. Fourteen patients were enrolled and assessed for response. Median number of cycles administered was 3 (range, 1-12). Common grade 3 toxicities included fatigue (29%), rash/desquamation (21%) and diarrhea (14%). One complete response (CR) was observed (the 14th patient enrolled). Response rate was 7% (90% CI, 0.4 - 30%). Duration of response was 6 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 2 months (90% CI, 1 - 5 months). Median overall survival (OS) was 9 months (90% CI, 5 - 16 months). Although sorafenib has demonstrated activity in solid malignancies it demonstrated low single agent activity in treatment of DLBCL.
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Analysis of FOXO1 mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for 30% to 40% of newly diagnosed lymphomas and has an overall cure rate of approximately 60%. Previously, we observed FOXO1 mutations in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient samples. To explore the effects of FOXO1 mutations, we assessed FOXO1 status in 279 DLBCL patient samples and 22 DLBCL-derived cell lines. FOXO1 mutations were found in 8.6% (24/279) of DLBCL cases: 92.3% (24/26) of mutations were in the first exon, 46.2% (12/26) were recurrent mutations affecting the N-terminal region, and another 38.5% (10/26) affected the Forkhead DNA binding domain. Recurrent mutations in the N-terminal region resulted in diminished T24 phosphorylation, loss of interaction with 14-3-3, and nuclear retention. FOXO1 mutation was associated with decreased overall survival in patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (P = .037), independent of cell of origin (COO) and the revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI). This association was particularly evident (P = .003) in patients in the low-risk R-IPI categories. The independent relationship of mutations in FOXO1 to survival, transcending the prognostic influence of the R-IPI and COO, indicates that FOXO1 mutation is a novel prognostic factor that plays an important role in DLBCL pathogenesis.
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MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures: a report from The International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We show that MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression occurred significantly more commonly in the ABC subtype. Patients with the ABC or GCB subtype of DLBCL had similar prognoses with MYC/BCL2 coexpression and without MYC/BCL2 coexpression. Consistent with the notion that the prognostic difference between the 2 subtypes is attributable to MYC/BCL2 coexpression, there is no difference in gene expression signatures between the 2 subtypes in the absence of MYC/BCL2 coexpression. DLBCL with MYC/BCL2 coexpression demonstrated a signature of marked downregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, those involving matrix deposition/remodeling and cell adhesion, and upregulation of proliferation-associated genes. We conclude that MYC/BCL2 coexpression in DLBCL is associated with an aggressive clinical course, is more common in the ABC subtype, and contributes to the overall inferior prognosis of patients with ABC-DLBCL. In conclusion, the data suggest that MYC/BCL2 coexpression, rather than cell-of-origin classification, is a better predictor of prognosis in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP.
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Related F-box proteins control cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans and human lymphoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Cell death is a common metazoan cell fate, and its inactivation is central to human malignancy. In Caenorhabditis elegans, apoptotic cell death occurs via the activation of the caspase CED-3 following binding of the EGL-1/BH3-only protein to the antiapoptotic CED-9/BCL2 protein. Here we report a major alternative mechanism for caspase activation in vivo involving the F-box protein DRE-1. DRE-1 functions in parallel to EGL-1, requires CED-9 for activity, and binds to CED-9, suggesting that DRE-1 promotes apoptosis by inactivating CED-9. FBXO10, a human protein related to DRE-1, binds BCL2 and promotes its degradation, thereby initiating cell death. Moreover, some human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas have inactivating mutations in FBXO10 or express FBXO10 at low levels. Our results suggest that DRE-1/FBXO10 is a conserved regulator of apoptosis.
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The E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5 is recurrently mutated in mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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We have recently reported the application of RNAseq to mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) transcriptomes revealing recurrent mutations in NOTCH1. Here we describe the targeted resequencing of 18 genes mutated in this discovery cohort using a larger cohort of MCL tumors. In addition to frequent mutations in ATM, CCND1, TP53, and NOTCH1, mutations were also observed recurrently in MEF2B, TRAF2, and TET2. Interestingly, the third most frequently mutated gene was UBR5, a gene encoding a 2799aa protein, with multiple functions, including E3 ligase activity based on a conserved cysteine residue at the C-terminus. Nonsynonymous mutations were detected in 18% (18/102) of tumors, with 61% of the mutations resulting in frameshifts in, or around, exon 58, predicted to result in the loss of this conserved cysteine residue. The recurrence and clustering of deleterious mutations implicate UBR5 mutations as a critical pathogenic event in a subgroup of MCL.
