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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Distribution and mosquito hosts of Chaoyang virus, a newly reported flavivirus from the Republic of Korea, 2008-2011.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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In total, 183,602 female culicine mosquitoes were captured by Mosquito Magnet, black light, and New Jersey light traps, and manual aspiration of resting blood-fed mosquitoes, in the Republic of Korea from 2008 to 2011. Culicine mosquitoes were identified to species, placed in pools of up to 30 mosquitoes each, and screened for flavivirus RNA by using an SYBR green I-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Thirty-two of the 8,199 pools assayed were positive by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Chaoyang virus (CHAOV), an insect-specific virus [26 Aedes vexans nipponii Theobald, 3 Culex pipiens L., 1 Aedes albopictus (Skuse), 1 Aedes bekkui Mogi, and 1 Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett)]. The maximum likelihood estimations (estimated number of virus-positive mosquitoes/1,000 mosquitoes) for Ae. bekkui, Ae. albopictus, Ar. subalbatus, Ae. vexans nipponii, and Cx. pipiens positive for CHAOV were 5.37, 3.29, 0.77, 0.27, and 0.26, respectively. CHAOV is an insect-specific virus, and there is currently no evidence to suggest a role in animal or human disease.
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Characterization Based on the 56-Kda Type-Specific Antigen Gene of Orientia tsutsugamushi Genotypes Isolated from Leptotrombidium Mites and the Rodent Host Post-Infection.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Characterization of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen (TSA) genes of Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) from three naturally infected, laboratory-reared mite colonies comprising three species (Leptotrombidium deliense [Ld], Leptotrombidium imphalum [Li], and Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis [Lc]) has revealed the presence of single and coexisting OT genotypes found in individual chiggers. The Karp genotype was found in all of the chiggers examined, whereas Gilliam and UT302 genotypes were only observed in combination with the Karp genotype. From analysis of these OT genotypes after transmission from chiggers to mice it was determined that with the Lc and Li mites, the OT genotype composition in the rodent spleens post-infection had not changed and therefore resembled that observed in the feeding chiggers. However, only the Karp genotype was found in rodents after feeding by Ld chiggers carrying Karp and Gilliam genotypes. The current findings reveal a complex association among the host, pathogen, and vector.
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Gamma interferon-inducible lysosomal thioreductase (GILT) ablation renders mouse fibroblasts sensitive to dengue virus replication.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Dengue viruses (DENV), members of mosquito-borne Flaviviruses, are human pathogens of global significance. The virus enters the host cell through endocytosis and uncoating subsequent to a low pH-triggered conformational change of E protein in endosomes. The endosomes are active in antigen processing and the key enzyme involved is the gamma interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT). Here, we sought to address the role of GILT in DENV2 entry using fibroblasts from wild type (WT) and GILT knockout (GILT(-/-)) mice (MFs) with defective antigen processing. Our results obtained using DENV2 infectious and Renilla luciferase reporter replicon RNAs show that WT MFs are relatively resistant and GILT(-/-) MFs are susceptible to DENV2 translation and replication. We show that DENV2 infection of WT MEFs induced autophagy based on an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio that is further enhanced in GILT(-/-) cells. The increased susceptibility of DENV2 infection in the GILT(-/-)MFs strongly correlates with increased autophagy.
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Japanese encephalitis virus in culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at Daeseongdong, a village in the demilitarized zone of the Republic of Korea.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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In total, 22,846 (17,793 culicines and 5,053 Anopheles spp.) female mosquitoes were captured by a Mosquito Magnet trap at Daeseongdong, a small village adjacent to the military demarcation line (center of the demilitarized zone) in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK). Culicine mosquitoes were identified to species, placed in pools of up to 30 mosquitoes each, and screened for flavivirus using a SYBR Green I-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. In total, 51/660 pools positive for flaviviruses and confirmed by DNA sequencing of the NS5 region, were positive for Japanese encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV) (50 Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and one Culex bitaeniorhynchus Giles). The JEV maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs) (estimated number of viral RNA-positive mosquitoes per 1,000) for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus were 9.7 and 0.9, respectively. This is the first report of a Cx. bitaeniorhynchus positive for JEV in the ROK. JEV is a local civilian and military health threat and a significant concern for nonimmune (unvaccinated) U.S. soldiers, civilians, and family members deployed to the ROK.
