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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Methodological considerations when translating "burnout"
Burn Res
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross-cultural instrument analysis, 7 out of 22 items on the instrument received an extremely low kappa score. Investigators may need to employ more rigorous cross-cultural adaptation methods when attempting to measure burnout.
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A comparison of hospital administrative costs in eight nations: US costs exceed all others by far.
Health Aff (Millwood)
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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A few studies have noted the outsize administrative costs of US hospitals, but no research has compared these costs across multiple nations with various types of health care systems. We assembled a team of international health policy experts to conduct just such a challenging analysis of hospital administrative costs across eight nations: Canada, England, Scotland, Wales, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States. We found that administrative costs accounted for 25.3 percent of total US hospital expenditures--a percentage that is increasing. Next highest were the Netherlands (19.8 percent) and England (15.5 percent), both of which are transitioning to market-oriented payment systems. Scotland and Canada, whose single-payer systems pay hospitals global operating budgets, with separate grants for capital, had the lowest administrative costs. Costs were intermediate in France and Germany (which bill per patient but pay separately for capital projects) and in Wales. Reducing US per capita spending for hospital administration to Scottish or Canadian levels would have saved more than $150 billion in 2011. This study suggests that the reduction of US administrative costs would best be accomplished through the use of a simpler and less market-oriented payment scheme.
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Integrated care experiences and outcomes in Germany, the Netherlands, and England.
Health Aff (Millwood)
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Care for people with chronic conditions is an issue of increasing importance in industrialized countries. This article examines three recent efforts at care coordination that have been evaluated but not yet included in systematic reviews. The first is Germany's Gesundes Kinzigtal, a population-based approach that organizes care across all health service sectors and indications in a targeted region. The second is a program in the Netherlands that bundles payments for patients with certain chronic conditions. The third is England's integrated care pilots, which take a variety of approaches to care integration for a range of target populations. Results have been mixed. Some intermediate clinical outcomes, process indicators, and indicators of provider satisfaction improved; patient experience improved in some cases and was unchanged or worse in others. Across the English pilots, emergency hospital admissions increased compared to controls in a difference-in-difference analysis, but planned admissions declined. Using the same methods to study all three programs, we observed savings in Germany and England. However, the disease-oriented Dutch approach resulted in significantly increased costs. The Kinzigtal model, including its shared-savings incentive, may well deserve more attention both in Europe and in the United States because it combines addressing a large population and different conditions with clear but simple financial incentives for providers, the management company, and the insurer.
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Germany: Health system review.
Health Syst Transit
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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This analysis of the German health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. In the German health care system, decision-making powers are traditionally shared between national (federal) and state (Land) levels, with much power delegated to self-governing bodies. It provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits. Since 2009, health insurance has been mandatory for all citizens and permanent residents, through either statutory or private health insurance. A total of 70 million people or 85% of the population are covered by statutory health insurance in one of 132 sickness funds in early 2014. Another 11% are covered by substitutive private health insurance. Characteristics of the system are free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels. A key feature of the health care delivery system in Germany is the clear institutional separation between public health services, ambulatory care and hospital (inpatient) care. This has increasingly been perceived as a barrier to change and so provisions for integrated care are being introduced with the aim of improving cooperation between ambulatory physicians and hospitals. Germany invests a substantial amount of its resources on health care: 11.4% of gross domestic product in 2012, which is one of the highest levels in the European Union. In international terms, the German health care system has a generous benefit basket, one of the highest levels of capacity as well as relatively low cost-sharing. However, the German health care system still needs improvement in some areas, such as the quality of care. In addition, the division into statutory and private health insurance remains one of the largest challenges for the German health care system, as it leads to inequalities.
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Licensing procedures and registration of medical doctors in the European Union.
Clin Med
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The current proposals to update the European Union (EU) directive on professional qualifications will have potentially important implications for health professions. Yet those discussing it will struggle to find basic information on key issues such as licensing and registration of physicians in different countries. A survey was conducted among national experts in 14 EU member states, supplemented by literature and independent expert review. The questionnaire covered five components of licensing and registration: (1) definitions, (2) regulatory basis, (3) governance, (4) the process of registration and (5) flow and quantity of applications. We identify seven areas of concern: (1) the meaning of terminology, which is inconsistent; (2) the role of language assessments and the responsibility for them; (3) whether approval to practise should be lifelong or time limited, subject to periodic assessment; (4) the need for improved systems to identify those deemed no longer fit to practise in one member state; (5) the complexity of processes for graduates from non-EU/European Economic Area (EAA) countries; (6) public access to registers; and (7) transparency of systems of governance. The systems of licensing and registration of doctors in Europe have developed within specific national contexts and vary widely. This creates inevitable problems in the context of free movement of professionals and increasing mobility.
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Disease management programs for type 2 diabetes in Germany: a systematic literature review evaluating effectiveness.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Disease management programs (DMPs) are intended to improve the care of persons with chronic diseases. Despite numerous studies there is no unequivocal evidence about the effectiveness of DMPs in Germany.
