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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Synthesis and anti-proliferative activities of new derivatives of embelin.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Embelin (1), a benzoquinone isolated from Embelia ribes is known to possess variety of biological activities. Despite of several promising biological activities, preclinical efforts on embelin were hampered because of its poor aqueous solubility. In order to address the solubility issue, herein, we have synthesized a series of Mannich products of embelin by treating it with various secondary amines. The synthesized compounds were screened for antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities. In cytotoxicity screening, the benzyl-piperidine linked derivative 8m was found to possess better antiproliferative activity compared to parent natural product embelin against a panel of cell lines including HCT-116, MCF-7, MIAPaCa-2 and PC-3 with IC50 values of 30, 41, 34 and 36?M, respectively. The mechanistic study of compound 8m revealed that it exhibits cytotoxicity via induction of apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential loss. Further, the compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity where dimethylamino- 8a and piperidine linked derivative 8b displayed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 8 and 16?g/mL, respectively. Mannich derivatives did now show improved aqueous solubility, however their hydrochloride salts 8a·HCl, 8b·HCl and 8m·HCl showed significantly improved aqueous solubility without affecting biological activities of parent Mannich derivatives.
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DNA barcoding using skin exuviates can improve identification and biodiversity studies of snakes.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Abstract Snakes represent a taxonomically underdeveloped group of animals in India with a lack of experts and incomplete taxonomic descriptions being the main deterrents to advances in this area. Molecular taxonomic approaches using DNA barcoding could aid in snake identification as well as studies of biodiversity. Here a non-invasive sampling method using DNA barcoding is tested using skin exuviates. Taxonomically authenticated samples were collected and tested for validation and comparisons to unknown snake exuviate samples. This approach was also used to construct the first comprehensive study targeting the snake species from Maharashtra state in India. A total of 92 skin exuviate samples were collected and tested for this study. Of these, 81 samples were successfully DNA barcoded and compared with unknown samples for assignment of taxonomic identity. Good quality DNA was obtained irrespective of age and quality of the exuviate material, and all unknown samples were successfully identified. A total of 23 species of snakes were identified, six of which were in the list of Endangered species (Red Data Book). Intra- and inter-specific distance values were also calculated, and these were sufficient to allow discrimination among species and between species without ambiguity in most cases. Two samples were suspected to represent cryptic species based on deep K2P divergence values (>3%), and one sample could be identified to the genus level only. Eleven samples failed to amplify COI sequences, suggesting the need for alternative PCR primer pairs. This study clearly documents how snake skin exuviates can be used for DNA barcoding, estimates of diversity and population genetic structuring in a noninvasive manner.
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Item and Test Analysis to Identify Quality Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) from an Assessment of Medical Students of Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
Indian J Community Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are frequently used to assess students in different educational streams for their objectivity and wide reach of coverage in less time. However, the MCQs to be used must be of quality which depends upon its difficulty index (DIF I), discrimination index (DI) and distracter efficiency (DE).
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Documentation quality of inpatient code status discussions.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Accurate documentation of inpatient code status discussions (CSDs) is important because of frequent patient care handoffs.
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Human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize vaccine and wild-type poliovirus strains.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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An essential requirement for eradication of poliomyelitis is the elimination of circulating vaccine derived polioviruses (cVDPV) and polioviruses excreted by chronically infected individuals with immunodeficiencies (iVDPV). As part of a post-eradication risk management strategy, a human monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutic could play a role in halting excretion in asymptomatic carriers and could be used, in combination with vaccines and antiviral drugs, to protect polio-exposed individuals. Cross-neutralizing mAbs may be particularly useful, as they would reduce the number of mAbs needed to create a comprehensive PV therapeutic. We cloned a panel of IgG mAbs from OPV-vaccinated, IPV-boosted healthy subjects. Many of the mAbs had potent neutralizing activities against PV wild-type (WT) and Sabin strains, and two of the mAbs, 12F8 and 1E4, were significantly cross-reactive against types 1 and 2 and types 1 and 3, respectively. Mapping the binding epitopes using strains resistant to neutralization (escape mutants) suggested that cross-specific PV binding epitopes may primarily reside within the canyon region, which interacts with the cellular receptor molecule CD155 and the cross-neutralizing chimpanzee/human mAb, A12. Despite their close proximity, the epitopes for the 12F8 and 1E4 mAbs on Sabin 1 were not functionally identical to the A12 epitope. When tested together, 12F8 and 1E4 neutralized a diverse panel of clinically relevant PV strains and did not exhibit interference. Virus mutants resistant to the anti-poliovirus drug V-073 were also neutralized by the mAbs. The 12F8 and 1E4 mAbs may suitable for use as anti-PV therapeutics.
