JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Efficacy and safety of amphotericin B emulsion versus liposomal formulation in Indian patients with visceral leishmaniasis: a randomized, open-label study.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
India is home to 60% of the total global visceral leishmaniasis (VL) population. Use of long-term oral (e.g. miltefosine) and parenteral drugs, considered the mainstay for treatment of VL, is now faced with increased resistance, decreased efficacy, low compliance and safety issues. The authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of an alternate treatment option, i.e. single infusion of preformed amphotericin B (AmB) lipid emulsion (ABLE) in comparison with that of liposomal formulation (LAmB).
Related JoVE Video
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-infected cells secrete exosomes that contain Tax protein.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-?B in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells.
Related JoVE Video
Voluntary and involuntary emotional memory following an analogue traumatic stressor: the differential effects of communality in men and women.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Men and women show differences in performance on emotional processing tasks. Sex also interacts with personality traits to affect information processing. Here we examine effects of sex, and two personality traits that are differentially expressed in men and women - instrumentality and communality - on voluntary and involuntary memory for distressing video-footage.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of ASHA training on active case detection of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One of the major challenges for management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is early diagnosis of cases to improve treatment outcome and reduce transmission. We have therefore investigated active case detection of VL with the help of accredited social health activists (ASHA). ASHAs are women who live in the community and receive performance-based incentives for overseeing maternal and other health-related issues in their village.
Related JoVE Video
Dopamine, urges to smoke, and the relative salience of drug versus non-drug reward.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
When addicted individuals are exposed to drug-related stimuli, dopamine release is thought to mediate incentive salience attribution, increasing attentional bias, craving and drug seeking. It is unclear whether dopamine acts specifically on drug cues versus other rewards, and if these effects correspond with craving and other forms of cognitive bias. Here, we administered the dopamine D2/D3 agonist pramipexole (0.5 mg) to 16 tobacco smokers in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Visual fixations on smoking and money images were recorded alongside smoking urges and fluency tasks. Pramipexole attenuated a marked bias in initial orienting towards smoking relative to money but did not alter a maintained attentional bias towards smoking. Pramipexole decreased urges to smoke retrospectively after the task but not on a state scale. Fewer smoking words were generated after pramipexole but phonological and semantic fluency were preserved. Although these treatment effects did not correlate with each other, changes in initial orienting towards smoking and money were inversely related to baseline scores. In conclusion, pramipexole can reduce the salience of an addictive drug compared with other rewards and elicit corresponding changes in smoking urges and cognitive bias. These reward-specific and baseline-dependent effects support an 'inverted-U' shaped profile of dopamine in addiction.
Related JoVE Video
Just say 'know': how do cannabinoid concentrations influence users' estimates of cannabis potency and the amount they roll in joints?
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
(1) To determine whether measured concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in individuals' own cannabis predict their estimates of drug potency and actual titration; and (2) to ascertain if these effects are influenced by frequency of use and cannabis type.
Related JoVE Video
Novel Neuroprotective GSK-3? Inhibitor Restricts Tat-Mediated HIV-1 Replication.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The implementation of new antiretroviral therapies targeting transcription of early viral proteins in postintegrated HIV-1 can aid in overcoming current therapy limitations. Using high-throughput screening assays, we have previously described a novel Tat-dependent HIV-1 transcriptional inhibitor named 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (6BIO). The screening of 6BIO derivatives yielded unique compounds that show potent inhibition of HIV-1 transcription. We have identified a second-generation derivative called 18BIOder as an inhibitor of HIV-1 Tat-dependent transcription in TZM-bl cells and a potent inhibitor of GSK-3? kinase in vitro. Structurally, 18BIOder is half the molecular weight and structure of its parental compound, 6BIO. More importantly, we also have found a different GSK-3? complex present only in HIV-1-infected cells. 18BIOder preferentially inhibits this novel kinase complex from infected cells at nanomolar concentrations. Finally, we observed that neuronal cultures treated with Tat protein are protected from Tat-mediated cytotoxicity when treated with 18BIOder. Overall, our data suggest that HIV-1 Tat-dependent transcription is sensitive to small-molecule inhibition of GSK-3?.
Related JoVE Video
Exosomes derived from HIV-1-infected cells contain trans-activation response element RNA.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles produced by healthy and virus-infected cells. Exosomes derived from infected cells have been shown to contain viral microRNAs (miRNAs). HIV-1 encodes its own miRNAs that regulate viral and host gene expression. The most abundant HIV-1-derived miRNA, first reported by us and later by others using deep sequencing, is the trans-activation response element (TAR) miRNA. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of TAR RNA in exosomes from cell culture supernatants of HIV-1-infected cells and patient sera. TAR miRNA was not in Ago2 complexes outside the exosomes but enclosed within the exosomes. We detected the host miRNA machinery proteins Dicer and Drosha in exosomes from infected cells. We report that transport of TAR RNA from the nucleus into exosomes is a CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1)-dependent active process. Prior exposure of naive cells to exosomes from infected cells increased susceptibility of the recipient cells to HIV-1 infection. Exosomal TAR RNA down-regulated apoptosis by lowering Bim and Cdk9 proteins in recipient cells. We found 10(4)-10(6) copies/ml TAR RNA in exosomes derived from infected culture supernatants and 10(3) copies/ml TAR RNA in the serum exosomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients or long term nonprogressors. Taken together, our experiments demonstrated that HIV-1-infected cells produced exosomes that are uniquely characterized by their proteomic and RNA profiles that may contribute to disease pathology in AIDS.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar India: comparison of the rK39 rapid diagnostic test on whole blood versus serum.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antibody-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) against rK39 are available to aid in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Although these rK39 RDTs have been developed, validated and approved for use with serum, they are universally performed using whole blood. It was therefore necessary to determine whether this RDT is as sensitive on whole blood as on serum.
