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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A short food-group-based dietary questionnaire is reliable and valid for assessing toddlers' dietary risk in relatively advantaged samples.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Identifying toddlers at dietary risk is crucial for determining who requires intervention to improve dietary patterns and reduce health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to develop a simple tool that assesses toddlers' dietary risk and investigate its reliability and validity. The nineteen-item Toddler Dietary Questionnaire (TDQ) is informed by dietary patterns observed in Australian children aged 14 (n 552) and 24 (n 493) months and the Australian dietary guidelines. It assesses the intake of 'core' food groups (e.g. fruit, vegetables and dairy products) and 'non-core' food groups (e.g. high-fat, high-sugar and/or high-salt foods and sweetened beverages) over the previous 7 d, which is then scored against a dietary risk criterion (0-100; higher score = higher risk). Parents of toddlers aged 12-36 months (Socio-Economic Index for Areas decile range 5-9) were asked to complete the TDQ for their child (n 111) on two occasions, 3·2 (SD 1·8) weeks apart, to assess test-retest reliability. They were also asked to complete a validated FFQ from which the risk score was calculated and compared with the TDQ-derived risk score (relative validity). Mean scores were highly correlated and not significantly different for reliability (intra-class correlation = 0·90, TDQ1 30·2 (SD 8·6) v. TDQ2 30·9 (SD 8·9); P= 0·14) and validity (r 0·83, average TDQ ((TDQ1+TDQ2)/2) 30·5 (SD 8·4) v. FFQ 31·4 (SD 8·1); P= 0·05). All the participants were classified into the same (reliability 75 %; validity 79 %) or adjacent (reliability 25 %; validity 21 %) risk category (low (0-24), moderate (25-49), high (50-74) and very high (75-100)). Overall, the TDQ is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying at-risk toddlers in relatively advantaged samples.
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Evaluation of the Relative Concentration of Serum Fatty Acids C14:0, C15:0 and C17:0 as Markers of Children's Dairy Fat Intake.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Background/Aims: Biomarkers can provide objective measures of dietary exposure, but their relationship with dietary intake in different populations needs to be characterized. This study aimed to determine the association between C14:0, C15:0 and C17:0 and children's dairy fat intake, and to ascertain whether these fatty acids can be used as biomarkers for detecting change in dairy fat intake. Methods: Data from a randomized controlled trial (114 healthy children of 4-13 years of age) was used. The intervention was a replacement of regular-fat dairy foods with reduced-fat or low-fat items. Serum fatty acid composition was measured and dairy intake was assessed via 3 × 24-hour diet recalls at baseline and at 12 weeks (the end of the intervention). Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake and fatty acids at baseline and at week 12, and for the change in biomarkers and diet between these time points. Results: Total dairy fat intake correlated with C14:0, C15:0 and C17:0 at baseline (n = 114; r = 0.24; r = 0.42; r = 0.25 respectively, all p < 0.05), but not at week 12. The change in the total amount of dairy fat (g/day) after 12 weeks was associated with a change in serum C15:0 (n = 59; r = 0.27; p = 0.04). Conclusions: C15:0 is a useful biomarker of dairy fat intake in children and can detect short-term changes in the absolute intake of dairy fat. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Diet quality of U.K. infants is associated with dietary, adiposity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes measured at 7-8 years of age.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Whereas the influence of pregnancy diet and milk feeding on childrens health and development is well characterized, the role of early food intake and eating behaviors is largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines was associated with dietary, obesity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes at 7-8 y of age. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age to calculate a Complementary Feeding Utility Index score. Regression analysis was used to explore associations between the index score and dietary patterns derived via principal component analysis (n = 4326), body-mass index (BMI) (n = 4801), waist circumference (n = 4798), blood pressure (n = 4685), and lipids (n = 3232) measured at age 7 y; and intelligence quotient (IQ) measured at age 8 y (n = 4429) after adjustment for covariates. The index score was negatively associated with a "processed" dietary pattern (? = -0.16; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.13; P < 0.001) but positively associated with a "health conscious" dietary pattern [? = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.21); P < 0.001]. A higher index score was also positively associated with total, verbal, and performance IQ scores at 8 y of age [? = 1.92 (95%CI: 1.38, 2.47); P < 0.001 for total IQ). The index score was weakly associated with waist circumference [? = -0.15 (95%CI: -0.31, -0.002); P = 0.046] and diastolic blood pressure [? = -0.24 (95%CI: -0.47, -0.01); P = 0.043] at 7 y of age but was not associated with BMI or other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings suggest that adherence to current complementary feeding guidelines may have implications for some, but not all, health and development outcomes in childhood.