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Unpacking resident-led code status discussions: results from a mixed methods study.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The quality of code status discussions (CSDs) is suboptimal as physicians often fail to discuss patients' goals of care and resuscitation outcomes. We previously demonstrated that internal medicine residents randomized to a communication skills intervention scored higher than controls on a CSD checklist using a standardized patient. However, the impact of this training on CSD content is unknown.
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Family matters: effects of birth order, culture, and family dynamics on surrogate decision-making.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Cultural attitudes about medical decision-making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English and Spanish speakers from county and Veterans Affairs hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants' experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision-making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis, and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 ± 14, and 29% were African American, 26% were white, 26% were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within three overarching categories: communication (unspoken expectations and discussion of death as taboo), emotion (emotional stress and feelings of loneliness), and conflict (family conflict and potential solutions to prevent conflict). These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict.
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Epidemiological and investigative study of premature graying of hair in higher secondary and pre-university school children.
Int J Trichology
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes in humans ranging from black, brown, and blonde to red. Premature graying of hair occurs more commonly without any underlying pathology but is said to be inherited in autosomal dominant pattern. Premature graying has been shown to be associated with a few of the autoimmune disorders. A role for environmental factors and nutritional deficiencies has also been postulated. However, to date the exact etiology of premature graying has not been established.
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Triazino indole-quinoline hybrid: A novel approach to antileishmanial agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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A novel series of 1,2,4-triazino-[5,6b]indole-3-thione covalently linked to 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro activity against extracellular promastigote and intracellular amastigote form of Leishmania donovani. Among all tested compounds, compounds 7a and 7b were found to be the most active with IC50 values 1.11, 0.36?M and selectivity index (SI) values 67, >1111, respectively, against amastigote form of L. donovani which is several folds more potent than the standard drugs, miltefosine (IC50=8.10?M, SI=7) and sodium stibo-gluconate (IC50=54.60?M, SI?7).
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Mechanisms of enhanced neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin by monoclonal antibodies conjugated to antibodies specific for the erythrocyte complement receptor.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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Immune complexes formed between monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and toxins can neutralize toxicity in vivo by multiple mechanisms. Toxin sequestration and clearance by mAbs may be improved by enhancing their ability to bind to red blood cells (RBCs) through immune adherence. This can be achieved by converting the mAbs to heteropolymers (HPs), which are antigen-specific mAbs cross-linked to mAbs targeting the complement receptor (CR1), a protein that is expressed on the surface of RBCs in primates and mediates delivery of complement C3b-containing immune complexes to tissue macrophages. Conversion of mAbs to HPs has been shown to enhance clearance of multivalent antigens from the blood circulation, but the interaction of HPs with monovalent toxins has not been examined. Using botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) as a model system, we studied the effect of conversion of a pair of BoNT-specific mAbs into HPs on toxin neutralization and handling in vivo. Two HPs given in combination had 166-fold greater potency than un-modified mAbs, neutralizing 5000 LD50 BoNT, when tested in transgenic mice expressing human CR1 on RBC membranes. Improvement required adherence of BoNT to the RBC in vivo and 2 HPs, rather than an HP+mAb pair. The HP pair bound BoNT to RBCs in the circulation for 2h, in comparison to BoNT-neutralizing anti-serum, which induced no detectable RBC binding. HP pairs exhibited enhanced uptake by peritoneal macrophages in vitro, compared to pairs of mAbs or mAb+HP pairs. In a post-exposure therapeutic model, HPs gave complete protection from a lethal BoNT dose up to 3h after toxin exposure. In a pre-exposure prophylaxis model, mice given HP up to 5 days prior to BoNT administration were fully protected from a lethal BoNT dose. These studies elucidate general mechanisms for the neutralization of toxins by HP pairs and demonstrate the potential utility of HPs as BoNT therapeutics.