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Emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype V in the Republic of Korea.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype V reemerged in Asia (China) in 2009 after a 57-year hiatus from the continent, thereby emphasizing a need to increase regional surveillance efforts. Genotypic characterization was performed on 19 JEV-positive mosquito pools (18 pools of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and 1 pool of Cx. bitaeniorhynchus) from a total of 64 positive pools collected from geographically different locations throughout the Republic of Korea (ROK) during 2008 and 2010.
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Synthesis of a 6-methyl-7-deaza analogue of adenosine that potently inhibits replication of polio and dengue viruses.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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Bioisosteric deaza analogues of 6-methyl-9-?-D-ribofuranosylpurine, a hydrophobic analogue of adenosine, were synthesized and evaluated for antiviral activity. Whereas the 1-deaza and 3-deaza analogues were essentially inactive in plaque assays of infectivity, a novel 7-deaza-6-methyl-9-?-D-ribofuranosylpurine analogue, structurally related to the natural product tubercidin, potently inhibited replication of poliovirus (PV) in HeLa cells (IC(50) = 11 nM) and dengue virus (DENV) in Vero cells (IC(50) = 62 nM). Selectivity against PV over cytotoxic effects to HeLa cells was >100-fold after incubation for 7 h. Mechanistic studies of the 5-triphosphate of 7-deaza-6-methyl-9-?-D-ribofuranosylpurine revealed that this compound is an efficient substrate of PV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and is incorporated into RNA mimicking both ATP and GTP.
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Phenotypic analysis of dengue virus isolates associated with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever for cellular attachment, replication and interferon signaling ability.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Eighteen dengue viruses (DENVs) representing all four serotypes, isolated from pediatric patients at childrens hospital, Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Bangkok, Thailand exhibiting a diverse spectrum of disease ranging from uncomplicated dengue fever (DF) to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), were tested for their ability to attach to host cells, replicate and interfere with the IFNalpha signaling pathway by interfering with signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) function. Although most isolates suppressed IFNalpha-induced STAT-1 phosphorylation, our results showed no difference between DENV strains associated with DF and those associated with DHF. However, the DHF isolates tended replicate to higher titers in dendritic cells (DCs) than the DF isolates, but this ability was independent of their cell-binding capability. Our results suggest that the emergence early in infection of viruses with a high degree of replication fitness may play an important role in DENV pathogenesis.
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Dengue virus infection promotes translocation of high mobility group box 1 protein from the nucleus to the cytosol in dendritic cells, upregulates cytokine production and modulates virus replication.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein functions in regulation of transcription, cellular activation and pro-inflammatory responses. However, the potential role of HMGB1 during viral infection has not been investigated. This study attempted to elucidate whether the HMGB1-mediated inflammatory response contributes to the pathogenesis of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Our data showed that HMGB1 was released at low DENV infection levels (m.o.i. of 1) under non-necrotic conditions by human dendritic cells (DCs). When DENV-infected DCs were co-cultured with autologous T cells, there was increased production of HMGB1 by both cell types. HMGB1 regulated tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and alpha interferon secretion in DENV-infected DCs. Additionally, increased HMGB1 production was associated with reduced DENV replication titres in DCs. These results suggest that HMGB1 production influences DENV infection in susceptible hosts.
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A field-expedient method for detection of leptospirosis causative agents in rodents.
US Army Med Dep J
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We have developed a thermal-stable, pathogenic Leptospira TaqMan PCR assay intended to support pathogen surveillance in reservoir populations. The assay is packaged specifically for use with a portable, ruggedized, real-time PCR thermocycler. Limit of detection was established at ? 100 fg (20 organisms). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% concordant with conventional PCR results using a broad test panel of human pathogenic and nonpathogenic Leptospira, genetic near neighbors, and clinically significant organisms. In blind testing using a panel (n=50) of pathogenic Leptospira infected and noninfected Rattus species samples, assay sensitivity results were 100% concordant with conventional PCR. Tests performed under field conditions using wild-collected rodent kidney extracts demonstrated the mobility of the system. During field evaluation, samples were processed and analyzed in 3 hours. Thermal stabilized reagents allowed transportation, storage, and analyses under ambient temperatures. The system provides a promising aid in leptospirosis control programs.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.