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The reliability and relative validity of a diet index score for 4-11-year-old children derived from a parent-reported short food survey.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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To assess the reliability and relative validity of a diet index score derived from a Short Food Survey (SFS).
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Diet spanning infancy and toddlerhood is associated with child blood pressure at age 7.5 y.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Diet in the first 2 y of life may be a pivotal period regarding effects on future blood pressure (BP). However, data on early-life diet and BP in childhood are sparse.
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Short tools to assess young childrens dietary intake: a systematic review focusing on application to dietary index research.
J Obes
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records). Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (?50 items) tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years) and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n = 7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n = 8, preschoolers 2-5 years), met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n = 14), with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n = 2, infants and toddlers; n = 4, preschoolers) are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.
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Do dietary trajectories between infancy and toddlerhood influence IQ in childhood and adolescence? Results from a prospective birth cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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We examined whether trajectories of dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months of age are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) in childhood and adolescence.
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Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The family food environment is an important influence in the development of childrens dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1) investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in childrens saturated fat intake; and (2) to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in childrens saturated fat intake.
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A preference based measure of complementary feeding quality: application to the avon longitudinal study of parents and children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This paper presents the development of the Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI), a composite index aimed to measure adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Through an axiomatic characterization this paper shows the advantages in using the CFUI are the following: it avoids the use of arbitrary cut-offs, and by converting observed diet preferences into utilities, summing the score is meaningful. In addition, as the CFUI is designed to be scored continuously, it allows the transition from intake of beneficial foods (in low quantities) and intake of detrimental foods (in high quantities) to be more subtle. The paper first describes the rationale being the development of the CFUI and then elaborates on the methodology used to develop the CFUI, including the process of selecting the components. The methodology is applied to data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to show the advantages of the CFUI over traditional diet index approaches. Unlike traditional approaches, the distribution of the CFUI does not peak towards mean value but distributes evenly towards the tails of the distribution.
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Combined home and school obesity prevention interventions for children: what behavior change strategies and intervention characteristics are associated with effectiveness?
Health Educ Behav
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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This review identifies studies describing interventions delivered across both the home and school/community setting, which target obesity and weight-related nutrition and physical activity behaviors in children. Fifteen studies, published between 1998 and 2010, were included and evaluated for effectiveness, study quality, nutrition/activity content, behavior change techniques, and theoretical basis, using validated assessment tools/taxonomies. Seven studies were rated as effective. Behavior change techniques used to engage families, and techniques associated with intervention effectiveness were coded. Effective studies used about 10 behavior change techniques, compared with 6.5 in ineffective studies. Effective interventions used techniques including providing general information on behavior-health links, prompting practice of behavior, and planning for social support/social changes. Different behavior change techniques were applied in the home and school setting. The findings of this review provide novel insights into the techniques associated with intervention effectiveness that can inform the development of public health obesity prevention strategies.
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Childrens food and activity patterns following a six-month child weight management program.
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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To describe the impact of a parent-led, family-focused child weight management program on the food intake and activity patterns of pre-pubertal children.
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Characterizing whole diets of young children from developed countries and the association between diet and health: a systematic review.