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Determining the impacts of hospital cost-sharing on the uninsured near-poor households in Vietnam.
Int J Equity Health
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The study objective was to identify the size of different hospital financing sources for different hospital services and their impact on the uninsured.
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The new regulation to investigate potentially beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic methods in Germany: up to international standard?
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Funding of diagnostic and therapeutic methods in Germany's statutory health insurance (SHI) follows a dichotomy: in outpatient care, only methods with proven benefit are reimbursed while in inpatient care, all methods may be provided unless they are excluded due to proven harm or lack of benefit. In January 2012, a new section 137e was added to the Social Code Book V (SGB V), allowing for the inclusion of innovative and potentially beneficial diagnostic or therapeutic methods in the SHI benefit basket, while additional evidence regarding their effectiveness and safety must be gathered. In 2013, the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) has specified the details of this new approach, which can be considered a variety of "Coverage with Evidence Development" (CED). Our comparison with CED schemes in selected countries reveals a dependence of the CED implementation on the encompassing healthcare system. However, we identify a clear legislative foundation, a definitive decision-making body, the possibility to obtain public funding, and the preference for high quality study designs as constituting factors of an emerging international standard for CED. In addition, it is necessary to ensure the suitability of circumstances and technologies for the successful application of CED in a clear and transparent way.
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Assessing the responsiveness of chronic disease care - is the World Health Organization's concept of health system responsiveness applicable?
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The concept of health system responsiveness is an important dimension of health system performance assessment. Further efforts have been made in recent years to improve the analysis of responsiveness measurements, yet few studies have applied the responsiveness concept to the evaluation of specific health care delivery structures. The objective of this study was to test the World Health Organization's (WHO's) responsiveness concept for an application in the evaluation of chronic disease care. In September and October 2012 we conducted four focus groups of chronically ill people (n = 38) in Germany, in which participants discussed their experiences and expectations regarding health care. The data was analyzed deductively (on the basis of the WHO responsiveness concept) and inductively using directed content analysis. Ten themes related to health system responsiveness and one theme (finances) not directly related to health system responsiveness, but of high importance to the focus group participants, could be identified. Eight of the ten responsiveness themes are consistent with the WHO concept. Additionally, two new themes were identified: trust (consultation and treatment are not led by any motive other than the patients' wellbeing) and coordination (treatment involving different providers is coordinated and different actors communicate with each other). These findings indicate the suitability of the WHO responsiveness concept for the evaluation of chronic disease care. However, some amendments, in particular an extension of the concept to include the two domains trust and coordination, are necessary for a thorough assessment of the responsiveness of chronic disease care.
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How health technology assessment agencies address the issue of unpublished data.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Reporting bias potentially threatens the validity of results in health technology assessment (HTA) reports. Our study aimed to explore policies and practices of HTA agencies regarding strategies to include previously unpublished data in their assessments, focusing on requests to industry for unpublished data.
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Nurse staffing and education and hospital mortality in nine European countries: a retrospective observational study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Austerity measures and health-system redesign to minimise hospital expenditures risk adversely affecting patient outcomes. The RN4CAST study was designed to inform decision making about nursing, one of the largest components of hospital operating expenses. We aimed to assess whether differences in patient to nurse ratios and nurses' educational qualifications in nine of the 12 RN4CAST countries with similar patient discharge data were associated with variation in hospital mortality after common surgical procedures.
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Recognition of pharmaceutical prescriptions across the European Union: A comparison of five Member States policies and practices.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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In 2011, the EU Directive on Patients Rights in Cross Border Healthcare was approved, including a regulation on mutual recognition of prescriptions.
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Obstacles to the recognition of medical prescriptions issued in one EU country and presented in another.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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A study involving the presentation of 192 Belgian or Finnish prescriptions in pharmacies in five other member states was undertaken to assess whether, as envisaged by European Union law, prescriptions issued in one member state are dispensed by pharmacists in another and to identify factors that influence such decisions. Overall, pharmacists were willing to dispense in 108 cases. Detailed results show important differences depending on the country where prescriptions are presented and whether prescriptions were written by International Nonproprietary Name and in English, as opposed to prescriptions written by brand in a national language.
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Hospital payment based on diagnosis-related groups differs in Europe and holds lessons for the United States.
Health Aff (Millwood)
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden spend less as a share of gross domestic product on hospital care than the United States while delivering high-quality services. All five European countries have hospital payment systems based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) that classify patients of similar clinical characteristics and comparable costs. Inspired by Medicares inpatient prospective payment system, which originated the use of DRGs, European DRG systems have implemented different design options and are generally more detailed than Medicares system, to better distinguish among patients with less and more complex conditions. Incentives to treat more cases are often counterbalanced by volume ceilings in European DRG systems. European payments are usually broader in scope than those in the United States, including physician salaries and readmissions. These European systems, discussed in more detail in the article, suggest potential innovations for reforming DRG-based hospital payment in the United States.
