Physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction, but the effects of exercise on platelet activation remain controversial. We investigated the effects of regular high-amount, high intensity aerobic exercise on in vivo thromboxane (TX)-dependent platelet activation and plasma levels of platelet-derived proteins, CD40L and P-selectin, and whether platelet variables changes may be related to changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and in the extent of oxidative stress and oxidative stress-related inflammation, as reflected by urinary isoprostane excretion and endogenous soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (esRAGE), respectively. Urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2? and plasma levels of P-selectin, CD40L and esRAGE were measured before and after a eight-week standardised aerobic high-amount-high-intensity training program in 22 sedentary subjects with low-to-intermediate risk. Exercise training had a clear beneficial effect on HDL cholesterol (+10%, p=0.027) and triglyceride (-27%, p=0.008) concentration. In addition, a significant (p<0.0001) decrease in urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 (26%), 8-iso-PGF2? (21%), plasma P-selectin (27%), CD40L (35%) and a 61% increase in esRAGE were observed. Multiple regression analysis revealed that urinary 8-iso-PGF2? [beta=0.33, SEM=0.116, p=0.027] and esRAGE (beta=-0.30, SEM=31.3, p=0.046) were the only significant predictors of urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion rate over the training period. In conclusion, regular high-amount-high-intensity exercise training has broad beneficial effects on platelet activation markers, paralleled and possibly associated with changes in the lipoprotein profile and in markers of lipid peroxidation and AGE/RAGE axis. Our findings may help explaining why a similar amount of exercise exerts significant benefits in preventing cardiovascular events.
Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are major predictors of cardiovascular (CV) events, even in patients on statin treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) at target. In animal models HDLs protect LDL from oxidation and blunt platelet activation. Our study aimed to examine whether HDL levels are related to in vivo oxidative stress and platelet activation, as determinants of atherothrombosis.
A number of factors, including body mass and ones mood, may influence posture. Breast augmentation results not only in a significant improvement in body image-related feelings and self-esteem but also in a sudden change in body mass. The aim of this study was to assess postural changes following breast augmentation by studying body position, orientation through space, and center of pressure.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute and long-term effects of local high-intensity vibration (HLV, f = 300 Hz) on muscle performance and blood hormone concentrations in healthy young men. Totally 18 subjects (cV group) were studied in two sessions, either without (control) or with HLV treatment. The protocol was the same on both control and test days, except that, in the second session, subjects underwent HLV treatment. Counter-movement jumping (CMJ), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) test, and hormonal levels were measured before the procedure, immediately thereafter, and 1 h later. To assess the long-term effects of HLV, the cV group was subjected to HLV on the leg muscles for 4 weeks, and a second group (cR group, n = 18) embarked upon a resistance training program. All subjects underwent an MVC test and an isokinetic (100 deg/s) test before training, 4 weeks after training, and 2 months after the end of training. The HLV protocol significantly increased the serum level of growth hormone (GH, P < 0.05) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK, P < 0.05), and decreased the level of cortisol (P < 0.05). None of GH, CPK or testosterone levels were altered in controls. There was a significant improvement in MVC (P < 0.05). After 4 weeks, both the cV and cR groups demonstrated significant improvement in MVC and isokinetic tests (P < 0.05). This increase persisted for at least 2 months. Our results indicate that HLV influences the levels of particular hormones and improves neuromuscular performance. Our results indicate that HLV has a long-term beneficial effect comparable to that of resistance training.
Myositis ossificans (MO) is a fairly common evolution in sports activity and can be due to direct trauma or to repeated micro-injuries. The traditional therapeutic approach relies on a variety of treatments, such as physical therapy but evidence of their proven clinical efficacy is lacking. The latest therapeutic option is surgical removal but this is a demolitive procedure and is frequently associated with a significant loss of functional integrity. There are few articles in literature about the treatment of post-traumatic MO, and none on extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT). We illustrate a case series of 24 sportsmen treated with three sessions of electro-hydraulic shockwave therapy and an associated rehabilitation program. Only a partial reduction of the ossification was observed in the X-ray images but all the patients showed signs of functional improvement immediately after therapy. Two months after the therapy, a normal range of motion and no signs of weakness were observed. Three months after treatment, 87.5% of patients resumed regular sports activities.