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Next-generation sequencing discoveries in lymphoma.
Adv Anat Pathol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Since the mapping of the human genome and the advent of next-generation sequencing technology thorough examination of the cancer genome has become a reality. Over the last few years several studies have used next-generation sequencing technology to investigate the genetic landscape of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, identifying novel genetic mutations and gene rearrangements that have shed new light on the underlying tumor biology in these diseases as well as identifying possible targets for directed therapy. This review covers the major discoveries in lymphoma using next-generation sequencing technology.
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Macrophages in T cell/histiocyte rich large B cell lymphoma strongly express metal-binding proteins and show a bi-activated phenotype.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Abundant macrophage infiltration in tumors often correlates with a poor prognosis. T cell/histiocyte rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is a distinct aggressive B cell lymphoma entity showing a high macrophage content. To further elucidate the role of tumor-associated macrophages in THRLBCL, we performed gene expression profiling of microdissected histiocyte subsets of THRLBCL, nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), Piringer lymphadenitis, sarcoidosis, nonspecific lymphadenitis and monocytes from peripheral blood. In a supervised principal component analysis, histiocytes from THRLBCL were most closely related to epithelioid cells from NLPHL, with both types of cells expressing genes related to proinflammatory and regulatory macrophage activity. Moreover, histiocytes from THRLBCL strongly expressed metal-binding proteins like MT2A, by which histiocytes of THRLBCL can be distinguished from the other histiocyte subsets investigated. Interestingly, the validation at the protein level showed a strong expression of TXN, CXCL9, MT2A and SOD2 not only in macrophages of THRLBCL but also in the tumor cells of NLPHL and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Overall, the present findings indicate that macrophages in the microenvironment of THRLBCL have acquired a distinct gene expression pattern that is characterized by a mixed M1/M2 phenotype and a strong expression of several metal binding proteins. The microenvironments in NLPHL and THRLBCL appear to have a similar influence on the macrophage phenotype. The high expression of metal binding proteins in histiocytes of THRLBCL may be diagnostically useful, but a potential pathophysiological role remains to be identified.
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Plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA predicts outcome in advanced Hodgkin lymphoma: correlative analysis from a large North American cooperative group trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and can be detected by in situ hybridization (ISH) of viral nucleic acid (EBER) in tumor cells. We sought to determine whether plasma EBV-DNA could serve as a surrogate for EBER-ISH and to explore its prognostic utility in HL. Specimens from the Cancer Cooperative Intergroup Trial E2496 were used to compare pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA quantification with EBV tumor status by EBER-ISH. A cutoff of >60 viral copies/100 µL plasma yielded 96% concordance with EBER-ISH. Pretreatment and month 6 plasma specimens were designated EBV(-) or EBV(+) by this cutoff. Patients with pretreatment EBV(+) plasma (n = 54) had inferior failure-free survival (FFS) compared with those with pretreatment EBV(-) plasma (n = 274), log-rank P = .009. By contrast, no difference in FFS was observed when patients were stratified by EBER-ISH. Pretreatment plasma EBV positivity was an independent predictor of treatment failure on multivariate analyses. At month 6, plasma EBV(+) patients (n = 7) had inferior FFS compared with plasma EBV(-) patients (n = 125), log-rank P = .007. These results confirm that plasma EBV-DNA is highly concordant with EBER-ISH in HL and suggest that it may have prognostic utility both at baseline and after therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00003389.