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Health care cost containment strategies used in four other high-income countries hold lessons for the United States.
Health Aff (Millwood)
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Around the world, rising health care costs are claiming a larger share of national budgets. This article reviews strategies developed to contain costs in health systems in Canada, England, France, and Germany in 2000-10. We used a comprehensive analysis of health systems and reforms in each country, compiled by the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. These countries rely on a number of budget and price-setting mechanisms to contain health care costs. Our review revealed trends in all four countries toward more use of technology assessments and payment based on diagnosis-related groups and the value of products or services. These policies may result in a more efficient use of health care resources, but we argue that they need to be combined with volume and price controls--measures unlikely to be adopted in the United States--if they are also to meet cost containment goals.
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Acute myocardial infarction and diagnosis-related groups: patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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As part of the diagnosis related groups in Europe (EuroDRG) project, researchers from 11 countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) compared how their DRG systems deal with patients admitted to hospital for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study aims to assist cardiologists and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems.
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Structural changes in the German pharmaceutical market: price setting mechanisms based on the early benefit evaluation.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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In the past, free price setting mechanisms in Germany led to high prices of patented pharmaceuticals and to increasing expenditures in the pharmaceutical sector. In order to control patented pharmaceutical prices and to curb increasing pharmaceutical spending, the Act for Restructuring the Pharmaceutical Market in Statutory Health Insurance (AMNOG) came into effect on 1st January 2011. In a structured dossier, pharmaceutical manufacturers have to demonstrate the additional therapeutic benefit of the newly approved pharmaceutical compared to its appropriate comparator. According to the level of additional benefit, pharmaceuticals will be subject to price negotiations between the Federal Association of Statutory Health Insurance Funds and the pharmaceutical company concerned (or assigned to a reference price group in case of no additional benefit). Therefore, the health care reform is a first step to decision making based on "value for money". The process of price setting based on early benefit evaluation has an impact on the German as well as the European pharmaceutical markets. Therefore, these structural changes in Germany are of importance for pricing decisions in many European countries both from a political point of view and for strategic planning for pharmaceutical manufacturers, which may have an effect on insured patients access to pharmaceuticals.
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Statutory health insurance competition in Europe: a four-country comparison.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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This paper explores the goals and implementation of reforms introducing choice of and competition among insurers providing statutory health coverage in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland. In theory, health insurance competition can enhance efficiency in health care administration and delivery only if people have free choice of insurer (consumer mobility), if insurers do not have incentives to select risks, and if insurers are able to influence health service quality and costs. In practice, reforms in the four countries have not always prioritised efficiency and implementation has varied. Differences in policy goals explain some but not all of the differences in implementation. Despite significant investment in risk adjustment, incentives for risk selection remain and consumer mobility is not evenly distributed across the population. Better risk adjustment might make it easier for older and less healthy people to change insurer. Policy makers could also do more to prevent insurers from linking the sale of statutory and voluntary health insurance, particularly where take-up of voluntary coverage is widespread. Collective negotiation between insurers and providers in Belgium, Germany and Switzerland curbs insurers ability to influence health care quality and costs. Nevertheless, while insurers in the Netherlands have good access to efficiency-enhancing tools, data and capacity constraints and resistance from stakeholders limit the extent to which tools are used. The experience of these countries offers an important lesson to other countries: it is not straightforward to put in place the conditions under which health insurance competition can enhance efficiency. Policy makers should not, therefore, underestimate the challenges involved.
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Poland health system review.
Health Syst Transit
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures, particularly in areas such as pharmaceuticals, are highly regressive. The health status of the Polish population has improved substantially, with average life expectancy at birth reaching 80.2 years for women and 71.6 years for men in 2009. However, there is still a vast gap in life expectancy between Poland and the western European Union (EU) countries and between life expectancy overall and the expected number of years without illness or disability. Given its modest financial, human and material health care resources and the corresponding outcomes, the overall financial efficiency of the Polish system is satisfactory. Both allocative and technical efficiency leave room for improvement. Several measures, such as prioritizing primary care and adopting new payment mechanisms such as diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), have been introduced in recent years but need to be expanded to other areas and intensified. Additionally, numerous initiatives to enhance quality control and build the required expertise and evidence base for the system are also in place. These could improve general satisfaction with the system, which is not particularly high. Limited resources, a general aversion to cost-sharing stemming from a long experience with broad public coverage and shortages in health workforce need to be addressed before better outcomes can be achieved by the system. Increased cooperation between various bodies within the health and social care sectors would also contribute in this direction. The HiT profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services, and the role of the main actors in health systems; they describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis.
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The wider determinants of inequalities in health: a decomposition analysis.
