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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Young Adults.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and their potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes.
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Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking U.S. Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users, National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly and their impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among U.S. youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes.
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What is "community health"? Examining the meaning of an evolving field in public health.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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In this commentary, we review definition frameworks for community health and examine factors having core relevance to shaping the meaning of this term and growing field. We conclude by suggesting a potential framework for conceptualizing and advancing this field of public health practice through improved understanding of the meaning, scope, and science of community health.
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Tobacco product use among adults--United States, 2012-2013.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Despite significant declines in cigarette smoking among U.S. adults over the past five decades, progress has slowed in recent years, and the prevalence of use of other tobacco products such as cigars and smokeless tobacco has not changed. Additionally, the prevalence of use of emerging products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), has rapidly increased. This report provides the most recent national estimates of tobacco use among adults aged ?18 years, using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). The findings indicate that 21.3% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day or some days, and 25.2% used a tobacco product every day, some days, or rarely. Population-level interventions focused on the diversity of tobacco product use, including tobacco price increases, high-impact antitobacco mass media campaigns, comprehensive smoke-free laws, and enhanced access to help quitting, in conjunction with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products, are critical to reducing tobacco-related diseases and deaths in the United States.
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Notes from the field: calls to poison centers for exposures to electronic cigarettes--United States, September 2010-February 2014.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Electronic nicotine delivery devices such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine, flavorings (e.g., fruit, mint, and chocolate), and other chemicals via an inhaled aerosol. E-cigarettes that are marketed without a therapeutic claim by the product manufacturer are currently not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In many states, there are no restrictions on the sale of e-cigarettes to minors. Although e-cigarette use is increasing among U.S. adolescents and adults, its overall impact on public health remains unclear. One area of concern is the potential of e-cigarettes to cause acute nicotine toxicity. To assess the frequency of exposures to e-cigarettes and characterize the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarettes, CDC analyzed data on calls to U.S. poison centers (PCs) about human exposures to e-cigarettes (exposure calls) for the period September 2010 (when new, unique codes were added specifically for capturing e-cigarette calls) through February 2014. To provide a comparison to a conventional product with known toxicity, the number and characteristics of e-cigarette exposure calls were compared with those of conventional tobacco cigarette exposure calls.
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Factors Associated with Uptake of HIV Test Results in a Nationally Representative Population-Based AIDS Indicator Survey.
Open AIDS J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Population-based surveys with HIV testing in settings with low testing coverage provide opportunities for participants to learn their HIV status. Survey participants (15-64 years) in a 2007 nationally representative population-based HIV serologic survey in Kenya received a voucher to collect HIV test results at health facilities 6 weeks after blood draw. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of individual and couple collection of results. Of 15,853 adults consenting to blood draw, 7,222 (46.7%) collected HIV test results (46.5% men, 46.8% women). A third (39.5%) of HIV-infected adults who were unaware of their infection and 48.2% of those who had never been tested learned their HIV status during KAIS. Individual collection of HIV results was associated with older age, with the highest odds among adults aged 60-64 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.1); rural residence (AOR 1.8, 95%CI 1.2-2.6); and residence outside Nairobi, with the highest odds in the sparsely populated North Eastern province (AOR 8.0, 95%CI 2.9-21.8). Of 2,685 married/cohabiting couples, 18.5% collected results as a couple. Couples in Eastern province and in the second and middle wealth quintiles were more likely to collect results than those in Nairobi (AOR 3.2, 95%CI 1.1-9.4) and the lowest wealth quintile (second AOR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.3; middle AOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.3, respectively. Many participants including those living with HIV learned their HIV status in KAIS. Future surveys need to address low uptake of results among youth, urban residents, couples and those with undiagnosed HIV infection.
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Effect of the first federally funded US antismoking national media campaign.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Every year, smoking kills more than 5 million people globally, including 440,000 people in the USA, where the long-term decline in smoking prevalence has slowed. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) delivered a national, 3-month antismoking campaign called Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) that started in March, 2012, in which hard-hitting, emotionally evocative television advertising was featured, depicting smoking-related suffering in real people. We aimed to assess the effects of the Tips campaign.
