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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Predictors and long-term outcome of seizures in human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)-negative cryptococcal meningitis.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Seizures are one of the most important neurologic complications of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)-negative cryptococcal meningitis. A better understanding of the risk associated factors can help predict those who will require treatment.
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[Isolation, identification and genetic analysis of a murine norovirus strain].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Murine norovirus (MNV) was first discovered in mice in 2003. MNV is a member of the genus Norovirus in the family Caliciviridae. It is one of the most important and prevalent pathogens of laboratory mice, and almost all mouse strains are susceptible to MNV infection. In this study, a MNV strain was isolated from the cecal contents of infected mice and identified by the cytopathic effect (CPE) assay, virus plaque assay, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay, electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and nucleotide sequencing. On infection, the RAW264.7 cell line showed obvious cytopathic effects within 24 to 48 hours post-inoculation, as infected cells became rounded, bright and shrunken, with ultimate disintegration of the cell sheet. After the isolation of the MNV virus, the virus was plaque-purified in RAW264.7 cells. The TCID50 of the virus was 10(5.25/0.1 mL. Electron microscopic observations of the purified virus showed the presence of spherical and non-enveloped viral particles that were 30 to 35 nm in diameter. According to the identification results, the isolate was named as MNV Guangzhou/K162/09/CHN. Thereafter, five overlapping gene fragments that covered the entire open reading frame (ORF) were amplified by RT-PCR, and the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and 5'-UTR were amplified using the 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and the 5'-RACE method, respectively. Each of the gene fragments were cloned and sequenced, and whole genome sequences of the strain were obtained by assembling the cDNA fragment sequences. The results showed that the length of the complete genome was 7 380 nucleotides (GenBank accession number: HQ317203). The comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the isolate was performed against other MNV strains in the GenBank database. A phylogenetic tree based on VP1 nucleotide sequences was constructed using MEGA5.0 software. The homology of nucleotides between the MNV Guangzhou/K162/09/CHN strain and other MNV isolates ranged from 87.4% to 89.7%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there was a close genetic relationship between the Guangzhou/K162/09/CHN strain and MNV strains isolated from Japan (S7-P2 and S7-PP3 isolates), Korea (K4 isolate), and Germany (Berlin/04/06/DE and Berlin/05/06/DE isolates). This is the first report of the isolation and identification of MNV in China, and the first report of the genetic analysis of its complete genome.
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Risk factors of hyperammonemia in patients with epilepsy under valproic acid therapy.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Hyperammonemia has been reported to be associated with patients who receive valproic acid (VPA) therapy. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for hyperammonemia in patients with epilepsy treated with VPA. One hundred and fifty-eight adult patients with epilepsy aged older than 17 years who received VPA therapy were enrolled into this study. Blood samples were taken during the interictal state and analyzed for the blood level of ammonia. Statistical analysis was conducted between different groups of patients. The results showed that the frequency of hyperammonemia associated with VPA therapy was 27.8% (ammonia level >93?µg/dL), and 5.1% of the patients had severe hyperammonemia (ammonia level >150?µg/dL). The blood ammonia level was significantly correlated with the dosage of VPA and the plasma concentration of VPA. An increase of 1?mg in the dosage of VPA increased the risk of hyperammonemia by 0.1%. In addition, combination treatment with liver enzyme inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and antipsychotic drugs increased the risk of hyperammonemia. In conclusion, the use of VPA in adult patients with epilepsy was associated with a dose-dependent increase in blood concentrations of ammonia. Combination treatment with liver enzyme-inducing AEDs and antipsychotic drugs increased the risk of VPA-induced hyperammonemia. Most of the patients with VPA-induced hyperammonemia were asymptomatic; however, if patients taking VPA present with symptoms such as nausea, fatigue, somnolence, ataxia, and consciousness disturbance, the blood ammonia level should be measured.
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Protumoral effect of macrophage through Axl activation on mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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This study aims to test the potential involvement of Axl signaling in the protumoral effect of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC).