Int J Equity Health
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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The common starting point of many studies scrutinizing the factors underlying health inequalities is that material, cultural-behavioural, and psycho-social factors affect the distribution of health systematically through income, education, occupation, wealth or similar indicators of socioeconomic structure. However, little is known regarding if and to what extent these factors can assert systematic influence on the distribution of health of a population independent of the effects channelled through income, education, or wealth.
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From evidence assessments to coverage decisions?: the case example of glinides in Germany.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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In Germany, coverage decisions in the statutory health insurance (SHI) system are based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. Recently, an evidence assessment by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) of the oral antidiabetics of the glinide class showed that their long-term benefit is not proven. Accordingly, the responsible Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) decided to exclude glinides from prescription in the SHI system. This was, however, objected to by the Ministry of Health, which is charged with legal supervision. We use this case to illustrate the path from evidence assessments to coverage decisions in Germany against the background of the latest health reform, which has changed the legal requirements for evidence assessments and the ensuing coverage decisions.
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Gender in health technology assessment: pilot study on agency approaches.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
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Gender as a social construct is a recognized health determinant. Because best practice in reporting health technology assessment (HTA) clearly specifies the need to appraise a technologys social impact within the target population, the extent to which gender issues are taken into account in HTA production is of interest, not only in light of equitable practices but also for reasons of effectiveness. The aim of this study is to provide a first assessment of the degree of gender sensitivity shown by HTA agencies around the world today.
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Mapping research on health systems in Europe: a bibliometric assessment.
J Health Serv Res Policy
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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Europes health care decision-makers are facing an increasingly complex and rapidly changing landscape. It is crucial that health care problems are addressed with evidence-informed policy and that evidence finding is aimed at those topics most urgent on policy agendas. Research on health systems addresses the macro-level of health care delivery and aims at generating evidence for policy-making. Our aim was to assess the field of health systems research in Europe, primarily based on an analysis of the published literature.
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Hospital ownership and efficiency: a review of studies with particular focus on Germany.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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The German hospital market has been subject over the past two decades to a variety of healthcare reforms. Particularly the introduction of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in 2004 aimed to increase efficiency of hospitals. The objective of the paper is to review recent studies comparing the efficiency of German public, private non-profit and private for-profit hospitals. The results of the studies are quite mixed. However, in line with the evidence found in studies from other countries, especially the US, the evidence from Germany suggests that private ownership (i.e., private non-profit and private for-profit) is not necessarily associated with higher efficiency compared to public ownership. This may be a surprising result to many policy makers as private for-profit hospitals are often perceived the most efficient ownership type by the public.
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The impact of physician supply on avoidable cancer deaths in Germany. A spatial analysis.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Measures of avoidable deaths incorporate the notion that deaths from certain causes should not occur within specified age groups given effective prevention or timely and appropriate access to health care. The present study investigated the impact on specific types of avoidable cancer deaths (ACD) of regional variations in the supply of health services over five years using German districts (Kreise und kreisfreie Städte) as units of analysis.
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Nurse forecasting in Europe (RN4CAST): Rationale, design and methodology.
BMC Nurs
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Current human resources planning models in nursing are unreliable and ineffective as they consider volumes, but ignore effects on quality in patient care. The project RN4CAST aims innovative forecasting methods by addressing not only volumes, but quality of nursing staff as well as quality of patient care.
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Lean manufacturing and Toyota Production System terminology applied to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology.
Insights Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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OBJECTIVES: To apply the economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology. METHODS: The economic- and process-driven terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System is first presented, including information and product flow as well as value stream mapping (VSM), and then applied to an interdisciplinary setting of physicians, nurses and technicians from different medical departments to identify wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology. RESULTS: Using the so-called seven wastes approach of the Toyota Production System (waste of overproducing, waiting, transport, processing, inventory, motion and waste of defects and spoilage) as well as further waste characteristics (gross waste, process and method waste, and micro waste), wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology were identified and eliminated to create an overall smoother process from the procurement as well as from the medical perspective. CONCLUSION: Economic terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System, especially VSM, can be used to visualise and better understand processes in the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology from an economic point of view.
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Extracranial metastatic patterns on occurrence of brain metastases.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Extracranial metastases and their frequency by sites have been described as prognostic factors for survival of patients with brain metastasis. However, these factors must be identified and described in more detail for a large series of patients. Using routine data from the largest German health insurance fund, 5,074 patients with brain metastasis who were diagnosed and treated in 2008 were analyzed to identify the frequency and distribution of extracranial metastatic sites concurrent with brain metastasis in relation to age, gender, and tumor type. Brain metastases were observed in males more frequently than in females (56.4 and 43.6% respectively P < 0.001), and were most often from lung (51.2%), breast (12.3%), and unknown (7.5%) primaries. Extracranial metastatic sites were observed in 58.8% of patients; the number of sites was from 1 to 7, with a mean of 1.11. For the 16 most common primary sites the range was from 0.13 to 1.91 . In 11 of these 16 sites, lungs were the most common concurrent metastatic site. Lung cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and testicular cancer most commonly metastasized to bone, and bladder cancer to kidneys. Different primary tumors have different frequencies and patterns of extracranial metastatic sites concurrently with brain metastasis. The lung is the most common metastatic site of most primary tumors, bone for a few tumors, and kidneys for bladder cancer. For the unknown primary tumor type, screening for these most common metastatic sites must be intensified, in particular when molecular assessment is not available.