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Human aflatoxin exposure in Kenya, 2007: a cross-sectional study.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Aflatoxins contaminate approximately 25% of agricultural products worldwide. They can cause liver failure and liver cancer. Kenya has experienced multiple aflatoxicosis outbreaks in recent years, often resulting in fatalities. However, the full extent of aflatoxin exposure in Kenya has been unknown. Our objective was to quantify aflatoxin exposure across Kenya. We analysed aflatoxin levels in serum specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey - a nationally representative, cross-sectional serosurvey. KAIS collected 15,853 blood specimens. Of the 3180 human immunodeficiency virus-negative specimens with ?1 mL sera, we randomly selected 600 specimens stratified by province and sex. We analysed serum specimens for aflatoxin albumin adducts by using isotope dilution MS/MS to quantify aflatoxin B1-lysine, and normalised with serum albumin. Aflatoxin concentrations were then compared by demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics. We detected serum aflatoxin B1-lysine in 78% of serum specimens (range =
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HIV testing: current practice and future directions.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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New approaches to expanding HIV testing and effective treatment and the wider availability of rapid testing technology have created new opportunities for achieving national and global HIV testing goals. In spite of HIV testing expansion in many settings, growing evidence of the prevention benefits of HIV testing, and the development of new, cost-effective approaches to HIV testing service provision, formidable obstacles to HIV testing expansion persist. Inequitable testing coverage exists within and across countries. While the proportion of people with HIV aware of their status is about 80% in the U.S., the majority of HIV-infected persons in Africa are unaware of their status. Testing of most-at-risk populations, couples, children, and adolescents pose still unresolved policy and programmatic challenges. Future directions for HIV testing include rapid testing technology and detection of acute HIV infection, self-testing expansion, and partner notification. Expanded routine HIV screening and widespread testing is a public health imperative to reach national and international HIV prevention and treatment goals.
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Home-based HIV testing and counseling in rural and urban Kenyan communities.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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In sub-Saharan Africa, most people with HIV do not know they are infected.
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Measuring quality of life in rural Uganda: reliability and validity of summary scores from the medical outcomes study HIV health survey (MOS-HIV).
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Summary scores derived from the medical outcomes study HIV health survey (MOS-HIV) are used to assess treatment impacts among HIV-infected patients in Western settings, but have yet to be validated in rural, African settings. We examined the reliability, validity and responsiveness of scores among a prospective cohort of 947 HIV-1-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy between May 2003 and May 2004 in rural Uganda.
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CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: cost effectiveness study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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To examine the cost and cost effectiveness of quarterly CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring among patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART).
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Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, human immunodeficiency virus/herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, and associated risk factors in a national, population-based survey in Kenya.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a known biologic cofactor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and acquisition. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007 provided Kenyas first nationally representative estimate of HSV-2 prevalence and risk factors.
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Epidemiology of syphilis in Kenya: results from a nationally representative serological survey.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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The authors used data from the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007 to determine the prevalence of syphilis and associated risk factors among adults aged 15-64 years.
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Unsafe sex among HIV-infected adults in Kenya: results of a nationally representative survey.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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Assess factors associated with knowledge of HIV status, sexual activity, and unprotected sex with a partner of unknown or negative HIV status (unsafe sex) among HIV-infected adults in Kenya.
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Sexual behavior and HIV transmission risk of Ugandan adults taking antiretroviral therapy: 3 year follow-up.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Long-term impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on sexual HIV-transmission risk in Africa is unknown. We assessed sexual behavior changes and estimated HIV transmission from HIV-infected adults on ART in Uganda.
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Pregnancy comes accidentally--like it did with me: reproductive decisions among women on ART and their partners in rural Uganda.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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As highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores health, fertility and sexual activity among HIV-infected adults, understanding how ART influences reproductive desires and decisions could inform interventions to reduce sexual and vertical HIV transmission risk.
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Factors associated with HIV infection in married or cohabitating couples in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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In order to inform prevention programming, we analyzed HIV discordance and concordance within couples in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007.
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Estimating HIV incidence among adults in Kenya and Uganda: a systematic comparison of multiple methods.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Several approaches have been used for measuring HIV incidence in large areas, yet each presents specific challenges in incidence estimation.
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Comparison of home and clinic-based HIV testing among household members of persons taking antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: results from a randomized trial.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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Due to high rates of undiagnosed and untreated HIV infection in Africa, we compared HIV counseling and testing (VCT) uptake among household members of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.
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Rates of virological failure in patients treated in a home-based versus a facility-based HIV-care model in Jinja, southeast Uganda: a cluster-randomised equivalence trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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Identification of new ways to increase access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa is an urgent priority. We assessed whether home-based HIV care was as effective as was facility-based care.