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Synthesis and evaluation of 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(4-(2-(4-substitutedpiperazin-1-yl)acetyl)piperazin-1-yl)quinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives as anti-tubercular and antibacterial agents.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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A series of twenty two novel 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-(4-substitutedpiperazin-1-yl)-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid analogues were synthesized, characterized ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LCMS) and screened for their in vitro anti-tubercular and antibacterial activity. Many of these compounds exhibited MIC values in the range 7.32-136.10 ?M against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Eight compounds were further subjected to cytotoxic studies. Furthermore, the title compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (gram positive) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (gram negative) bacteria. Many of these compounds exhibited MIC values in the range 0.44-34.02 ?M. Compound 3f was found to be the most active with an MIC of 0.44 and 0.8 ?M respectively against both the strains. In general, the antibacterial activity of title compounds was more prominent.
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Effects of Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) Form and Administration Mode on PABA Recovery in 24-Hour Urine Collections.
J Acad Nutr Diet
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has long been used as an objective measure to assess completeness of 24-hour urine collections. However, pharmaceutical-grade PABA for human ingestion is not available in the United States. An alternative, the potassium salt of PABA, aminobenzoate potassium, can be obtained for clinical use, although it has not yet been validated in this role. Both PABA and aminobenzoate potassium can be directly ingested in their tablet or capsule forms or added to food before consumption. Our aim was to investigate the effect of form (PABA vs aminobenzoate potassium) and administration mode (directly ingested as a tablet/capsule vs added to food) on urinary PABA recovery levels. Twenty healthy participants underwent 3 test days separated by two 24-hour wash-out periods. Three test conditions, one on each test day, were investigated in randomized order: PABA tablet, aminobenzoate potassium capsule, and PABA or aminobenzoate potassium in food. Ingestion of each dose was supervised and participants performed the 24-hour urine collections while free-living. The 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for PABA recovery (%R) levels using a colorimetric assay. Recoveries 85% to 110% were deemed complete and those >110% were reanalyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Only complete collections (>85%R) were included in analyses. The recovery for the PABA tablet, aminobenzoate potassium capsule, and PABA/aminobenzoate potassium in food were similar at 98.8%R±2.0%R, 95.1%R±2.3%R, and 93.2%R±2.1%R, respectively, and did not differ significantly. These results suggest that aminobenzoate potassium may be used as an alternative to PABA for assessing the completeness of 24-hour urine collections and to track compliance with consuming provided diets in community-dwelling studies.
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Anti-tubercular agents. Part 8: Synthesis, antibacterial and antitubercular activity of 5-nitrofuran based 1,2,3-triazoles.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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A series of 5-nitrofuran-triazole conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. All the compounds exhibited promising inhibition towards Gram-positive pathogenic strains, while mild inhibitory effects were observed towards Gram-negative bacterial strains. Some of the compounds 8a, 8b, 8e, 8f, 8h are most active among the series exhibiting MIC value of 1.17?g/ml against different bacterial strains. The bactericidal activity is found to be in accordance with the bacterial growth inhibition data. Compound 8e was found to be equipotent to the standard drug Ciprofloxacin displaying MBC value of 1.17?g/ml against the bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis. The compounds have also demonstrated promising antibacterial activity against the resistant strain MRSA and were found to be effective inhibitors of biofilm formation. The compound 8b exhibited excellent anti-biofilm activity with IC50 value as low as 0.8?g/ml. These conjugates were also screened for antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Compound 8e showed promising antitubercular activity with MIC value of 0.25?g/ml. Most of these compounds are less toxic to normal mammalian cells than the widely used antibacterial drug Ciprofloxacin.