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Suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling by synthetic bichalcone analog TSWU-CD4 induces ER stress- and Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Suppression of the activity of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins frequently confers chemoresistance to many human cancer cells. Using subcellular fractionation, the ER calcium (Ca(++)) channel inhibitor dantrolene and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Bax or Bak, we show that the new synthetic bichalcone analog TSWU-CD4 induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by releasing endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stored Ca(++) through ER/mitochondrial oligomerization of Bax/Bak. Blockade of the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase or the unfolded protein response regulator glucose-regulated protein 78 expression by siRNA not only suppressed oligomeric Bax/Bak-mediated pro-caspase-12 cleavage and apoptosis but also resulted in an inhibition of Bcl-2 downregulation induced by TSWU-CD4. Induction of the ER oligomerization of Bax/Bak and apoptosis by TSWU-CD4 were suppressed by Bcl-2 overexpression. Inhibition of lipid raft-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling by TSWU-CD4 induced ER stress- and oligomeric Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis, which were substantially reversed by overexpression of the wt PI3K p85? subunit. Taken together, these results suggest that suppression of lipid raft-associated PI3K/Akt signaling is required for the ER stress-mediated apoptotic activity of Bax/Bak, which is responsible for the ability of TSWU-CD4-treated cancer cells to exit the ER-mitochondrial apoptotic cell death pathway.
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Thermochromic luminescent nest-like silver thiolate cluster.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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A novel discrete open high-nuclearity nest-like silver thiolate cluster complex, [Ag33 S3 (StBu)16 (CF3 COO)9 (NO3 )(CH3 CN)2 ](NO3 ) (1), has been isolated with nitrate and S(2-) anions acting as structure-directing templates. Its similar nest-like structure has been assembled into an extended layer [Ag31 S3 (StBu)16 (NO3 )9 ]n (2) by adjustment of auxiliary ligand. More interestingly, both complexes exhibit temperature-dependent luminescence of high sensitivity with a large fluorescence enhancement (12-fold for 1, 21-fold for 2), which can be easily recognized by the naked-eye (dramatic red-shift ?=104?nm for 1, larger ?=113?nm for 2 at 77?K compared to those at 298?K). The correlation between luminescent thermochromism and temperature-dependent variation of the coordination modes of template NO3 (-) anion, Ag???S and Ag???Ag distances are also elucidated through variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray crystal structure (VT-SCXRD) analyses.
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ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-chemotherapy sequential consolidation achieves long-term efficacy in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3, ATO) has been effective in obtaining high clinical complete remission (CR) rates in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but the long-term efficacy and safety among newly diagnosed APL patients are unclear. In this retrospective study, total 45 newly diagnosed APL patients received ATRA/chemotherapy combination regimen to induce remission. Among them, 43 patients (95.6%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, followed by ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-based chemotherapy sequential consolidation treatment with a median follow-up of 55 months. In these patients, the estimated overall survival (OS) and the relapse-free survival (RFS) were 94.4% ± 3.9% and 94.6 ± 3.7%, respectively. The toxicity profile was mild and reversible. No secondary carcinoma was observed. These results demonstrated the high efficacy and minimal toxicity of ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-based chemotherapy sequential consolidation treatment for newly diagnosed APL in long-term follow-up, suggesting a potential frontline therapy for APL.
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Increased Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Alzheimer's Disease-Like Alterations in Slit-2 Transgenic Mice.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that primarily affects memory, and its prevalence is rising. Increasing evidence suggests that dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be involved in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we report that the permeability of the BBB is increased and that AD-like alterations are present in Slit-2 overexpressing transgenic mice. We found that behavioral change and the corresponding molecular diagnostic markers of AD, such as hippocampal neuron apoptosis, amyloid-? (A?) protein deposition, and acetylcholinesterase expression, were increased in the Slit-2 transgenic mice. Moreover, the endothelial cells were dysfunctional, the size of the lateral ventricle cavity increased, and the permeability of the BBB increased. Additionally, there was an increased serum level of glutamate indicating that the BBB is related to AD. Finally, histopathological analysis of other organs in the Slit-2 overexpressing mice did not show any marked abnormalities. These findings demonstrate that Slit2 overexpression may be responsible for AD-like alterations and the increased BBB permeability in these mice. Our study provides a potential novel mechanism for the development of AD.