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Prescription prevalence and continuing medication use for secondary prevention after myocardial infarction: the reality of care revealed by claims data analysis.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Current guidelines recommend using aspirin, clopidogrel, beta-blockers, statins, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although there is evidence that patients often stop taking these medications prematurely, long-term data reflecting the actual reality of care are lacking. We studied prescription prevalence and treatment persistence of secondary prevention in patients who had an AMI by analyzing relevant claims data from a German sickness fund, the Techniker Krankenkasse (these data are not necessarily representative of the entire German population).
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Mental health in Vietnam: Burden of disease and availability of services.
Asian J Psychiatr
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Despite the accomplishments, the economic and social reform program of Vietnam has had negative effects, such as limited access to health care services for those disadvantaged in the new market economy. Among this group are persons with mental disorders. This paper aims to understand the burden of mental disorders and availability of mental health services (MHS) in Vietnam.
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DRG-based hospital payment systems and technological innovation in 12 European countries.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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To assess how diagnosis-related group-based (DRG-based) hospital payment systems in 12 European countries participating in the EuroDRG project pay and incorporate technological innovation.
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The cost-effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery versus surgical resection in the treatment of brain metastasis in Vietnam from the perspective of patients and families.
World Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the treatment of brain metastasis with surgical resection (SR) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the lower-middle-income country of Vietnam from the perspective of patients and families.
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The effects of gatekeeping: a systematic review of the literature.
Scand J Prim Health Care
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2010
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To assess the effects of physician-centred gatekeeping on health, health care utilization, and costs by conducting a systematic review of the literature.
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Temporal trends of cancer incidence in Vietnam, 1993-2007.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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There is a lack of an overview of overall and site-specific cancer incidence time trends in Vietnam, especially for the period after the year 2000. This paper aims at describing the development of cancer incidence for some cancer sites during 1993-2007.
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Coronary stents and the uptake of new medical devices in the German system of inpatient reimbursement.
J Interv Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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This study aims to analyze mechanisms for facilitating the uptake of new medical devices in the German system of hospital reimbursement, focusing on the example of coronary stents, including (1) trends in their coding, (2) associated diagnosis-related group (DRG) payments, (3) their integration in the German DRG (G-DRG) system, and (4) their diffusion within the inpatient sector.
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Learning from the European experience of using targets to improve population health.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2010
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Health targets have become a widely used instrument to promote population health. We describe the experience in England, where the use of targets has reached the most advanced stage of development, and other European countries. The experience demonstrates that targets may change the behavior of a health system, probably to a larger extent than many other policy instruments, if incentives are aligned correctly and if measures to deal with unintended effects are put in place.
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Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimers disease: a systematic review.
Wien Med Wochenschr
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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This systematic review determines the benefit of treatment with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo) in Alzheimers disease (AD) concerning patient-relevant outcomes. Bibliographic databases, clinical trial and study result registries were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with AD (follow-up ?16 weeks) comparing Ginkgo to placebo or a different treatment option. Manufacturers were asked to provide unpublished data. If feasible, data were pooled by meta-analysis. Six studies were eligible; overall, high heterogeneity was shown for most outcomes, except safety aspects. Among studies administering high-dose Ginkgo (240 mg), all studies favour treatment though effects remain heterogeneous. In this subgroup, a benefit of Ginkgo exists for activities of daily living. Cognition and accompanying psychopathological symptoms show an indication of a benefit. A harm of Ginkgo is not evident. An estimation of the effect size was not possible for any outcome. Further evidence is needed which focuses especially on subgroups of AD patients.
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[How to bring quality into the focus of health care--results of a delphi and stakeholder survey].
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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Although plenty of statutory requirements, concepts and tools to promote the quality of health care exist, Germanys health care system seems far from being pervaded by a vivid quality culture. In order to show ways how to succeed in developing and implementing such a quality culture in the German health care system, the Bertelsmann foundation conducted a delphi survey of seven quality of care experts and an online survey of 239 stakeholders, encompassing health care providers and representatives of the self administration of the health care system, politicians, the health care industry, and patient representatives. Based on the delphi results 31 theses within 12 subject areas have been formulated and assessed, which describe building blocks to put quality in the center of Germanys health care system. After dichotomizing the answers (school grades 1-6 into 1-2 = best, and 3-6 = worse) > 66% of the stakeholders rated 28 of 31 theses with grades 1-2. The ten most accepted theses received grades 1 or 2 from more than 85% of the stakeholders. Following the main results of the surveys, establishing a vivid quality culture requires outcome oriented quality goals and quality indicators to be defined, quality management to be embedded better into the education of all health care providers, and quality promotion to be introduced which is build on quality incentives and objective quality transparency. Since experts and stakeholders agree to such a high degree in the steps necessary to establish a quality culture in the German health care system, the realization of these steps seems to be possible.