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Legionella pneumonia cases over a five-year period: a descriptive, retrospective study of outcomes in a UK district hospital.
Clin Med
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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As the recent outbreaks in Edinburgh and Camarthen, UK, have shown, Legionella pneumonia (LP) remains a significant public health problem, which is not only confined to those who have travelled abroad. In both outbreaks and sporadic cases, diagnosis can go unrecognised. We reviewed the demographics, comorbidities, diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcome of LP cases over five years in a district general hospital in northwest England. Over half of LP cases were UK acquired and classic clinical features were common. Clinical criteria for diagnosing LP were confirmed, but few sputum samples were sent to reference laboratories, limiting further essential epidemiological mapping of UK cases. Following current UK community-acquired pneumonia guidance would have missed nearly one quarter of LP cases in our series, potentially leading to further morbidity and mortality.
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Synthesis of perspicamide A and related diverse analogues: their bioevaluation as potent antileishmanial agents.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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The first protocol for the synthesis of perspicamide A and related diverse analogues has been developed from economical and readily available starting materials. Furthermore, a few synthesized analogues, 24a, 24b, 24c, 24d, and 24l, exhibited potent activity against Leishmania donovani with IC(50) values ranging from 3.75 to 10.37 ?M and a selectivity index (SI) ranging from 9.58 to 53.12, which is improved compared to the standard drug Miltefosine (IC(50) 12.4 ?M and SI 4.1).
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Structure-activity relationships of 6-(aminomethylphenoxy)-benzoxaborole derivatives as anti-inflammatory agent.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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A series of novel 6-(aminomethylphenoxy)benzoxaborole analogs was synthesized for the investigation of the structure-activity relationship of the inhibition of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6, from lipopolysaccharide stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compounds 9d and 9e showed potent activity against all three cytokines with IC50 values between 33 and 83nM. Chloro substituted analog 9e (AN3485) is considered to be a promising lead for novel anti-inflammatory agent with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile.
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Discovery of a novel class of boron-based antibacterials with activity against gram-negative bacteria.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Gram-negative bacteria cause approximately 70% of the infections in intensive care units. A growing number of bacterial isolates responsible for these infections are resistant to currently available antibiotics and to many in development. Most agents under development are modifications of existing drug classes, which only partially overcome existing resistance mechanisms. Therefore, new classes of Gram-negative antibacterials with truly novel modes of action are needed to circumvent these existing resistance mechanisms. We have previously identified a new a way to inhibit an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), in fungi via the oxaborole tRNA trapping (OBORT) mechanism. Herein, we show how we have modified the OBORT mechanism using a structure-guided approach to develop a new boron-based antibiotic class, the aminomethylbenzoxaboroles, which inhibit bacterial leucyl-tRNA synthetase and have activity against Gram-negative bacteria by largely evading the main efflux mechanisms in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The lead analogue, AN3365, is active against Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae bearing NDM-1 and KPC carbapenemases, as well as P. aeruginosa. This novel boron-based antibacterial, AN3365, has good mouse pharmacokinetics and was efficacious against E. coli and P. aeruginosa in murine thigh infection models, which suggest that this novel class of antibacterials has the potential to address this unmet medical need.