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Khz-cp (crude polysaccharide extract obtained from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating P38 and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in SNU-
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Khz-cp is a crude polysaccharide extract that is obtained after nuclear fusion in Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia (Khz). It inhibits the growth of cancer cells.
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Factorial study of moxibustion in treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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To identify an appropriate therapeutic regimen for using aconite cake-separated moxibustion to treat diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS).
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The national-scale cohort study on bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in Taiwan.
J Dent
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a potential side effect of bisphosphonate therapy. This Taiwanese national-scale cohort study aimed to investigate its incidence and risk of development by using a qualified control group with different demographic factors (age/gender), dental (tooth extraction/periodontal therapy) and medical (jaw radiotherapy) treatments, delivery routes (oral/intravenous), and diseases (diabetes/osteoporosis/cancer).
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Evaluation of candidate measures for home-based screening of sleep disordered breathing in Taiwanese bus drivers.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Sleepiness-at-the-wheel has been identified as a major cause of highway accidents. The aim of our study is identifying the candidate measures for home-based screening of sleep disordered breathing in Taiwanese bus drivers, instead of polysomnography.
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A novel approach to propagate flavivirus infectious cDNA clones in bacteria by introducing tandem repeat sequences upstream of virus genome.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Despite tremendous efforts to improve the methodology for constructing flavivirus infectious cDNAs, the manipulation of flavivirus cDNAs remains a difficult task in bacteria. Here, we successfully propagated DNA-launched type 2 dengue virus (DENV2) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infectious cDNAs by introducing seven repeats of the tetracycline-response element (7×TRE) and a minimal cytomegalovirus (CMVmin) promoter upstream of the viral genome. Insertion of the 7×TRE-CMVmin sequence upstream of the DENV2 or JEV genome decreased the cryptic E. coli promoter (ECP) activity of the viral genome in bacteria, as measured using fusion constructs containing DENV2 or JEV segments and the reporter gene Renilla luciferase in an empty vector. The growth kinetics of recombinant viruses derived from DNA-launched DENV2 and JEV infectious cDNAs were similar to those of parental viruses. Similarly, RNA-launched DENV2 infectious cDNAs were generated by inserting 7×TRE-CMVmin, five repeats of the GAL4 upstream activating sequence, or five repeats of BamHI linkers upstream of the DENV2 genome. All three tandem repeat sequences decreased the ECP activity of the DENV2 genome in bacteria. Notably, 7×TRE-CMVmin stabilized RNA-launched JEV infectious cDNAs and reduced the ECP activity of the JEV genome in bacteria. The growth kinetics of recombinant viruses derived from RNA-launched DENV2 and JEV infectious cDNAs displayed patterns similar to those of the parental viruses. These results support a novel methodology for constructing flavivirus infectious cDNAs, which will facilitate research in virology, viral pathogenesis and vaccine development of flaviviruses and other RNA viruses.
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Exogenous endothelin-1 induces cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase expression in U251 human glioblastoma multiforme.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal type of primary brain tumor characterized by its rapid infiltration to surrounding tissues during the early stages. The fast spreading of GBM obscures the initiation of the tumor mass making the treatment outcome undesirable. Endothelin-1 is known as a secretory protein presented in various types of brain cells, which has been indicated as a factor for cancer pathology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of cell migration in GBM. We found that various malignant glioma cells expressed higher amounts of endothelin-1, ETA, and ETB receptors than nonmalignant human astrocytes. The application of endothelin-1 enhanced the migratory activity in human U251 glioma cells corresponding to increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-13. The endothelin-1-induced cell migration was attenuated by MMP-9 and MMP-13 inhibitors and inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and PI3 kinase/Akt. Furthermore, the elevated levels of phosphate c-Jun accumulation in the nucleus and activator protein-1 (AP-1)-DNA binding activity were also found in endothelin-1 treated glioma cells. In migration-prone sublines, cells with greater migration ability showed higher endothelin-1, ETB receptor, and MMP expressions. These results indicate that endothelin-1 activates MAP kinase and AP-1 signaling, resulting in enhanced MMP-9 and MMP-13 expressions and cell migration in GBM.