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European network for health technology assessment, EUnetHTA: planning, development, and implementation of a sustainable European network for health technology assessment.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2009
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The European network on Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) aimed to produce tangible and practical results to be used in the various phases of health technology assessment and to establish a framework and processes to support this. This article presents the background, objectives, and organization of EUnetHTA, which involved a total of sixty-four partner organizations.
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[Competition in healthcare--a health systems perspective].
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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That "more competition in healthcare primarily produces more needs-based equity, better quality, higher efficiency, reduced costs and less bureaucracy" is a familiar claim. But is it correct? Three types of competition can be identified within a triangle: (1) competition among third-party-payers for insured individuals/customers, (2) competition among providers for patients, and (3) competition among third-party payers for contracts with providers--and vice versa. German and international evidence for these three types of competition demonstrates that many expectations--e.g., that patients can be steered based on quality information--are wishful thinking. Instead of market and competition, regulation is needed (e.g., in the form of an effective risk-based allocation mechanism) to ensure high-quality care for those 5% of the population incurring 50% of the healthcare expenditures (i.e., the seriously ill patients), while at the same time competition based on selective contracts does not pay off for the majority of the population due to high transaction costs.
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Balancing adoption and affordability of medical devices in Europe.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Dramatic increases in health expenditures have led to a substantial number of regulatory interventions in the markets for devices over the last years. However, little attention has been paid thus far to the regulation of medical devices and its effects. This article explores the policies pursued by European countries to find the right balance between improving access to new medical devices and restricting market forces to contain costs and ensure affordability. We outline the medical device policies of the four European countries with the largest expenditures on devices: Germany, France, Italy, and the UK. Subsequently, we discuss how these policies attempt to balance technological adoption and affordability by illustrating two case studies from Italy and Germany. We find that reference prices, if defined as maximum reimbursement levels, can help to achieve balance, because they are supposed to contain costs effectively, but do not necessarily act as a hurdle for the adoption of innovations. We also find that policy tools that encourage technological adoption should be used carefully since the benefits of a new technology are often difficult to predict. Finally, we draw a number of policy implications based on our observations.
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Developing Health Technology Assessment to address health care system needs.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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This article discusses the development of Heath Technology Assessment methods and HTA institutions, in regards to meeting the information needs of all levels and fields of health policy-making. On the one hand, HTA needs to expand and develop its methods. Although health products and health care services have been its preponderant focus to date, HTA should develop to increase its focus on the "technologies applied to health care" (i.e. the regulatory and policy measures for managing and organizing health care systems) and on policies in non-health care sectors. Such a knowledge synthesis for health policy should not necessarily be called HTA or conducted by narrowly defined HTA agencies. However, the trends observed in several European HTA agencies indicate the recognition of these development needs. Countries embarking on HTA should not consider establishing separate agencies for HTA, quality development, performance measurement, and health services development, but should rather combine these functions and goals into a common knowledge strategy for evidence-informed decision-making on health care and the health system.
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Measuring, monitoring, and managing quality in Germanys hospitals.
Health Aff (Millwood)
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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In German hospitals, quality measurement, monitoring, and management have undergone considerable development. This includes an array of mandatory measures, including a nationwide benchmarking exercise based on 194 indicators. Because of better and deeper coding of diagnoses, procedures, and demographic information since the introduction of the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system, two further "generations" of instruments have been developed: quality measurement performed at the provider (hospital) level using administrative data, and long-term performance measurement using administrative data at the payer level. All three approaches have specific pros and cons concerning validity regarding final outcomes and resistance against manipulation.
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Nurse migration in Europe--can expectations really be met? Combining qualitative and quantitative data from Germany and eight of its destination and source countries.
Int J Nurs Stud
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While nurse migration has received considerable political attention since the EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007, most research concentrated on the specific migration motives and the impact on health care systems, while little research focused on the experiences of nurses abroad or combined these experiences with research on working conditions in hospitals.
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Patient-level hospital costs and length of stay after conventional versus minimally invasive total hip replacement: a propensity-matched analysis.
Value Health
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A current trend in total hip replacement (THR) is the use of minimally invasive surgery. Little is known, however, about the impact of minimally invasive THR on resource use and length of stay. This study analyzed the effect of minimally invasive surgery on hospital costs and length of stay in German hospitals compared with conventional treatment in THR.
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Breast cancer surgery and diagnosis-related groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries.