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EGFR mutations in Indian lung cancer patients: clinical correlation and outcome to EGFR targeted therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Screening for EGFR mutation is a key molecular test for management of lung cancer patients. Outcome of patients with mutation receiving EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor is known to be better across different ethnic populations. However, frequency of EGFR mutations and the clinical response in most other ethnic populations, including India, remains to be explored. We conducted a retrospective analysis of Indian lung cancer patients who were managed with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Majority of the patients in the study had adenocarcinoma and were non-smokers. 39/111 patients tested positive for EGFR kinase domain mutations determined by Taqman based real time PCR. The overall response to oral TKI therapy was 30%. Patients with an activating mutation of EGFR had a response rate of 74%, while the response rate in patients with wild type EGFR was 5%, which was a statistically significant difference. Progression free survival of patients with EGFR mutations was 10 months compared to 2 months for EGFR mutation negative patients. Overall survival was 19 months for EGFR mutation patients and 13 months for mutation negative patients. This study emphasizes EGFR mutation as an important predictive marker for response to oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the Indian population.
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Association between indoor fungi in Delhi homes and sensitization in children with respiratory allergy.
Med. Mycol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Indoor fungi are potential sensitizing agents in children and their detection and quantification in indoor air are important in the diagnosis and environmental management of fungal allergies. The objective of this investigation was to assess the prevalence of fungal allergies in children in Delhi and to study the association between mold counts in the homes of children and their sensitization to respective fungal extracts. Fungal concentrations and seasonality were studied at two-week intervals for one year using Andersen Volumetric and Burkard Slide samplers. Sensitization to fungi frequently encountered in patients homes was assessed by Skin Prick Tests (SPTs). Total fungal specific IgE was measured by ELISA in the sera of patients positive to fungal extracts. Skin Prick Tests revealed that 39.3% (33/84) of patients were markedly positive (2 + and above) to one or the other fungal allergens. Raised serum IgE to predominant indoor fungal species was observed in patients with marked SPT results. Highest marked skin reactivity (2 + and above) was obtained with Alternaria alternata allergens in 17.9% of the children, which was followed by the response to fungal antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium citrinum (15.5%). Exposure to high fungal counts of some dominant fungi (Penicillium, A. nidulans and A. fumigatus) was found associated with increased fungal sensitization in the patients. Total serum IgE level was revealed to be significantly linked with the intensity of skin reactions, as well as with skin index (r(2) = 0.052; P < 0.05). We concluded that children in Delhi are exposed to high concentrations of fungi in the indoor environment and that respiratory allergies were connected with higher prevalence of skin sensitization.
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Profile of HIV-positives and determinants with mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral treatment center at civil hospital, Ahmedabad.
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2011
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Improved antiretroviral treatment (ART) access reduces AIDS mortality and lowers HIV incidence by reducing the viral load at the individual/community level.
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Internet health information seeking behavior and antiretroviral adherence in persons living with HIV/AIDS.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Abstract While the Internet has the potential to educate persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), websites may contain inaccurate information and increase the risk of nonadherence with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The objectives of our study were to determine the extent to which PLWHA engage in Internet health information seeking behavior (IHISB) and to determine whether IHISB is associated with ART adherence. We conducted a survey of adult, English-speaking HIV-infected patients at four HIV outpatient clinic sites in the United States (Baltimore, Maryland; Detroit, Michigan; New York, and Portland, Oregon) between December 2004 and January 2006. We assessed IHISB by asking participants how much information they had received from the Internet since acquiring HIV. The main outcome was patient-reported ART adherence over the past three days. Data were available on IHISB for 433 patients, 334 of whom were on ART therapy. Patients had a mean age of 45 (standard error [SE] 0.45) years and were mostly male (66%), African American (58%), and had attained a high school degree (73%). Most (55%) reported no IHISB, 18% reported some, and 27% reported "a fair amount" or "a great deal." Patients who reported higher versus lower levels of IHISB were significantly younger, had achieved a higher level of education, and had higher medication self-efficacy. In unadjusted analyses, higher IHISB was associated with ART adherence (odds ratio [OR], 2.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-6.94). This association persisted after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, clinic site, and medication self-efficacy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.76, 95% CI 1.11-6.87). Our findings indicate that IHISB is positively associated with ART adherence even after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Future studies should investigate the ways in which Internet health information may promote medication adherence among PLWHA.