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HBP1 promoter methylation augments the oncogenic ?-catenin to correlate with prognosis in NSCLC.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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?-catenin nuclear accumulation is frequently identified in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The HMG-box transcription factor 1 (HBP1) is a known repressor of ?-catenin transactivation. However, the role of HBP1 in relation to ?-catenin nuclear accumulation has not been addressed in human cancer patients. In addition, the mechanism of HBP1 gene alteration in NSCLC remains unclear, although HBP1 mutation and gene deletion of HBP1 are reported in breast and colon cancers. Here, we demonstrate that HBP1 acts as a tumour suppressor and serves as a prognostic biomarker in NSCLC clinical and cell models. The immunohistochemistry data indicated that 30.5% (25/82) of tumours from NSCLC patients showed absence or low expression of HBP1 protein. A significant inverse correlation between mRNA/protein expression and promoter hypermethylation suggested that promoter hypermethylation is responsible for low expression of HBP1 in NSCLC patients. Reactivation of HBP1 expression by demethylation reagent or ectopic expression of HBP1 suppressed ?-catenin transactivation. Conversely, HBP1 knockdown increased ?-catenin transactivation. Importantly, preserved expression of HBP1 had a significantly protective effect on prognosis in patients with ?-catenin nuclear accumulation, suggesting that low expression of HBP1 in NSCLC patients with ?-catenin nuclear accumulation was one of the major determinants of prognosis. Our data from cellular and clinical models suggest that HBP1 is a suppressor of cancer progression, making it a potential prognostic predictor and therapeutic target to attenuate lung cancer progression.
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The fruits of wampee inhibit H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells via the NF-?B pathway and regulation of cellular redox status.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Wampee (Clausena lansium) fruits (CLS), whose pulp can be used to prepare fruit cups, desserts, jam, or jelly, can be eaten along with the peel. In this study, a PC12 cell model was built to observe the protective effect of CLS against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. We found that pretreatment with CLS increased cell viability and inhibited cytotoxicity, caspase-3 activity and DNA condensation. CLS also attenuated the increase in ROS production and MMP reduction. Moreover, we attempted to determine whether CLS suppressed the expression and phosphorylation of NF-?B. Western blot and immunostaining assay revealed that CLS inhibited H2O2-induced up-regulation of NF-?B p65 and pNF-?B p65. And CLS significantly suppressed the translocation of NF-?B p65 and pNF-?B p65 from cytoplasm to nuclear. Also, seven major compounds including a new flavanoid, luteolin-4'-O-?-d-gluco-pyranoside (3) and six known compounds 1,2, 4-7 were isolated and identified from CLS. Their antioxidative and H2O2-induced PC12 cell apoptosis-reversing activity were determined. These findings suggest that CLS and its major constituents (flavanoids) may be potential antioxidant agents and should encourage further research into their use as a functional food for neurodegenerative diseases.
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Mortality of major cancers in Guangxi, China: sex, age and geographical differences from 1971 and 2005.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The incidence and mortality rates of liver and nasopharyngeal cancer in Guangxi province of China have always been among the highest in the world, and cancer is one of the major diseases that pose a threat to the health of residents in Guangxi. However, no systematic study has been performed to evaluate the time trends in the structure of cancer-related deaths and cancer mortality. In this study, we reveal sex, age and geography differences of cancers mortality between three death surveys (1971 to 1973, 1990 to 1992, and 2004 to 2005). The results show that the standardized mortality rate of cancer in Guangxi residents has risen from 43.3/100,000 to 84.2/100,000, the share of cancer deaths in all-cause deaths has increased from 13.3% to 20.7%, and cancer has become the second most common cause of death. The five major cancers, liver cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and colorectal cancer, account for 60% of all the cancer deaths. Cancers with growing mortality rates over the past 30 years include lung cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and female breast cancer, of which lung cancer is associated with the sharpest rise in mortality, with a more than 600% rise in both men and women. Cancer death in Guangxi residents occurs mainly in the elderly population above 45 years of age, especially in people over the age of 65. The areas with the highest mortality rates for liver cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer, which feature regional high incidences, include Chongzuo and Wuzhou. Therefore, for major cancers such as liver cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and female breast cancer in Guangxi, we can select high-risk age groups as the target population for cancer prevention and control efforts in high-prevalence areas in a bid to achieve the ultimate goal of lowering cancer mortality in Guangxi.