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The efficacy and tolerability of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine and Stanford V in older Hodgkin lymphoma patients: a comprehensive analysis from the North American intergroup trial E2496.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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There is a lack of contemporary prospective data examining the adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) and Stanford V (SV; doxorubicin, vinblastine, mechlorethamine, vincristine, bleomycin, etoposide, prednisone) regimens in older Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. Forty-four advanced-stage, older HL patients (aged ?60 years) were treated on the randomized study, E2496. Toxicities were mostly similar between chemotherapy regimens, although 24% of older patients developed bleomycin lung toxicity (BLT), which occurred mainly with ABVD (91%). Further, the BLT-related mortality rate was 18%. The overall treatment-related mortality for older HL patients was 9% vs. 0·3% for patients aged <60 years (P < 0·001). Among older patients, there were no survival differences between ABVD and SV. According to age, outcomes were significantly inferior for older versus younger patients (5-year failure-free survival: 48% vs. 74%, respectively, P = 0·002; 5-year overall survival: 58% and 90%, respectively, P < 0·0001), although time-to-progression (TTP) was not significantly different (5-year TTP: 68% vs. 78%, respectively, P = 0·37). Furthermore, considering progression and death without progression as competing risks, the risk of progression was not different between older and younger HL patients (5 years: 30% and 23%, respectively, P = 0·30); however, the incidence of death without progression was significantly increased for older HL patients (22% vs. 9%, respectively, P < 0·0001). Altogether, the marked HL age-dependent survival differences appeared attributable primarily to non-HL events.
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Colorimetric in situ hybridization identifies MYC gene signal clusters correlating with increased copy number, mRNA, and protein in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Abnormalities of the MYC oncogene on chromosome 8 are characteristic of Burkitt lymphoma and other aggressive B-cell lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We recently described a colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH) method for detecting extra copies of the MYC gene in DLBCL and the frequent occurrence of excess copies of discrete MYC signals in the context of diploidy or polyploidy of chromosome 8, which correlated with increased mRNA signals. We further observed enlarged MYC signals, which were counted as a single gene copy but, by their dimension and unusual shape, likely consisted of "clusters" of MYC genes. In this study, we sought to further characterize these clusters of MYC signals by determining whether the presence of these correlated with other genetic features, mRNA levels, protein, and overall survival. We found that MYC clusters correlated with an abnormal MYC locus and with increased mRNA. MYC mRNA correlated with protein levels, and both increased mRNA and protein correlated with poorer overall survival. MYC clusters were seen in both the germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes of DLBCL. Clusters of MYC signals may be an underappreciated, but clinically important, feature of aggressive B-cell lymphomas with potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance.
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EZH2 is required for germinal center formation and somatic EZH2 mutations promote lymphoid transformation.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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The EZH2 histone methyltransferase is highly expressed in germinal center (GC) B cells and targeted by somatic mutations in B cell lymphomas. Here, we find that EZH2 deletion or pharmacologic inhibition suppresses GC formation and functions. EZH2 represses proliferation checkpoint genes and helps establish bivalent chromatin domains at key regulatory loci to transiently suppress GC B cell differentiation. Somatic mutations reinforce these physiological effects through enhanced silencing of EZH2 targets. Conditional expression of mutant EZH2 in mice induces GC hyperplasia and accelerated lymphomagenesis in cooperation with BCL2. GC B cell (GCB)-type diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are mostly addicted to EZH2 but not the more differentiated activated B cell (ABC)-type DLBCLs, thus clarifying the therapeutic scope of EZH2 targeting.
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Aberration in DNA methylation in B-cell lymphomas has a complex origin and increases with disease severity.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Despite mounting evidence that epigenetic abnormalities play a key role in cancer biology, their contributions to the malignant phenotype remain poorly understood. Here we studied genome-wide DNA methylation in normal B-cell populations and subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. These lymphomas display striking and progressive intra-tumor heterogeneity and also inter-patient heterogeneity in their cytosine methylation patterns. Epigenetic heterogeneity is initiated in normal germinal center B-cells, increases markedly with disease aggressiveness, and is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome. Moreover, patterns of abnormal methylation vary depending upon chromosomal regions, gene density and the status of neighboring genes. DNA methylation abnormalities arise via two distinct processes: i) lymphomagenic transcriptional regulators perturb promoter DNA methylation in a target gene-specific manner, and ii) aberrant epigenetic states tend to spread to neighboring promoters in the absence of CTCF insulator binding sites.