Nutr. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Early childhood is an important nutritional period that involves the transition from a milk-based diet to ordinary foods. A systematic review was conducted of studies that applied whole-of-diet analysis of children aged 1-5 years to examine associations between diet and nutrition, health, and development. Literature searches identified 40 articles using dietary indices, principal component analysis, or cluster analysis. Reports that applied indices (n = 23, 18 indices) were cross-sectional, and most measured diet quality or variety. Articles reporting principal component or cluster analyses (n =17) described between two and six dietary patterns, and most identified healthy, unhealthy, and traditional patterns. In cross-sectional analyses, mixed associations were found between index or pattern scores and nutrient intake (n = 10), nutritional biomarkers (n = 1), and anthropometry (n = 10). Five reports from two birth cohorts showed healthier dietary patterns were associated with better lean mass, cognition, and behavior, but not with bone mass or body mass index at later ages. Few studies have characterized the diets of children under 5 years of age and linked diet with health. Given the limited evidence, research establishing the predictive validity of whole-of-diet methods in childhood is needed.
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Scores on the dietary guideline index for children and adolescents are associated with nutrient intake and socio-economic position but not adiposity.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Diet quality indices reflect overall dietary patterns better than single nutrients or food groups. The study aims were to develop a measure of adherence with dietary guidelines applicable to child and adolescent populations in Australia and determine the association between index scores and food and nutrient intake, socio-demographic characteristics, and measures of adiposity. Data were analyzed from 4- to 16-y-old participants of the 2007 Australian Childrens Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 3416). The Dietary Guideline Index for Children and Adolescents (DGI-CA) comprises 11 components: 5 core food groups, wholegrain bread, reduced-fat dairy foods, extra foods (nutrient poor and high in fat, salt, and added sugar), healthy fats/oils, water, and diet variety (possible score of 100). The index criteria were age specific. The mean DGI-CA score was low (53.6 ± 0.4), similar between boys and girls, and differed by age; the youngest children scored higher than the oldest children (P < 0.0001). Higher DGI-CA scores were associated with lower energy intake, energy density, total and saturated fat, and sugar intake; higher protein, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin C, vitamin A, folate, phosphorous, magnesium, zinc, and iodine intakes; and a higher polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio (P < 0.0001). DGI-CA scores were associated with socio-economic characteristics and measures of family circumstance. Weak positive associations were observed between DGI-CA score and BMI or waist circumference Z-scores in the 4- to 10-y and 12- to 16-y age groups only. This index is the first validated index in Australia and one of the few international indices to describe the diet quality of children and adolescents.
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Changing from regular-fat to low-fat dairy foods reduces saturated fat intake but not energy intake in 4-13-y-old children.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Dairy foods are nutrient rich but also a source of saturated fat in the diets of children.
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Assessing dietary intake in children and adolescents: Considerations and recommendations for obesity research.
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Abstract Dietary intake and food habits are important contributors to the obesity epidemic. They are highly modifiable components of energy balance and are usually targeted in both obesity prevention and treatment programs. However, measurement of total diet creates challenges and can convey a large burden in terms of cost, technical expertise, impact on respondents and time. It is not surprising therefore that comprehensive reports of dietary intake in children are uncommon and, when reported, have limitations. The aim of this paper is to guide researchers and practitioners in selecting the most appropriate dietary assessment method for situations involving children and adolescents. This paper presents a summary of the issues to consider when choosing a method, a description of some of the more commonly used dietary assessment methods for young people and a series of case-studies to illustrate the range of circumstances faced when measuring dietary intake. We recommend that researchers consider the specific components of dietary intake addressed in their research and practice, and whether diet should be reported comprehensively or as targeted components. Other considerations include age, cognitive ability, weight status, physical activity level, respondent burden, and reliability and validity in the context of program goals and research questions. A checklist for selecting the appropriate dietary methodology is provided. This guide aims to facilitate the reporting of dietary intake and food habits in the context of obesity using valid and reliable measures, thus contributing to the evidence-base for nutrition policies and programs relating to obesity.
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Childrens lunchtime food choices following the introduction of food-based standards for school meals: observations from six primary schools in Sheffield.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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To describe the lunchtime choices and nutritional intake of primary-school-aged children in England 4 months after the introduction of interim food-based standards for school lunches.