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Traditional expectations versus US realities: first- and second-generation Asian Indian perspectives on end-of-life care.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Although end-of-life care preferences vary across racial/ethnic groups, little is known about how cultural values affect end-of-life care preferences among South Asian immigrants and their offspring in the US.
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Allosteric effects of sulfonate anions on the rates of iron release from serum transferrin.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Serum transferrin is the protein that transports ferric ion through the bloodstream and is thus a potential target for iron chelation therapy. However, the release of iron from transferrin to low-molecular-weight chelating agents is usually quite slow. Thus a better understanding of the mechanism for iron release is important to assist in the design of more effective agents for iron removal. This paper describes the effect of sulfonate anions on the rates of iron removal from C-terminal monoferric transferrin by acetohydroxamic acid, deferiprone, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid at 25°C in 0.1M N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N-(2-ethanesulfonic acid) (Hepes) buffer at pH 7.4. These ligands remove iron via a combination of pathways that show saturation and first order dependence on the ligand concentration. The kinetic effects of the anions methanesulfonate, methylenedisulfonate, and ethylenedisulfonate were evaluated. All these anions increase the overall rates of iron release, presumably by binding to an allosteric anion binding site on the protein. The two disulfonates produce a larger acceleration in iron release than the monosulfonate. More detailed studies using methylenedisulfonate show that this anion accelerates the rate of iron release via the saturation pathway. The addition of methylenedisulfonate results in the appearance of a large saturation pathway for iron release by NTA, which otherwise removes iron by a simple first-order process. The sulfonate group was selected for these studies because it represents an anionic functional group that can be covalently linked to a therapeutic ligand to accelerate iron release in vivo. The current studies indicate that the binding of the sulfonates to the allosteric site on the protein is quite weak, so that one would not expect a significant acceleration in iron release at clinically relevant ligand concentrations.
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Documentation of information and care planning for patients with advanced cancer: associations with patient characteristics and utilization of hospital care.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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We evaluated the association between patient characteristics, utilization of care, and documentation of information and care planning.
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Family understanding of seriously-ill patient preferences for family involvement in healthcare decision making.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Surrogate accuracy in predicting patient treatment preferences (i.e., what patients want) has been studied extensively, but it is not known whether surrogates can predict how patients want loved ones to make end-of-life decisions on their behalf.
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Quality of end-of-life care for patients with advanced cancer in an academic medical center.
J Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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We assessed key aspects of the quality of end-of-life care using validated explicit process quality measures in an academic medical center (hospital and cancer center) before expanding to a broader palliative care initiative.
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Characterization and phylogenetic diversity of carboxymethyl cellulase producing bacillus species from a landfill ecosystem.
Indian J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2011
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Total population of cellulose degrading bacteria was studied in a landfill ecosystem as a part of microbial diversity study. Samples were obtained from 3 and 5 feet depth of a local landfill being operated for past 10 years. Among many isolates, 22 bacterial strains were selected based on their capability to decompose carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). These isolates were cultivated on agar medium with CMC as the carbon source. All isolates were Gram positive, endospore forming and alkalophilic bacteria with optimum growth pH 9-10. They were grouped based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characters and representative strains of different groups along with high carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) producing strains were included for further characterization. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene indicated that these strains belong to different species of the genus Bacillus. Maximum CMCase activity of 4.8 U/ml at 50°C was obtained by strain LFC15. Results in the present study indicated the potential of waste land ecosystems such as landfill are potential source for isolation of industrially important microorganisms.
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Indoor fungal concentration in the homes of allergic/asthmatic children in Delhi, India.