Breast
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Researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) compared how their DRG systems deal with breast cancer surgery patients. DRG algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were assessed for those DRGs that individually contain at least 1% of all breast cancer surgery patients. Six standardised case vignettes were defined and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained. European DRG systems classify breast cancer surgery patients according to different sets of classification variables into three to seven DRGs. Quasi prices for an index case treated with partial mastectomy range from €577 in Poland to €5780 in the Netherlands. Countries award their highest payments for very different kinds of patients. Breast cancer specialists and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries DRG systems classify breast cancer patients in order to identify potential scope for improvement and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement.
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Mobility of health professionals pre and post 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements: evidence from the EU project PROMeTHEUS.
Health Policy
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EU enlargement has facilitated the mobility of EU citizens, including health professionals, from the 2004 and 2007 EU accession states. Fears have been raised about a mass exodus of health professionals and the consequences for the operation of health systems. However, to date a systematic analysis of the EU enlargements effects on the mobility of health professionals has been lacking. The aim of this article is to shed light on the changes in the scale of movement, trends and directions of flows pre and post 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements.
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Comparison of hospital costs and length of stay associated with open-mesh, totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair, and transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: an analysis of observational data using propensity score matching.
Surg Endosc
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Laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery is increasingly seen as the superior technique in hernia repair. Compared to open-mesh hernia repair, laparoscopic approaches are often reported to be more cost-effective but incur higher costs for the provider. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) and totally extraperitoneal (TEP) repair of nonincarcerated inguinal hernias in men on hospital costs and length of stay (LoS).
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Assessing the effectiveness of strategies to implement clinical guidelines for the management of chronic diseases at primary care level in EU Member States: a systematic review.
Health Policy
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This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to implement clinical guidelines for chronic disease management in primary care in EU Member States.
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Clinical guidelines in the European Union: mapping the regulatory basis, development, quality control, implementation and evaluation across member states.
Health Policy
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Clinical guidelines are advocated to improve the quality of care, especially for chronic diseases. However, the regulatory basis of clinical guidelines, their development, quality control, implementation and use as well as evaluation within countries across the European Union is not systematically known.
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Effectiveness and cost of atypical versus typical antipsychotic treatment in a nationwide cohort of patients with schizophrenia in Germany.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
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This study investigates the effectiveness and cost of typical versus atypical antipsychotics in a nationwide German cohort of patients with schizophrenia. The study sample consisted of patients insured with 4 sickness funds (n = 8,610) who were followed up for 12 months after hospital discharge with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in 2003. Multivariate regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between outcome variables (rehospitalization, bed-days, prescriptions against adverse effects, cost) and medication type, sex, age, and severity. Severity was assessed by prior bed-days due to schizophrenia during 2000 to 2002. Risk of rehospitalization did not differ between groups but within each group severity (P = 0.0003). Males (P = 0.0016) and patients younger than 35 years (P < 0.0001) had a higher risk of rehospitalization. Number of bed-days was lower for treatment with typicals compared with atypicals (P < 0.0001); furthermore, bed-days depended on severity of disease (P < 0.0001). Prescriptions of drugs against extrapyramidal symptoms, anxiety, and agitation were higher for patients treated with typicals (P < 0.0001 for each). Mean predicted treatment cost per year was € 6442 for atypicals versus € 4443 for typicals (P < 0.0001). This study does not support unconditional superiority of atypicals over typicals, neither in terms of effectiveness nor in terms of cost.
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Analysing arrangements for cross-border mobility of patients in the European Union: a proposal for a framework.
Health Policy
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This paper proposes a framework for analyzing arrangements set up to facilitate cross-border mobility of patients in the European Union. Exploiting both conceptual analysis and data from a range of case studies carried out in a number of European projects, and building on Walt and Gilsons model of policy analysis, the framework consists of five major components, each with a subset of categories or issues: (1) The actors directly and indirectly involved in setting up and promoting arrangements, (2) the content of the arrangements, classified into four categories (e.g. purchaser-provider and provider-provider or joint cross-border providers), (3) the institutional framework of the arrangements (including the underlying European and national legal frameworks, health systems characteristics and payment mechanisms), (4) the processes that have led to the initiation and continuation, or cessation, of arrangements, (5) contextual factors (e.g. political or cultural) that impact on cross-border patient mobility and thus arrangements to facilitate them. The framework responds to what is a clearly identifiable demand for a means to analyse these interrelated concepts and dimensions. We believe that it will be useful to researchers studying cross-border collaborations and policy makers engaging in them.
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The introduction of DRG funding and hospital nurses changing perceptions of their practice environment, quality of care and satisfaction: comparison of cross-sectional surveys over a 10-year period.
Int J Nurs Stud
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As other countries which have introduced diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) to pay their hospitals Germany initially expected that quality of care could deteriorate. Less discussed were potential implications for nurses, who might feel the efficiency-increasing effects of DRGs on their daily work, which in turn may lead to an actual worsening of care quality.
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Cross-cultural evaluation of the relevance of the HCAHPS survey in five European countries.