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Lymphotoxin network pathways shape the tumor microenvironment.
Curr. Opin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Accumulating evidence indicates that Lymphotoxin (LT)-? related cytokines directly contribute to the phenotype of cancer cells and alter the tumor microenvironment. Lymphotoxins are part of a cytokine network well known in controlling the development and homeostasis of secondary lymphoid organs. In the adult, the LT network takes on the responsibility of generating inflammatory microenvironments that control innate and adaptive immune responses involved in host defense. This review provides a perspective of the emerging evidence implicating the LT Network in the development and progression of various cancers including lymphoma. Redirecting the LT Network to alter tumor microenvironments may provide a specific approach to therapeutically target tumor-permissive microenvironments and cancer progression.
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Nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma and T cell/histiocyte rich large B cell lymphoma - endpoints of a spectrum of one disease?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In contrast to the commonly indolent clinical behavior of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), T cell/histiocyte rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is frequently diagnosed in advanced clinical stages and has a poor prognosis. Besides the different clinical presentations of these lymphoma entities, there are variants of NLPHL with considerable histopathologic overlap compared to THRLBCL. Especially THRLBCL-like NLPHL, a diffuse form of NLPHL, often presents a histopathologic pattern similar to THRLBCL, suggesting a close relationship between both lymphoma entities. To corroborate this hypothesis, we performed gene expression profiling of microdissected tumor cells of NLPHL, THRLBCL-like NLPHL and THRLBCL. In unsupervised analyses, the lymphomas did not cluster according to their entity. Moreover, even in supervised analyses, very few consistently differentially expressed transcripts were found, and for these genes the extent of differential expression was only moderate. Hence, there are no clear and consistent differences in the gene expression of the tumor cells of NLPHL, THRLBCL-like NLPHL and THRLBCL. Based on the gene expression studies, we identified BAT3/BAG6, HIGD1A, and FAT10/UBD as immunohistochemical markers expressed in the tumor cells of all three lymphomas. Characterization of the tumor microenvironment for infiltrating T cells and histiocytes revealed significant differences in the cellular composition between typical NLPHL and THRLBCL cases. However, THRLBCL-like NLPHL presented a histopathologic pattern more related to THRLBCL than NLPHL. In conclusion, NLPHL and THRLBCL may represent a spectrum of the same disease. The different clinical behavior of these lymphomas may be strongly influenced by differences in the lymphoma microenvironment, possibly related to the immune status of the patient at the timepoint of diagnosis.
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk and variants in genes controlling lymphocyte development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of solid tumours of lymphoid cell origin. Three important aspects of lymphocyte development include immunity and inflammation, DNA repair, and programmed cell death. We have used a previously established case-control study of NHL to ask whether genetic variation in genes involved in these three important processes influences risk of this cancer. 118 genes in these three categories were tagged with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were tested for association with NHL and its subtypes. The main analysis used logistic regression (additive model) to estimate odds ratios in European-ancestry cases and controls. 599 SNPs and 1116 samples (569 cases and 547 controls) passed quality control measures and were included in analyses. Following multiple-testing correction, one SNP in MSH3, a mismatch repair gene, showed an association with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.41-2.59; uncorrected p?=?0.00003; corrected p?=?0.010). This association was not replicated in an independent European-ancestry sample set of 251 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases and 737 controls, indicating this result was likely a false positive. It is likely that moderate sample size, inter-subtype and other genetic heterogeneity, and small true effect sizes account for the lack of replicable findings.