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Understanding parent concerns about childrens diet, activity and weight status: an important step towards effective obesity prevention interventions.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2009
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To identify parents concerns and attitudes towards childrens diets, activity habits and weight status.
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Reliability and validity of the Childrens Dietary Questionnaire; a new tool to measure childrens dietary patterns.
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2009
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To assess the reliability and validity of a new parent report measure of childrens dietary patterns, allowing assessment against national guidelines.
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Dietary patterns of infants and toddlers are associated with nutrient intakes.
Nutrients
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Dietary patterns are a useful summary measure of diet. Few studies have examined the nutrient profiles underpinning the dietary patterns of young children. The study aim is to determine whether dietary patterns at 6 and 15 months of age are associated with nutrient intakes at 8 and 18 months, respectively. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had complete dietary pattern and nutrient intake data (n = 725 at 6-8 months, n = 535 at 15-18 months). The association between tertiles of dietary pattern scores and nutrient intake was examined using a non-parametric test for trend. Scores on the home-made traditional pattern (6-8 months) were positively associated with median energy intake. Each dietary pattern had different associations with energy-adjusted intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients. At both times, the discretionary pattern was positively and the ready-prepared baby foods pattern was negatively associated with sodium intake. At 6-8 months, calcium and iron intakes decreased across scores on the home-made traditional and breastfeeding patterns, but increased across the ready-prepared baby food patterns. These findings highlight that dietary patterns in infants and toddlers vary in their underlying energy and nutrient composition.
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Dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months of age are associated with IQ at 8 years of age.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
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Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years. Associations between dietary patterns and IQ were examined in regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding and by propensity score matching, with data imputation for missing values. At all ages, higher scores on a Discretionary pattern (characterized by biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soda, crisps) were associated with 1-2 point lower IQ. A Breastfeeding pattern at 6 months and Home-made contemporary patterns at 15 and 24 months (herbs, legumes, cheese, raw fruit and vegetables) were associated with 1-to-2 point higher IQ. A Home-made traditional pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, desserts) at 6 months was positively associated with higher IQ scores, but there was no association with similar patterns at 15 or 24 months. Negative associations were found with patterns characterized by Ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months and positive associations with a Ready-to-eat foods pattern at 24 months. Propensity score analyses were consistent with regression analyses. This study suggests that dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months may have a small but persistent effect on IQ at 8 years.
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An index measuring adherence to complementary feeding guidelines has convergent validity as a measure of infant diet quality.
J. Nutr.
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The complementary feeding period is an important stage of child development. The study aim was to develop an index reflecting the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines, evaluate its convergent validity, and explore associations with socio-demographic factors and dietary pattern scores in childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 6065) using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age, socio-demographic information, and dietary patterns derived by principal component analysis at age 3 y. The Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI) consists of 14 components: breastfeeding duration, feeding to appetite, timing of introduction to solids, exposure to iron-rich cereals, fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to high-fat/-salt/-sugar foods including sugary drinks, food texture, and meal/snack frequency. Regression analyses were undertaken to investigate associations between index scores, socio-demographic factors, food and nutrient intakes, and dietary pattern scores at age 3 y. Milk and food intake at 6 mo and nutrient intake at 8 mo of age varied across quintiles of index score in largely the expected directions. Associations were found among index score, maternal age, education, social class, maternal smoking history, and prepregnancy BMI. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, the index score was associated with "processed" [? = -0.234 (95% CI = -0.260, -0.209)] and "healthy" [? = 0.185 (95% CI = 0.155, 0.215)] dietary pattern scores at age 3 y. The CFUI is able to discriminate across food intake, nutrient intake, and socio-demographic factors and is associated with later dietary patterns.
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Characterization of transition diets spanning infancy and toddlerhood: a novel, multiple-time-point application of principal components analysis.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
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The portrayal of diet over time is a natural progression from the characterization of diet at single time points. The transition dietary period, a dynamic period of rapid dietary change spanning infancy and toddlerhood when children shift from a milk-based to a food-based diet, has not been characterized.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.