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Epidemiologic characterization of 30 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Hangzhou, China.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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We examined the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 30 cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Hangzhou and investigated their external environments to provide evidence for contact tracing and disease prevention and control.
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Association between oxidative stress and outcome in different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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This study investigated serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and free thiol levels in different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and evaluated their association with clinical outcomes.
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The association between autoantibodies and peripheral neuropathy in lupus nephritis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers used for predicting peripheral neuropathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephritis (SLE-LN) remain unsatisfactory. This study aimed to determine the autoantibodies levels in SLE-LN patients with peripheral neuropathy.
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The association between serological biomarkers and primary Sjogren's syndrome associated with peripheral polyneuropathy.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers used for predicting peripheral neuropathy of Sjogren's syndrome (SJS) patients remain unsatisfactory. This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of circulating autoantibodies levels in SJS patients with peripheral neuropathy.
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Predictors of pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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In this study, we evaluated the factors associated with a pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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Resveratrol partially prevents rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells through induction of heme oxygenase-1 dependent autophagy.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress or protein misfolding and aggregation may underlie this process. Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic mechanism responsible for protein degradation and recycling of damaged proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. Autophagic dysfunction may hasten the progression of neuronal degeneration. In this study, resveratrol promoted autophagic flux and protected dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced apoptosis. In an in vivo PD model, rotenone induced loss of dopaminergic neurons, increased oxidation of mitochondrial proteins and promoted autophagic vesicle development in brain tissue. The natural phytoalexin resveratrol prevented rotenone-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro, and this pro-survival effect was abolished by an autophagic inhibitor. Although both rotenone and resveratrol promoted LC3-II accumulation, autophagic flux was inhibited by rotenone and augmented by resveratrol. Further, rotenone reduced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, whereas resveratrol increased HO-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HO-1 abolished resveratrol-mediated autophagy and neuroprotection. Notably, the effects of a pharmacological inducer of HO-1 were similar to those of resveratrol, and protected against rotenone-induced cell death in an autophagy-dependent manner, validating the hypothesis of HO-1 dependent autophagy in preventing neuronal death in the in vitro PD model. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol induces HO-1 expression and prevents dopaminergic cell death by regulating autophagic flux; thus protecting against rotenone-induced neuronal apoptosis.
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A role for diallyl trisulfide in mitochondrial antioxidative stress contributes to its protective effects against vascular endothelial impairment.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Persistent hyperglycemia increases a systemic oxidative stress, causing the onset of vascular endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Diallyl trisulfide (DAT), a natural organosulfur compound in garlic, has been reported to have actions of dilating blood vessels and antibacteria, etc. In this study, models of obese diabetic rat in vivo and high glucose concentration (HG)-induced endothelial cell injury in vitro were used to investigate the protective effects of DAT on vascular endothelial injury and its underlying mechanisms. In the in vivo model, the obese diabetic rats were injected venously with DAT (5.0 mg kg(-1)d(-1)) and Vitamin E (1.0 mg kg(-1)d(-1)) respectively, once daily for 7 consecutive days. In the in vitro model, HG-injured HUVEC were treated with or without DAT (25 µmol L(-1), 50 µmol L(-1), 100 µmol L(-1)) or Vitamin E (25 µmol L(-1)) respectively for 24h. The extents of vascular endothelial injury and protective effects of DAT were evaluated. The results both in vivo and in vitro displayed that DAT-treatment significantly attenuated the endothelial cell impairments. Besides, DAT-treatment markedly decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species, whereas elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mitochondrium. Moreover, DAT-treatment considerably improved mitochondrial respiration function. Taken together, our results suggest that DAT protects vascular endothelium from HG or hyperglycemia induced-injury by reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress. The findings provide a novel insight for DAT to potentially treat the oxidative stress diseases, i.e., atherosclerosis, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases.
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Statin therapy reduces oxidized low density lipoprotein level, a risk factor for stroke outcome.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Statins are reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects aside from cholesterol-lowering effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of statin therapy on oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) and the clinical outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).