Int J Qual Health Care
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To describe the systematic language translation and cross-cultural evaluation process that assessed the relevance of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey in five European countries prior to national data collection efforts.
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Systematic review of the methodological quality of clinical guideline development for the management of chronic disease in Europe.
Health Policy
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The use of evidence-based clinical guidelines is an essential component of chronic disease management. However, there is well-documented concern about variability in the quality of clinical guidelines, with evidence of persisting methodological shortcomings. The most widely accepted approach to assessing the quality of guidelines is the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument. We have conducted a systematic review of the methodological quality (as assessed by AGREE) of clinical guidelines developed in Europe for the management of chronic diseases published since 2000.
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Comparing the cost-effectiveness of two brain metastasis treatment modalities from a payers perspective: stereotactic radiosurgery versus surgical resection.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
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This study aims to identify the cost-effectiveness of two brain metastatic treatment modalities, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) versus surgical resection (SR), from the perspective of Germanys Statutory Health Insurance (SHI) System.
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Process mapping of PTA and stent placement in a university hospital interventional radiology department.
Insights Imaging
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To apply the process mapping technique in an interdisciplinary approach in order to visualize, better understand, and efficiently organize percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement procedures in a university hospitals interventional radiology department.
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Cost effectiveness of drug-eluting stents in acute myocardial infarction patients in Germany: results from administrative data using a propensity score-matching approach.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy
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The high number of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has facilitated greater research, resulting in the development of innovative medical devices. So far, results from economic evaluations that compared drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS) have not shown clear evidence that one intervention is more cost effective than the other.
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A systematic survey instrument translation process for multi-country, comparative health workforce studies.
Int J Nurs Stud
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As health services research (HSR) expands across the globe, researchers will adopt health services and health worker evaluation instruments developed in one country for use in another. This paper explores the cross-cultural methodological challenges involved in translating HSR in the language and context of different health systems.
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Healthcare financing in Syria: satisfaction with the current system and the role of national health insurance--a qualitative study of householders views.
Int J Health Plann Manage
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This study aims to identify the satisfaction with the current public health system and health benefit schemes, examine willingness to participate in national health insurance and review expectations and preferences of national health insurance. To this end, qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out with 19 Syrian householders. Our results show that a need for health reform exists and that Syrian people are willing to support a national health insurance scheme if some key issues are properly addressed. Funding of the scheme is a major concern and should take into account the ability to pay and help the poor. In addition, waiting times should be shortened and sufficient coverage guaranteed. On the whole, the people would support a national health insurance with national pooling and purchasing under a public set-up, but important concerns of such a system regarding corruption and inefficiency were voiced too. Installing a quasi non-governmental organisation as manager of the insurance system under the stewardship of the Ministry of Health could provide a compromise acceptable to the people.
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Leadership and governance in seven developed health systems.
Health Policy
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This paper explores leadership and governance arrangements in seven developed health systems: Australia, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. It presents a cybernetic model of leadership and governance comprising three fundamental functions: priority setting, performance monitoring and accountability arrangements. The paper uses a structured survey to examine critically current arrangements in the seven countries. Approaches to leadership and governance vary substantially, and have to date been developed piecemeal and somewhat arbitrarily. Although there seems to be reasonable consensus on broad goals of the health system there is variation in approaches to setting priorities. Cost-effectiveness analysis is in widespread use as a basis for operational priority setting, but rarely plays a central role. Performance monitoring may be the domain where there is most convergence of thinking, although countries are at different stages of development. The third domain of accountability is where the greatest variation occurs, and where there is greatest uncertainty about the optimal approach. We conclude that a judicious mix of accountability mechanisms is likely to be appropriate in most settings, including market mechanisms, electoral processes, direct financial incentives, and professional oversight and control. The mechanisms should be aligned with the priority setting and monitoring processes.
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Paying for hospital care: the experience with implementing activity-based funding in five European countries.
Health Econ Policy Law
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Following the US experience, activity-based funding has become the most common mechanism for reimbursing hospitals in Europe. Focusing on five European countries (England, Finland, France, Germany and Ireland), this paper reviews the motivation for introducing activity-based funding, together with the empirical evidence available to assess the impact of implementation. Despite differences in the prevailing approaches to reimbursement, the five countries shared several common objectives, albeit with different emphasis, in moving to activity-based funding during the 1990s and 2000s. These include increasing efficiency, improving quality of care and enhancing transparency. There is substantial cross-country variation in how activity-based funding has been implemented and developed. In Finland and Ireland, for instance, activity-based funding is principally used to determine hospital budgets, whereas the models adopted in the other three countries are more similar to the US approach. Assessing the impact of activity-based funding is complicated by a shortage of rigorous empirical evaluations. What evidence is currently available, though, suggests that the introduction of activity-based funding has been associated with an increase in activity, a decline in length of stay and/or a reduction in the rate of growth in hospital expenditure in most of the countries under consideration.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.