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Sex- and subtype-specific analysis of H2AFX polymorphisms in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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H2AFX encodes a histone variant involved in signaling sites of DNA damage and recruiting repair factors. Genetic variants in H2AFX may influence risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), a heterogeneous group of lymphoid tumors that are characterized by chromosomal translocations. We previously reported that rs2509049, a common variant in the promoter of H2AFX, was associated with risk for NHL in the British Columbia population. Here we report results for 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 100 Kb surrounding H2AFX in an expanded collection of 568 NHL cases and 547 controls. After correction for multiple testing, significant associations were present for mantle cell lymphoma (p=0.007 for rs604714) and all B-cell lymphomas (p=0.046 for rs2509049). Strong linkage disequilibrium in the 5 Kb upstream of H2AFX limited the ability to determine which specific SNP (rs2509049, rs7759, rs8551, rs643788, rs604714, or rs603826), if any, was responsible. There was a significant interaction between sex and rs2509049 in the all B-cell lymphomas group (p=0.002); a sex-stratified analysis revealed that the association was confined to females (p=0.001). Neither the overall nor the female-specific association with rs2509049 was replicated in any of four independent NHL sample sets. Meta-analysis of all five study populations (3,882 B-cell NHL cases and 3,718 controls) supported a weak association with B-cell lymphoma (OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.86-0.99, p=0.034), although this association was not significant after exclusion of the British Columbia data. Further research into the potential sex-specificity of the H2AFX-NHL association may identify a subset of NHL cases that are influenced by genotype at this locus.
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Whole transcriptome sequencing reveals recurrent NOTCH1 mutations in mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is characterized by the hallmark translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) and the resulting overexpression of cyclin D1 (CCND1). Our current knowledge of this disease encompasses frequent secondary cytogenetic aberrations and the recurrent mutation of a handful of genes, such as TP53, ATM, and CCND1. However, these findings insufficiently explain the biologic underpinnings of MCL. Here, we performed whole transcriptome sequencing on a discovery cohort of 18 primary tissue MCL samples and 2 cell lines. We found recurrent mutations in NOTCH1, a finding that we confirmed in an extension cohort of 108 clinical samples and 8 cell lines. In total, 12% of clinical samples and 20% of cell lines harbored somatic NOTCH1 coding sequence mutations that clustered in the PEST domain and predominantly consisted of truncating mutations or small frame-shifting indels. NOTCH1 mutations were associated with poor overall survival (P = .003). Furthermore, we showed that inhibition of the NOTCH pathway reduced proliferation and induced apoptosis in 2 MCL cell lines. In summary, we have identified recurrent NOTCH1 mutations that provide the preclinical rationale for therapeutic inhibition of the NOTCH pathway in a subset of patients with MCL.
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MicroRNA profiles of t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphoma support a late germinal center B-cell phenotype.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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A total of 90% of follicular lymphomas (FLs) harbor the translocation t(14;18) leading to deregulated BCL2 expression. Conversely, 10% of FLs lack the t(14;18), and the majority of these FLs do not express BCL2. The molecular features of t(14;18)-negative FLs remain largely unknown. We performed microRNA expression analysis in 32 FL grades 1 to 3A, including 17 t(14;18)-positive FLs, 9 t(14;18)-negative FLs without BCL2 expression, and 6 t(14;18)-negative FLs with BCL2 expression. MicroRNA profiles were correlated with corresponding mRNA expression patterns, and potential targets were investigated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry in an independent validation series of 83 FLs. Statistical analysis identified 17 microRNAs that were differentially expressed between t(14;18)-positive FLs and t(14;18)-negative FLs. The down-regulation of miR-16, miR-26a, miR-101, miR-29c, and miR138 in the t(14;18)-negative FL subset was associated with profound mRNA expression changes of potential target genes involving cell cycle control, apoptosis, and B-cell differentiation. miR-16 target CHEK1 showed increased expression in t(14;18)-negative FLs, whereas TCL1A expression was reduced, in line with a partial loss of the germinal center B-cell phenotype in this FL subset. In conclusion, t(14;18)-negative FL have distinct microRNA profiles that are associated with an increased proliferative capacity and a "late" germinal center B-cell phenotype.
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BCL2 predicts survival in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP-like therapy and rituximab.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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We have previously shown the prognostic significance of BCL2 expression in the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) patients treated with cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapy. However, after the inclusion of rituximab (R) in the CHOP regimen, several conflicting observations about the prognostic value of BCL2 expression have been reported.