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Tumor-induced perturbations of cytokines and immune cell networks.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Until recently, the intrinsically high level of cross-talk between immune cells, the complexity of immune cell development, and the pleiotropic nature of cytokine signaling have hampered progress in understanding the mechanisms of immunosuppression by which tumor cells circumvent native and adaptive immune responses. One technology that has helped to shed light on this complex signaling network is the cytokine antibody array, which facilitates simultaneous screening of dozens to hundreds of secreted signal proteins in complex biological samples. The combined applications of traditional methods of molecular and cell biology with the high-content, high-throughput screening capabilities of cytokine antibody arrays and other multiplexed immunoassays have revealed a complex mechanism that involves multiple cytokine signals contributed not just by tumor cells but by stromal cells and a wide spectrum of immune cell types. This review will summarize the interactions among cancerous and immune cell types, as well as the key cytokine signals that are required for tumors to survive immunoediting in a dormant state or to grow and spread by escaping it. Additionally, it will present examples of how probing secreted cell-cell signal networks in the tumor microenvironment (TME) with cytokine screens have contributed to our current understanding of these processes and discuss the implications of this understanding to antitumor therapies.
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Risk assessment of inferior alveolar nerve injury for immediate implant placement in the posterior mandible: a virtual implant placement study.
J Dent
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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To investigate the prevalence and morphological parameters of lingual concavity, and whether these factors are related to a higher risk of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury when performing an immediate implant surgery in posterior mandible region.
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Description of Caenorhabditis sinica sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a Nematode Species Used in Comparative Biology for C. elegans.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We re-isolated in China a relative of the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans that was previously referred to informally as C. sp. 5. In spite of its importance for comparative biology, C. sp. 5 has remained morphologically uncharacterized. Therefore, we now provide detailed description of morphology and anatomy, assigning the name of Caenorhabditis sinica sp. n. to this nematode that is found frequently in China. C. sinica sp. n. belongs to the Elegans group in the genus Caenorhabditis, being phylogenetically close to C. briggsae although differing in reproductive mode. The gonochoristic C. sinica sp. n. displays two significantly larger distal parts of uteri filled with sperms in the female/hermaphroditic gonad than does the androdioecious C. briggsae. The new species can be differentiated morphologically from all known Caenorhabditis species within the Elegans group by presenting a uniquely shaped, three-pointed hook structure on the male precloacal lip. The lateral field of C. sinica sp. n. is marked by three ridges that are flanked by two additional incisures, sometimes appearing as five ridges in total. This study ends the prolonged period of the 'undescribed' anonymity for C. sinica sp. n. since its discovery and use in comparative biological research. Significant and crossing-direction dependent hybrid incompatibilities in F1 and F2 crossing progeny make C. sinica sp. n. an excellent model for studies of population and speciation genetics. The abundance of nematode species lacking detailed taxonomic characterization deserves renewed attention to address the species description gap for this important yet morphologically 'difficult' group of animals.
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Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of the calcium channel blocker nicardipine on microglial cells: implications for neuroprotection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nicardipine is a calcium channel blocker that has been widely used to control blood pressure in severe hypertension following events such as ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. However, accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play important roles in neurodegeneration, and the effect of nicardipine on microglial activation remains unresolved.
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A retrospective case-control analysis of the outpatient expenditures for western medicine and dental treatment modalities in CKD patients in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine if expenditures for dentistry (DENT) correlate with severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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[Effect of fermented cordyceps powder and prednisone on the Notch2/Hes-1 signaling activation in the kidney tubules of rats with acute aristolochic acid nephropathy].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To investigate the effect of both fermented Cordyceps powder (CS) and prednisone on the Notch2/hes-1 signaling activation in the kidney tubules of rats with acute aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAAN).
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[Expression pattern of inflammatory cytokines at various inflammatory levels of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To explore the expression pattern of inflammatory cytokines at various inflammatory levels of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma by cytokine antibody array.