Several studies have examined the effects of vibrations on muscle mass and performance in young healthy people. We studied the effects of vibrations on muscles of elderly male and female volunteers (65-85 years of age) diagnosed with sarcopenia. We applied mechanical vibrations locally (local vibrational training) to the thigh muscles at 300 Hz for a period of 12 weeks, starting with a session of 15 min stimulation once a week and increasing to three sessions of 15 min per week. Treated muscles displayed enhanced maximal isometric strength and increased content of fast MyHC-2X myosin. Single muscle fiber analysis did not show any change in cross-sectional area or in specific tension. Analysis of transcriptional profiles by microarray revealed changes in gene expression after 12 weeks of local vibrational training. In particular, pathways related with energy metabolism, sarcomeric protein balance and oxidative stress response were affected. We conclude that vibration treatment is effective in counteracting the loss of muscular strength associated with sarcopenia and the mode of action of vibration is based on cellular and molecular changes which do not include increase in fiber or muscle size.
Unsteadiness, dizziness and vertigo occur more frequently in hypertensive subjects, compared to the normal ones. This study evaluated the influence of hypertension on balance tests, performed on posturographic platform. The study pool consisted of 112 persons aged 65 and older (65 hypertensives), their mean age was 72.9+/-0.5, scored on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) greater than 24, were able to perform self-care activities, to walk independently for at least 400 m and were free from major diseases. Subjective dizziness and vertigo were assessed by means of Sickness-Impact-Profile-Questionnaire (SIPQ). The static posturographic tests were performed on a vertical force platform, from which the center of foot pressure (COP) positions and displacements were recorded. In balance tests three standardized positions were utilized: feet 30 degrees apart, semitandem and tandem. Subjects with hypertension complained more frequently dizziness and vertigo (41.5% vs. 21.3%). The track-length and COP-velocity were associated with age in all the balance tests. In semitandem and tandem positions, the medio-lateral sway distance significantly increased in elderly subjects compared to young controls. No difference, however, was found in balance tests between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Those with uncomplicated hypertension compared with normo-tensive subjects, although complaining more frequently symptoms of postural instability, did not show worse performances in static posturographic tests.
Numerous factors such as the equilibrium of body masses and psychological status influence human posture. Breast reduction, on the one hand, produces a sudden change in this equilibrium, and on the other hand, it can modify the psychological status, significantly improving body image and self-esteem. This study aimed to assess postural changes after breast reduction by studying the position and orientation in space of the body and center of pressure.
The aetiological aspects as well as postural attitude implications represent an open question in scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is often recognised in scoliotic patients, but surprisingly still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge corrections in order to compensate pelvis tilt. In fact, literature reports conflicting results on the efficacy of LLD equalization also given the argued uncertainty of LLD clinical assessment and limitations related to X-ray measurements. Moreover concern is about anatomic and functional LLD and associated estimation of the pelvic torsion. In such a topic, a significant helpful tool has been demonstrated to be 3D kinematic optoelectronic measurements and other useful data obtained from force platforms and/or baropodographic systems. 135 (94.4%) out of 143 Scoliotic patients sample (av. age 16.4±10.2 Y range 4-66 Y), have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 143 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of ?=10.2±5.2mm associated to a mean main scoliotic curve ?=16.4°±9.4° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset ?=7.5±5.5mm and mean Global offset ?=10.1±7.1mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered postural parameters, after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The present investigation confirm results of a previous study demonstrating the efficacy of under-foot wedge use in leg asymmetry correction, posture re-balancing and spine deformities reduction, pointing out the significant contribution of the 3D opto-electronic measurement approach in the critical process of assessing the correct under-foot wedge size, therapy planning and monitoring.
Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) is very often associated to Low Back Pain (LBP), but still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge correction (heel rise) to re-balance pelvis and trunk posture. In a review of our last 5 years clinical activity we observed that more than 70% out of 300 LBP patients presented a LLD. In more than 80 % we ascertained, via Baropodography, the presence of underfoot asymmetric load, during standing. More durable therapy recovery effect has been observed when LLD correction had been adopted. These reasons led us to start a study to assess if a Full 3D multifactorial Posture evaluation approach, by means of Opto-electronic device associated to foot pressure maps recording, was able to quantitatively discriminate the clinically observed phenomena. On a 94 LBP (av. age 46.3±16 Y range 15-82 Y) patients sample, 83 (88%) have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 94 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of ?=8±3.2mm associated to a mean scoliotic lumbar curve ?=10.5°±5.1° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset ?=6.6±4.9mm and mean Global offset 10.7±8.8mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered parameters, both in rebalancing and in spine deformities reduction after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The joint 3D opto-electronic and foot pressure map approach proved to be effective to control several clinical parameters with statistical significance.
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