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Treating limited-stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma similarly to classical Hodgkin lymphoma with ABVD may improve outcome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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The appropriate therapy for limited-stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is unclear. In contrast to classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), chemotherapy is often omitted; however, it is unknown whether this impacts the risk of relapse. Herein, we compared the outcome of patients with limited-stage NLPHL treated in an era in which ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) chemotherapy was routinely incorporated into the primary therapy to an earlier era in which radiotherapy (RT) was used as a single modality. Using the British Columbia Cancer Agency Lymphoid Cancer Database, 88 patients with limited-stage NLPHL (stage 1A/1B or 2A, nonbulky disease < 10 cm) were identified. Treatment followed era-specific guidelines: before 1993, (n = 32) RT alone; and 1993 to present (n = 56), ABVD-like chemotherapy for 2 cycles followed by RT with the exception of 14 patients who received ABVD chemotherapy alone. Most patients were male (75%) with stage I disease (61%). In an era-to-era comparison, the 10-year time to progression (98% vs 76% P = .0074), progression-free survival (91% vs 65% P = .0024), and OS (93% vs 84%, P = .074) favored the ABVD treatment era compared with the RT alone era. Treating limited-stage NLPHL similarly to CHL may improve outcome compared with the use of radiation alone.
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CD80 (B7.1) is expressed on both malignant B cells and nonmalignant stromal cells in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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CD80 is a member of the B7 family of immune coregulatory proteins that mediate both immune activation and suppression. CD80 in particular has recently been shown to play an important role in supporting immune suppression through interactions with B7-H1. CD80 has been identified as a therapeutic target in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) based on limited immunohistochemical studies of CD80 expression. Clinical studies have shown that the anti-CD80 antibody galiximab is safe and clinically efficacious in follicular NHL. However, the mechanisms through which targeting CD80 inhibits tumor progression remain poorly understood.
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Gray zone lymphoma: chromosomal aberrations with immunophenotypic and clinical correlations.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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The term gray zone lymphoma has been applied to tumors that demonstrate transitional morphologic and immunophenotypic features between classical Hodgkins lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, especially primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Histopathological and genetic data are limited for these unusual cases. We analyzed cases of gray zone lymphoma (n=27), mediastinal composite lymphoma (n=3) and mediastinal synchronous/metachronous lymphoma (n=3) by morphology, immunophenotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mediastinal involvement was assured in 24/33 patients (73%). The patient cohort showed a male predominance (M:F ratio; 20:13) and a median age of 32 years (range, 16-91 years). Patients with mediastinal disease were significantly younger (median age: 29.5 years) than patients presenting without evident mediastinal disease (median age: 55 years). Gains including amplifications in 2p16.1 (REL/BCL11A locus) were observed in 33% of all patients, whereas alterations affecting the JAK2/PDL2 locus in 9p24.1 were present in 55%. Further studies revealed rearrangement of the CIITA locus at 16p13.13 in 8/30 cases (27%) and 7/26 cases (27%) demonstrated gains of 8q24 (MYC). Genetic aberrations involving 2p16.1, 9p24.1 and 8q24 showed a higher incidence in cases with evident mediastinal involvement. However, this was not statistically significant when compared with cases without known mediastinal involvement. Twelve of the 27 cases of gray zone lymphoma were morphologically more reminiscent of classical Hodgkins lymphoma, whereas the other gray zone lymphomas presented with morphological features more closely resembling large B-cell lymphoma. Both morphological groups of gray zone lymphoma were similarly positive for Cyclin E (75 and 93%) and p63 (50 and 53%, respectively) expression. These findings further support a close relationship between gray zone lymphoma, classical Hodgkins lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, and suggest that some cases of gray zone lymphoma without mediastinal disease may share similar genetic alterations.
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Bortezomib ADDED to R-CVP is safe and effective for previously untreated advanced-stage follicular lymphoma: a phase II study by the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Bortezomib has demonstrated promising activity in patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). This is the first study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bortezomib added to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP) in previously untreated advanced-stage FL.