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A Novel Dengue Virus Inhibitor, BP13944, Discovered by High-Throughput Screening with Dengue Virus Replicon Cells Selects for Resistance in the Viral NS2B/NS3 Protease.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Dengue virus (DENV) causes disease globally, resulting in an estimated 25 to 100 million new infections per year. No effective DENV vaccine is available, and the current treatment is only supportive. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic agents to cure this epidemic disease. In the present study, we identified a potential small-molecule inhibitor, BP13944, via high-throughput screening (HTS) of 60,000 compounds using a stable cell line harboring an efficient luciferase replicon of DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2). BP13944 reduced the expression of the DENV replicon reporter in cells, showing a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 1.03 ± 0.09 ?M. Without detectable cytotoxicity, the compound inhibited replication or viral RNA synthesis in all four serotypes of DENV but not in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Sequencing analyses of several individual clones derived from BP13944-resistant RNAs purified from cells harboring the DENV-2 replicon revealed a consensus amino acid substitution (E66G) in the region of the NS3 protease domain. Introduction of E66G into the DENV replicon, an infectious DENV cDNA clone, and recombinant NS2B/NS3 protease constructs conferred 15.2-, 17.2-, and 3.1-fold resistance to BP13944, respectively. Our results identify an effective small-molecule inhibitor, BP13944, which likely targets the DENV NS3 protease. BP13944 could be considered part of a more effective treatment regime for inhibiting DENV in the future.
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Three-dimensional fibroblast morphology on compliant substrates of controlled negative curvature.
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Traditionally, cell biological investigations have mostly employed cells growing on flat, two-dimensional, hard substrates, which are of questionable utility in mimicking microenvironments in vivo. We engineered a novel scaffold to achieve cell culture in the third dimension (3D), where fibroblasts lose the strong dorsal-ventral asymmetry in the distribution of cytoskeletal and adhesion components that is induced by growth on flat substrates. The design principle of our new 3D substrate was inspired by recent advances in engineering cellular microenvironments in which rigidity and the patterning of adhesion ligands were tuned on two-dimensional substrates; the engineered substrates enable independent control over biochemical and mechanical factors to elucidate how mechanical cues affect cellular behaviours. The 3D substrates consisted of polyacrylamide scaffolds of highly ordered, uniform pores coated with extracellular matrix proteins. We characterized important parameters for fabrication and the mechanical properties of polyacrylamide scaffolds. We then grew individual fibroblasts in the identical pores of the polyacrylamide scaffolds, examining cellular morphological, actin cytoskeletal, and adhesion properties. We found that fibroblasts sense the local rigidity of the scaffold, and exhibit a 3D distribution of actin cytoskeleton and adhesions that became more pronounced as the pore size was reduced. In small pores, we observed that elongated adhesions can exist without attachment to any solid support. Taken together, our results show that the use of negatively curved surfaces is a simple method to induce cell adhesions in 3D, opening up new degrees of freedom to explore cellular behaviours.
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BET bromodomain inhibition suppresses TH17-mediated pathology.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Interleukin (IL) 17-producing T helper (T(H)17) cells have been selected through evolution for their ability to control fungal and bacterial infections. It is also firmly established that their aberrant generation and activation results in autoimmune conditions. Using a characterized potent and selective small molecule inhibitor, we show that the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) family of chromatin adaptors plays fundamental and selective roles in human and murine T(H)17 differentiation from naive CD4(+) T cells, as well as in the activation of previously differentiated T(H)17 cells. We provide evidence that BET controls T(H)17 differentiation in a bromodomain-dependent manner through a mechanism that includes the direct regulation of multiple effector T(H)17-associated cytokines, including IL17, IL21, and GMCSF. We also demonstrate that BET family members Brd2 and Brd4 associate with the Il17 locus in T(H)17 cells, and that this association requires bromodomains. We recapitulate the critical role of BET bromodomains in T(H)17 differentiation in vivo and show that therapeutic dosing of the BET inhibitor is efficacious in mouse models of autoimmunity. Our results identify the BET family of proteins as a fundamental link between chromatin signaling and T(H)17 biology, and support the notion of BET inhibition as a point of therapeutic intervention in autoimmune conditions.
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Non-cephalosporin-susceptible, glucose non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli meningitis in post-neurosurgical adults: Clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcome.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2013
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The clinical and laboratory characteristics of non-cephalosporin-susceptible (non-CS) glucose non-fermentative Gram-negative (G(-)) infections in adults with postneurosurgical meningitis are rarely examined solely in the literature.