Allergy Rhinol (Providence)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Allergy to fungi has been linked to a wide range of illnesses, including rhinitis and asthma. Therefore, exposure to fungi in home environment is an important factor for fungal allergy. The present study was aimed to investigate types of airborne fungi inside and outside the homes of asthmatic children and control subjects (nonasthmatic children). The dominant fungi were evaluated for their quantitative distribution and seasonal variation. The air samples were collected from indoors and immediate outdoors of 77 selected homes of children suffering from bronchial asthma/allergic rhinitis using Andersen volumetric air sampler. The isolated fungal genera/species were identified using reference literature, and statistical analysis of the dominant fungi was performed to study the difference in fungal concentration between indoor and immediate outdoor sites as well as in between different seasons. A total of 4423 air samples were collected from two indoor and immediate outdoor sites in a 1-year survey of 77 homes. This resulted in the isolation of an average of 110,091 and 107,070 fungal colonies per metric cube of air from indoor and outdoor sites, respectively. A total of 68 different molds were identified. Different species of Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Penicillium were found to be the most prevalent fungi in Delhi homes, which constituted 88.6% of the total colonies indoors. Highest concentration was registered in autumn and winter months. Total as well as dominant fungi displayed statistically significant differences among the four seasons (p < 0.001). The largest number of isolations were the species of Aspergillus (>40% to total colony-forming units in indoors as well as outdoors) followed by Cladosporium spp. Annual concentration of Aspergillus spp. was significantly higher (p < 0.05) inside the homes when compared with outdoors. Most of the fungi also occurred at a significantly higher (p < 0.001) rate inside the homes when compared with immediate outdoors. Asthmatic children in Delhi are exposed to a substantial concentration of mold inside their homes as well as immediate outdoor air. The considerable seasonal distributions of fungi provide valuable data for investigation of the role of fungal exposure as a risk for respiratory disorders among patients suffering from allergy or asthma in Delhi.
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Cross-cultural communication and use of the family meeting in palliative care.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2010
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Terminally-ill patients and their families often report poor communication and limited understanding of the patients diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment plan; these deficits can be exacerbated by cross-cultural issues. Although family meetings are frequently recommended to facilitate provider-family communication, a more structured, evidence-based approach to their use may improve outcomes. Drawing on research and guidelines from critical care, palliative care, and cross-cultural communication, we propose a framework for conducting family meetings with consideration for cross-cultural issues.
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Seeking better inter-departmental cooperation in healthcare settings.
Indian J Med Ethics
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2010
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Hospital healthcare is essentially teamwork. Frequently, however, one comes across incidents where inter-departmental cooperation is compromised. It can create an awkward situation for residents and other staff members involved in the healthcare system. We can recall many such incidents during our training. Studies have indicated that failure in "tightly coupled" organisational relationships between hospital departments imposes a threat to patient safety. Clear guidelines on how to manage certain situations should be in place, leaving no ambiguity as far as issues concerning patient management are concerned. A lot more needs to be done by administrators to avoid such incidents and to promote inter-departmental co-operation. In addition, more caution and effort by administrators, residents and faculty can help avoid such incidents.
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Attitudes and practices of medical graduates in Delhi towards gifts from the pharmaceutical industry.
Indian J Med Ethics
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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Pharmaceutical companies use a variety of strategies, including gifts, to influence physicians. In December 2009, the Medical Council of India amended the Code of Medical Ethics to ban medical professionals from accepting gifts from pharmaceutical companies. In view of this ban, it is important to find out the magnitude and contours of the problem amongst Indian medical professionals. We aimed to study, through an e-mail based survey, the attitudes and practices of young resident doctors and interns from two medical colleges of New Delhi regarding acceptance of gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. We e-mailed the questionnaire to 150 fresh graduates. We found that the majority of graduates agreed with existing guidelines: they accepted low cost gifts but considered expensive gifts unrelated to patient welfare unethical. Despite the low response rate, this study is important because data from India on attitudes and practices of medical professionals regarding gifts from the pharmaceutical industry are virtually non-existent.
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Assessment of immunization status in the slums of surat by 15 clusters multi indicators cluster survey technique.
Indian J Community Med
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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What is the immunization status of children in the slums of Surat and what changes has it undergone in recent times?
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Profile of attendee for voluntary counseling and testing in the ICTC, Ahmedabad.