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Frequent mutation of histone-modifying genes in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the two most common non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs). Here we sequenced tumour and matched normal DNA from 13 DLBCL cases and one FL case to identify genes with mutations in B-cell NHL. We analysed RNA-seq data from these and another 113 NHLs to identify genes with candidate mutations, and then re-sequenced tumour and matched normal DNA from these cases to confirm 109 genes with multiple somatic mutations. Genes with roles in histone modification were frequent targets of somatic mutation. For example, 32% of DLBCL and 89% of FL cases had somatic mutations in MLL2, which encodes a histone methyltransferase, and 11.4% and 13.4% of DLBCL and FL cases, respectively, had mutations in MEF2B, a calcium-regulated gene that cooperates with CREBBP and EP300 in acetylating histones. Our analysis suggests a previously unappreciated disruption of chromatin biology in lymphomagenesis.
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The molecular pathogenesis of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is a recognized non-Hodgkin lymphoma entity with unique pathologic, clinical, and molecular characteristics distinct from those of other diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Immunohistochemical characterization and molecular studies strongly suggest that PMBCL is of germinal center or postgerminal center origin. Pivotal gene expression profiling work defined major deregulated pathway activities that overlap with Hodgkin lymphoma and prompted a more detailed analysis of candidate genes. In particular, the nuclear factor-?B and the Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription signaling pathways are targeted by multiple genomic hits, and constitutive activity of both pathways can be considered molecular hallmark alterations of PMBCL. Moreover, data are emerging giving unique insight into remodeling of the epigenome that affects transcriptional regulation of a multitude of genes. More recently, the tumor microenvironment of PMBCL has shifted into focus based on a number of gene perturbations altering expression of surface molecules that contribute to immune escape. These findings highlight the importance of immune privilege in the pathogenesis of PMBCL and suggest that disrupting crosstalk between the tumor cells and the microenvironment might be a rational new therapeutic target in conjunction with traditional treatment strategies.
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Prediction of survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on the expression of 2 genes reflecting tumor and microenvironment.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Several gene-expression signatures predict survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the lack of practical methods for genome-scale analysis has limited translation to clinical practice. We built and validated a simple model using one gene expressed by tumor cells and another expressed by host immune cells, assessing added prognostic value to the clinical International Prognostic Index (IPI). LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) was validated as an independent predictor of survival and the "germinal center B cell-like" subtype. Expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) from the DLBCL microenvironment was the best gene in bivariate combination with LMO2. Study of TNFRSF9 tissue expression in 95 patients with DLBCL showed expression limited to infiltrating T cells. A model integrating these 2 genes was independent of "cell-of-origin" classification, "stromal signatures," IPI, and added to the predictive power of the IPI. A composite score integrating these genes with IPI performed well in 3 independent cohorts of 545 DLBCL patients, as well as in a simple assay of routine formalin-fixed specimens from a new validation cohort of 147 patients with DLBCL. We conclude that the measurement of a single gene expressed by tumor cells (LMO2) and a single gene expressed by the immune microenvironment (TNFRSF9) powerfully predicts overall survival in patients with DLBCL.
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Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma: clinical and histological findings from the international peripheral T-cell lymphoma project.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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Few large, international series of enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) have been reported. We studied a cohort of 62 patients with EATL among 1153 patients with peripheral T-cell or natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma from 22 centers worldwide. The diagnosis was made by a consensus panel of 4 expert hematopathologists using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Clinical correlations and survival analyses were performed. EATL comprised 5.4% of all lymphomas in the study and was most common in Europe (9.1%), followed by North America (5.8%) and Asia (1.9%). EATL type 1 was more common (66%) than type 2 (34%), and was especially frequent in Europe (79%). A clinical diagnosis of celiac sprue was made in 32.2% of the patients and was associated with both EATL type 1 and type 2. The median overall survival was only 10 months, and the median failure-free survival was only 6 months. The International Prognostic Index (IPI) was not as good a predictor of survival as the Prognostic Index for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PIT). Clinical sprue predicted for adverse survival independently of the PIT. Neither EATL subtype nor other biologic parameters accurately predicted survival. Our study confirms the poor prognosis of patients with EATL and the need for improved treatment options.