Related JoVE Video
Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.
Related JoVE Video
Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whilst Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid, has been shown to enhance extinction learning in rats, its effects on fear memory in humans have not previously been studied.
Related JoVE Video
Cue exposure and response prevention with heavy smokers: a laboratory-based randomised placebo-controlled trial examining the effects of D-cycloserine on cue reactivity and attentional bias.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Treatments based on exposure/response prevention (Exp/RP) produce only modest benefits in substance dependence disorders. However, a new strategy, which has shown promise in animal models of addiction involves combining Exp/RP with extinction-enhancing pharmacological treatments. A prototype of the latter is D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in cue reactivity and attentional bias following experimental cue exposure and response prevention: a laboratory study of the effects of D-cycloserine in heavy drinkers.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effects of D-cycloserine (DCS) in animal models of anxiety disorders and addiction indicate a role for N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in extinction learning. Exposure/response prevention treatments for anxiety disorders in humans are enhanced by DCS, suggesting a promising co-therapy regime, mediated by NMDA receptors. Exposure/response prevention may also be effective in problematic drinkers, and DCS might enhance habituation to cues in these individuals. Since heavy drinkers show ostensible conditioned responses to alcohol cues, habituation following exposure/response prevention should be evident in these drinkers, with DCS enhancing this effect.
Related JoVE Video
Acute and chronic effects of ketamine on semantic priming: modeling schizophrenia?
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy volunteers; furthermore, a window on ketamines chronic effects is provided by regular recreational users. The current study utilized both acute ketamine administration in healthy volunteers and chronic ketamine abusers to investigate semantic processing, one of the key cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Semantic processing was examined using a semantic priming paradigm. In experiment 1, acute effects of low (75 ng/mL) and high (150 ng/mL) ketamine doses were compared in a placebo-controlled double-blind independent group design with 48 participants. In experiment 2, 19 regular recreational ketamine users were compared with 19 ketamine-naive polydrug controls and 26 non-drug-using controls. In both experiments, semantic priming parameters were manipulated to distinguish between ketamines effects on (1) automatic and strategic processing and (2) the facilitation and inhibition components of semantic priming for strongly (directly) related primes and targets. Acute effects of ketamine on semantic priming for weakly (indirectly) related primes and targets were also assessed in experiment 1. Acutely, ketamine impaired the employment of strategic mechanisms but not automatic processing within both the direct and indirect semantic priming tasks. Acute ketamine administration also induced clear schizophrenia-like symptoms. Schizotypy traits in the cognitive and perceptual domains tended to correlate with increased semantic priming in long-term ketamine users. In summary, acute and chronic ketamine-induced changes partially mirrored the findings on semantic priming in schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
Superstitious conditioning as a model of delusion formation following chronic but not acute ketamine in humans.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ketamine has previously been shown to induce delusion-like or referential beliefs, both acutely in healthy volunteers and naturalistically among nonintoxicated users of the drug. Delusions are theoretically underpinned by increased superstitious conditioning or the erroneous reinforcement of random events.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacotherapeutic options for visceral leishmaniasis-current scenario.
Clin Med Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-azar is a protozoal disease, which was previously regarded as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Management of this disease is quite difficult, because it is said to affect the poorest of the poor. Previously Sodium Stibogluconate (SSG) was regarded as the gold standard treatment for VL. But due to the increasing unresponsiveness, to this drug various other drugs were tried and are still being tried. Pentamidine is very toxic and has been discarded of late. Amphotericin B and its lipid formulations are very effective but require hospital admission and monitoring. Oral drugs like Miltefosine have already been launched. An amino glycoside Paromomycin and another oral drug Sitamaquine are in the pipe line. Interferon gamma has been used with discouraging results.