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The cost effectiveness of home-based provision of antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) provides dramatic health benefits for HIV-infected individuals in Africa, and widespread implementation of HAART is proceeding rapidly. Little is known about the cost and cost effectiveness of HAART programmes.
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Sex after ART: sexual partnerships established by HIV-infected persons taking anti-retroviral therapy in Eastern Uganda.
Cult Health Sex
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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This paper explores the social contexts that influence the formation and nature of sexual partnerships among people on anti-retroviral therapy (ART). We draw on the findings of a qualitative, longitudinal study of 70 people (36 women and 34 men) who have been participating in a home-based ART programme for over three years in Eastern Uganda. Since initiating ART, 32 (18 men and 14 women) participants reported having had a new partner. Five participants (4 men and 1 woman) renewed relationships with spouses with whom they had been prior to starting ART. Overall, 37 of the 70 participants had had a sexual partner after starting ART. Companionship, material support, social and cultural norms, as well as a desire for sex and children, are drivers of new relationships. The opportunity that ART brings for people to get on with their lives brings with it a reinstatement into a social world that places a value on marriage and child-bearing. The sexual rights of those living with HIV and on ART need to be taken seriously and safer sex facilitated.
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Knowledge of HIV status, sexual risk behaviors and contraceptive need among people living with HIV in Kenya and Malawi.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Several studies support the need for effective interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk behaviors among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs).
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The virus stops with me: HIV-infected Ugandans motivations in preventing HIV transmission.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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Few Positive Prevention interventions have been implemented in Africa; however, greater attention is now being paid to interventions that include messages of personal responsibility or altruism that may motivate HIV-infected individuals towards HIV prevention behaviors in Africa. We conducted 47 in-depth interviews in 2004 with HIV-infected men and women purposefully sampled to represent a range of sexual activities among clients of an AIDS support organization in Uganda. Qualitative interviews were selected from a cross-sectional survey of 1092 HIV-infected men and women. Clients were interviewed about their concerns around sexual HIV transmission, feelings of responsibility and reasons for these feelings, as well as about the challenges and consequences of actions to prevent HIV transmission. The reasons they provided for their sense of prevention responsibility revolved around ethical and practical themes. Responsibility toward sexual partners was linked to the belief that conscious transmission of HIV equals murder, would cause physical and emotional harm, and would leave children orphaned. The primary reason specific to preventing HIV transmission to unborn children was the perception that they are innocent. Most participants felt that HIV-infected individuals held a greater responsibility for preventing HIV transmission than did HIV-uninfected individuals. Respondents reported that their sense of responsibility lead them to reduce HIV transmission risk, encourage partner testing, disclose HIV test results, and assume an HIV/AIDS educator role. Challenges to HIV preventive behavior and altruistic intentions included: sexual desire; inconsistent condom use, especially in long term relationships; myths around condom use; fear of disclosure; gender-power dynamics; and social and financial pressure. Our finding that altruism played an important role in motivating preventive behaviors among HIV-infected persons in Uganda supports the inclusion of altruistic prevention and counseling messages within Positive Prevention interventions.
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Partners at risk: motivations, strategies, and challenges to HIV transmission risk reduction among HIV-infected men and women in Uganda.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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Prevention with positives (PWP) is a fundamental component of HIV prevention in industrialized countries. Despite the estimated 22.4 million HIV-infected adults in Africa (UNAIDS, 2006), culturally appropriate PWP guidelines have not been developed for this region. In order to inform these guidelines, we conducted 37 interviews (17 women, 20 men, no couples) from October 2003 to May 2004 with purposefully selected HIV-infected individuals in care in Uganda. Participants reported increased condom use and reduced intercourse frequency and numbers of partners after testing HIV-positive. Motivations for behavior change included concerns for personal health and the health of others, and decreased libido. Gender-power inequities (sometimes manifesting in forced sex), pain experienced by women while using condoms, decreased pleasure for men while using condoms, lack of social support, and desire for children appear to have resulted in increased risk for uninfected partners. Interventions addressing domestic violence, partner negotiation, use of lubricants and alternative sexual activities could increase condom use and/or decrease sexual activity and/or numbers of partners, thereby reducing HIV transmission risk.
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The costs and effectiveness of four HIV counseling and testing strategies in Uganda.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
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HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is a key intervention for HIV/AIDS control, and new strategies have been developed for expanding coverage in developing countries. We compared costs and outcomes of four HCT strategies in Uganda.