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing with pre and postcounseling aiming behavior change communication (BCC) for core/bridge population is the main element of holistic model of health care. Voluntary counseling and testing center (VCTC) remodeled as integrated counseling and testing center (ICTC)-general is the gateways to care. It was hospital-based cross sectional study of 811 clients registered at VCTC of Kesar SAL Hospital from January to December 2007. These patients either came voluntarily or by referral. Anonymous and unlinked information was collected on predesigned schedule and data was analyzed to find out the seropositivity, demographic characteristics (among attendees and HIV positives), and epidemiological vulnerability of different segments of population. Among the attendees, 64% were males, 75% in the age group of 20-49 years, 80% were currently married, and 70% were literate (< 10(th) standard). Also, 66% clients were gainfully employed, while one-fourth were housewives; 98% lived with families, 75% were referred by doctors, and only 19% walked in directly. Dominant reason for visiting ICTC was the history/presence of high risk behavior (HRB) (34%). 35% indulged in heterosexual route; other HRB (men having sex with men or MSM and injecting drug users or IDU) were rare. There were more positive among males, 20-49 years of age group, those living singly, unmarried, divorcee, widow(er) and separated. Similarly positives were more amongst illiterates, less educated and those engaged in unskilled and semi skilled jobs. Adolescent students (>14 years) accounted for one-fifth of the total positives. Direct walk in clients were more positive compared to those referred by doctors. Those who confessed of history/presence of HRB accounted for all except 3 (85%) positives. 51% indulged in heterosexual sex followed by MSM (8%). Overall sero positivity was 4.8%; high in males, 30-49 years age, unmarried and divorcee etc. Sero prevalence decreased with improvement in education and also with improvement in job nature. It was also high in those living alone compared to those staying with their family.Such study shall in evaluating the performance of ICTC and designing the information, education, and communication (IEC) to increase the client uptake in terms of quality and quantity.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.
Environ Monit Assess
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Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 ?g/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee.
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A Chinese version of the Spiritual Needs Assessment for patients survey instrument.
J Palliat Med
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Unmet spiritual needs have been associated with decreased patient ratings of quality of care, satisfaction, and quality of life. Few instruments exist to measure spiritual needs particularly among non-English speaking patients in the U.S.
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Code status discussion skill retention in internal medicine residents: one-year follow-up.
J Palliat Med
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Communicating with patients about goals of care is an important skill for internal medicine residents. However, many trainees are not competent to perform a code status discussion (CSD). A multimodality intervention improved skills in a group of first-year residents in 2011. How long these acquired CSD skills are retained is unknown.
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Boron-based phosphodiesterase inhibitors show novel binding of boron to PDE4 bimetal center.
FEBS Lett.
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We have used boron-based molecules to create novel, competitive, reversible inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4). The co-crystal structure reveals a binding configuration which is unique compared to classical catechol PDE4 inhibitors, with boron binding to the activated water in the bimetal center. These phenoxybenzoxaboroles can be optimized to generate submicromolar potency enzyme inhibitors, which inhibit TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-?, IL-5 and IL-10 activities in vitro and show safety and efficacy for topical treatment of human psoriasis. They provide a valuable new route for creating novel potent anti-PDE4 inhibitors.
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Improving residents code status discussion skills: a randomized trial.
J Palliat Med
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Inpatient Code Status Discussions (CSDs) are commonly facilitated by resident physicians, despite inadequate training. We studied the efficacy of a CSD communication skills training intervention for internal medicine residents.
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The Spiritual Needs Assessment for Patients (SNAP): development and validation of a comprehensive instrument to assess unmet spiritual needs.
J Pain Symptom Manage
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Unmet spiritual needs have been associated with decreased patient ratings of quality of care, satisfaction, and quality of life. There is a need for a well-validated, psychometrically sound instrument to describe and measure spiritual needs.
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Clinical audit of health promotion of vitamin D in one general practice.
Asia Pac Fam Med
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The clinical audit of vitamin D health promotion in one Australian general practice was undertaken by measuring health service use and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 995 patients aged 45 to 49 years.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.