Related JoVE Video
Processing of facial affect in social drinkers: a dose-response study of alcohol using dynamic emotion expressions.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies of affect recognition can inform our understanding of the interpersonal effects of alcohol and help develop a more complete neuropsychological profile of this drug.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of N-methyl D-aspartate and B-adrenergic receptor antagonists on the reconsolidation of reward memory: a meta-analysis.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pharmacological memory reconsolidation blockade provides a potential mechanism for ameliorating the maladaptive reward memories underlying relapse in addiction. Two of the most promising classes of drug that interfere with reconsolidation and have translational potential for human use are N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and B-Adrenergic receptor (B-AR) antagonists. We used meta-analysis and meta-regression to assess the effects of these drugs on the reconsolidation of reward memory in preclinical models of addiction. Pharmacokinetic, mnemonic and methodological factors were assessed for their moderating impact on effect sizes. An analysis of 52 independent effect sizes (NMDAR=30, B-AR=22) found robust effects of both classes of drug on memory reconsolidation, but a far greater overall effect of NMDAR antagonism than B-AR antagonism. Significant moderating effects of drug dose, relapse process and primary reinforcer were found. The findings suggest that reward memory reconsolidation can be robustly targeted by NMDAR antagonists and to a lesser extent, by B-AR antagonists. Implications for future clinical work are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Complex role of microRNAs in HTLV-1 infections.
Front Genet
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus to be discovered and is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the neurodegenerative disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The importance of microRNA (miRNA) in the replicative cycle of several other viruses, as well as in the progression of associated pathologies, has been well established in the past decade. Moreover, involvement of miRNA alteration in the HTLV-1 life cycle, and in the progression of its related oncogenic and neurodegenerative diseases, has recently come to light. Several HTLV-1 derived proteins alter transcription factor functionalities, interact with chromatin remodelers, or manipulate components of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, thereby establishing various routes by which miRNA expression can be up- or down-regulated in the host cell. Furthermore, the mechanism of action through which dysregulation of host miRNAs affects HTLV-1 infected cells can vary substantially and include mRNA silencing via the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), transcriptional gene silencing, inhibition of RNAi components, and chromatin remodeling. These miRNA-induced changes can lead to increased cell survival, invasiveness, proliferation, and differentiation, as well as allow for viral latency. While many recent studies have successfully implicated miRNAs in the life cycle and pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infections, there are still significant outstanding questions to be addressed. Here we will review recent discoveries elucidating HTLV-1 mediated manipulation of host cell miRNA profiles and examine the impact on pathogenesis, as well as explore future lines of inquiry that could increase understanding in this field of study.
Related JoVE Video
HTLV tax: a fascinating multifunctional co-regulator of viral and cellular pathways.
Front Microbiol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been identified as the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The virus infects between 15 and 20 million people worldwide of which approximately 2-5% develop ATL. The past 35?years of research have yielded significant insight into the pathogenesis of HTLV-1, including the molecular characterization of Tax, the viral transactivator, and oncoprotein. In spite of these efforts, the mechanisms of oncogenesis of this pleiotropic protein remain to be fully elucidated. In this review, we illustrate the multiple oncogenic roles of Tax by summarizing a recent body of literature that refines our understanding of cellular transformation. A focused range of topics are discussed in this review including Tax-mediated regulation of the viral promoter and other cellular pathways, particularly the connection of the NF-?B pathway to both post-translational modifications (PTMs) of Tax and subcellular localization. Specifically, recent research on polyubiquitination of Tax as it relates to the activation of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex is highlighted. Regulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage responses due to Tax are also discussed, including Tax interaction with minichromosome maintenance proteins and the role of Tax in chromatin remodeling. The recent identification of HTLV-3 has amplified the importance of the characterization of emerging viral pathogens. The challenge of the molecular determination of pathogenicity and malignant disease of this virus lies in the comparison of the viral transactivators of HTLV-1, -2, and -3 in terms of transformation and immortalization. Consequently, differences between the three proteins are currently being studied to determine what factors are required for the differences in tumorogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Curcumin inhibits Rift Valley fever virus replication in human cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus that is classified as a select agent, an emerging infectious virus, and an agricultural pathogen. Understanding RVFV-host interactions is imperative to the design of novel therapeutics. Here, we report that an infection by the MP-12 strain of RVFV induces phosphorylation of the p65 component of the NF?B cascade. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of p65 (serine 536) involves phosphorylation of I?B? and occurs through the classical NF?B cascade. A unique, low molecular weight complex of the IKK-? subunit can be observed in MP-12-infected cells, which we have labeled IKK-?2. The IKK-?2 complex retains kinase activity and phosphorylates an I?B? substrate. Inhibition of the IKK complex using inhibitors impairs viral replication, thus alluding to the requirement of an active IKK complex to the viral life cycle. Curcumin strongly down-regulates levels of extracellular infectious virus. Our data demonstrated that curcumin binds to and inhibits kinase activity of the IKK-?2 complex in infected cells. Curcumin partially exerts its inhibitory influence on RVFV replication by interfering with IKK-?2-mediated phosphorylation of the viral protein NSs and by altering the cell cycle of treated cells. Curcumin also demonstrated efficacy against ZH501, the fully virulent version of RVFV. Curcumin treatment down-regulated viral replication in the liver of infected animals. Our data point to the possibility that RVFV infection may result in the generation of novel versions of host components (such as IKK-?2) that, by virtue of altered protein interaction and function, qualify as unique therapeutic targets.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.