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Transformation of follicular lymphoma.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Histological transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL) to a more aggressive non-Hodgkins lymphomas is a pivotal event in the natural history of FL and is associated with poor outcome. While commonly observed in clinical practice and despite multiple studies designed to address its pathogenesis, the biology of this process represents an enigma. In this chapter we present a state of the art review summarizing the definition of histologic transformation, its incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome. Furthermore, we specifically emphasize gaps in our knowledge that should be addressed in future studies.
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High microvessel density determines a poor outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling studies have shown that the tumor microenvironment affects survival and that the angiogenesis-related signature is prognostically unfavorable. The contribution of histopathological microvessel density to survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas treated with immunochemotherapy remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess the prognostic impact of histopathological microvessel density in two independent series of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy.
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Prognostic significance of immunohistochemical biomarkers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a study from the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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The Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium (LLBC) evaluated the prognostic value of IHC biomarkers in a large series of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Clinical data and tumor samples were retrieved from 12 studies from Europe and North America, with patients treated before or after the rituximab era. Using tissue microarrays from 1514 patients, IHC for BCL2, BCL6, CD5, CD10, MUM1, Ki67, and HLA-DR was performed and scored according to previously validated protocols. Optimal cut points predicting overall survival of patients treated in the rituximab era could only be determined for CD5 (P = .003) and Ki67 (P = .02), whereas such cut points for BCL2, BCL6, HLA-DR, and MUM1 could only be defined in patients not receiving rituximab. A prognostic model for patients treated in the rituximab era identified 4 risk groups using BCL2, Ki67, and International Prognostic Index (IPI) with improved discrimination of low-risk patients. Newly recognized correlations between specific biomarkers and IPI highlight the importance of carefully controlling for clinical and biologic factors in prognostic models. These data demonstrate that the IPI remains the best available index in patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab and chemotherapy.
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MicroRNAs are independent predictors of outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) heterogeneity has prompted investigations for new biomarkers that can accurately predict survival. A previously reported 6-gene model combined with the International Prognostic Index (IPI) could predict patients outcome. However, even these predictors are not capable of unambiguously identifying outcome, suggesting that additional biomarkers might improve their predictive power.
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MYC and aggressive B-cell lymphomas.
Adv Anat Pathol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Rearrangement of the proto-oncogene MYC leads to MYC protein deregulation and is an important driver of oncogenic transformation. MYC rearrangement is a recurring genetic abnormality in several aggressive B-cell lymphomas including: Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma; rare de novo acute lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia, transformed follicular lymphoma, and plasmablastic lymphoma. Important distinctions in the role of MYC in these tumors likely reflect whether it is a primary or secondary genetic event. The presence of a MYC rearrangement in these diseases has diagnostic and prognostic implications and it is important for the practicing anatomic pathologist to be familiar with these issues when diagnosing aggressive B-cell lymphomas. This review provides a brief overview of MYC biology; shows the clinical and pathologic features of the aggressive B-cell lymphomas that harbor recurrent MYC rearrangements; explores the diagnostic and clinical implications of MYC rearrangements in these diseases; and outlines the techniques available to the anatomic pathologist to detect MYC deregulation.
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Peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of clinically aggressive diseases associated with poor outcome. Studies that focus specifically on PTCL are emerging, with the ultimate goal of improved understanding of disease biology and the development of more effective therapies. However, one of the difficulties in classifying and studying treatment options in clinical trials is the rarity of these subtypes. Various groups have developed lymphoma classifications over the years, including the World Health Organization, which updated its classification in 2008. This article briefly reviews the major lymphoma classification schema, highlights contributions made by the collaborative International PTCL Project, discusses prognostic issues and gene expression profiling, and outlines therapeutic approaches to PTCL. These include the standard chemotherapeutic regimens and other modalities incorporating antifolates, conjugates, histone deacetylase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, nucleoside analogs, proteasome inhibitors, and signaling inhibitors. As this review emphasizes, the problem has now evolved into an abundance of drugs and too few patients available to test them. Collaborative groups will aid in future efforts to find the best treatment strategies to improve the outcome for patients with PTCL.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.