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Comparison of HIV prevalence estimates from sentinel surveillance and a national population-based survey in Uganda, 2004-2005.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
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HIV programs in generalized epidemics have traditionally relied on antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data to guide prevention and to model epidemic trends. ANC data, however, come from a subset of the population, and their representativeness of the population has been debated.
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Reproductive intentions and outcomes among women on antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence the biological, social and behavioral determinants of pregnancy in HIV-infected women. However, there are limited longitudinal data on the reproductive intentions and outcomes among women on ART in Africa. METHODOLOGY /PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a prospective cohort design, we analyzed trends in desire for children and predictors of pregnancy among a cohort of 733 HIV-infected women in rural Uganda who initiated ART between May 2003 and May 2004 and were followed up in their homes until June 2006. Women answered in-depth social and behavioral questionnaires administered every quarter in year 1 after initiating ART, and every 6 to 12 months thereafter. Use of family planning methods was assessed at 18 and 24 months after starting ART. We tested for non-constant pregnancy incidence by using a shape parameter test from the Weibull distribution. We modeled repeated measurements of all variables related to the womens desire for children over time using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) extension to the logistic regression model. Risk factors for pregnancy were examined using Cox proportional hazards model. 711 women eligible for the study were followed-up for a median time of 2.4 years after starting ART. During this time, less than 7% of women reported wanting more children at any time point yet 120 (16.9%) women experienced 140 pregnancies and pregnancy incidence increased from 3.46 per 100 women-years (WY) in the first quarter to 9.5 per 100 WY at 24 months (p<0.0001). This was paralleled by an increase in the proportion of women reporting sexual activity in the past 3 months, from 24.4% at baseline to 32.5% over 24 months of follow-up (p = 0.001). Only 14% of women used permanent or semi-permanent family planning methods by their second year on ART. In the multivariate model, younger age (HR = 2.71 per 10-year decrease, 95% CI: 2.95-3.78), having a BMI>18.5 (HR = 1.09, CI: 1.01-1.18) and not having used condoms consistently in the last 3 months (HR = 1.79, CI: 1.02-3.13) were independently associated with pregnancy.
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The impact of post-election violence on HIV and other clinical services and on mental health-Kenya, 2008.
Prehosp Disaster Med
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In December 2007, civil disruption and violence erupted in Kenya following national elections, displacing 350,000 people and affecting supply chains and services. The Kenyan government and partners were interested in assessing the extent of disruption in essential health services, especially HIV treatment.
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"Maybe his blood is still strong": a qualitative study among HIV-sero-discordant couples on ART in rural Uganda.
BMC Public Health
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HIV-negative members of sero-discordant couples are at high risk for HIV acquisition but few behavioral prevention interventions have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa and discordance is not well understood by couples themselves.
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Male circumcision programmes in Kenya: lessons from the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007.
Bull. World Health Organ.
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To provide guidance for male circumcision programmes in Kenya by estimating the population of uncircumcised men and investigating the association between circumcision and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with particular reference to uncircumcised, HIV-uninfected men.
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Fifty communities putting prevention to work: accelerating chronic disease prevention through policy, systems and environmental change.
J Community Health
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The burden of preventable chronic diseases is straining our nations health and economy. Diseases caused by obesity and tobacco use account for the largest portions of this preventable burden. CDC funded 50 communities in 2010 to implement policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) interventions in a 2-year initiative. Funded communities developed PSE plans to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and second-hand smoke exposure for their combined 55 million residents. Community outcome objectives and milestones were categorized by PSE interventions as they related to media, access, promotion, pricing, and social support. Communities estimated population reach based on their jurisdictions census data and target populations. The average proportion of each communitys population that was reached was calculated for each intervention category. Outcome objectives that were achieved within 12 months of program initiation were identified from routine program records. The average proportion of a communitys jurisdictional population reached by a specific intervention varied across interventions. Mean population reach for obesity-prevention interventions was estimated at 35%, with 14 (26%) interventions covering over 50% of the jurisdictional populations. For tobacco prevention, mean population reach was estimated at 67%, with 16 (84%) interventions covering more than 50% of the jurisdictional populations. Within 12 months, communities advanced over one-third of their obesity and tobacco-use prevention strategies. Tobacco interventions appeared to have higher potential population reach than obesity interventions within this initiative. Findings on the progress and potential reach of this major initiative may help inform future chronic disease prevention efforts.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.