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[Effect of acupuncture on serum MIP-2 and MIP-2 mRNA expressions in isolated Fei and Dachang of severe acute pancreatitis induced acute lung injury rats in the acute phase].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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To observe effect of acupuncture on serum macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and MIP-2 mRNA expressions in isolated Fei and Dachang of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) induced acute lung injury (ALI) rats in the acute phase.
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Levels of Circulating Neopterin in Patients with Severe Carotid Artery Stenosis Undergoing Carotid Stenting.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Aims: The association between an elevated serum neopterin level and the development of coronary artery complex lesions has been extensively assessed; however, the correlation between the serum neopterin level and the development of carotid artery stenosis has seldom been reported. This study tested whether this biomarker is increased in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis (?70%) undergoing carotid artery (CA) stenting and investigated independent predictors of an increased circulating neopterin level.Methods: Fifty patients with severe CA stenosis (CAS) undergoing CA stenting were consecutively enrolled in this study from January 2009 through December 2011. The serum neopterin levels of age- and gender-matched acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients (n=120) and control subjects (CS) (n=33) were also measured. A blood sample was prospectively collected from each patient in the catheterization room.Results: The serum levels of neopterin were significantly higher in the CAS patients than in the AIS patients or CS and significantly higher in the AIS patients than in the CS (all p<0.001). An analysis of the variables of 170 patients (CAS+AIS) demonstrated that age, a previous history of stroke and severe CAS were significantly correlated with an increased serum level of neopterin (all p<0.005). A multivariate binary logistic regression analysis of the severe CAS patients (n=50) demonstrated that age and the creatinine level were independent predictors of a high neopterin level (neopterin level ?16.52 ng/dL, i.e., according to the median value of neopterin) (all p<0.05).Conclusions: The circulating neopterin levels are significantly higher in patients with severe CAS than in those with AIS. The presence of CAS, age and the creatinine level were significantly correlated with an increased serum neopterin level.
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RanBPM interacts with T?RI, TRAF6 and curbs TGF induced nuclear accumulation of T?RI.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), a cytokine, and its receptors play a vital role during normal embryogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and migration. Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organizing center (RanBPM) serves as a scaffold protein that has been shown to interact with many other proteins, such as MET, Axl/Sky, TRAF6, IFNR, TrKA and TrkB in addition to p75NTR. In the current study, we have identified RanBPM as a novel binding partner of T?RI by yeast two-hybrid assay. The T?RI and RanBPM association was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down experiments. Additionally, expression of RanBPM abrogated the interaction between T?RI and TRAF6. Furthermore, RanBPM could depress TGF-? induced TRAF6 ubiquitination, subsequent NF-?B signaling pathway, and block TGF-? induced T?RI nuclear accumulation. Taken together, our results reveal that RanBPM may modulate TGF-?-mediated downstream signaling and biological functions.
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Enhanced spontaneous oscillations in the supplementary motor area are associated with sleep-dependent offline learning of finger-tapping motor-sequence task.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Sleep is beneficial for various types of learning and memory, including a finger-tapping motor-sequence task. However, methodological issues hinder clarification of the crucial cortical regions for sleep-dependent consolidation in motor-sequence learning. Here, to investigate the core cortical region for sleep-dependent consolidation of finger-tapping motor-sequence learning, while human subjects were asleep, we measured spontaneous cortical oscillations by magnetoencephalography together with polysomnography, and source-localized the origins of oscillations using individual anatomical brain information from MRI. First, we confirmed that performance of the task at a retest session after sleep significantly increased compared with performance at the training session before sleep. Second, spontaneous ? and fast-? oscillations significantly increased in the supplementary motor area (SMA) during post-training compared with pretraining sleep, showing significant and high correlation with the performance increase. Third, the increased spontaneous oscillations in the SMA correlated with performance improvement were specific to slow-wave sleep. We also found that correlations of ? oscillation between the SMA and the prefrontal and between the SMA and the parietal regions tended to decrease after training. These results suggest that a core brain region for sleep-dependent consolidation of the finger-tapping motor-sequence learning resides in the SMA contralateral to the trained hand and is mediated by spontaneous ? and fast-? oscillations, especially during slow-wave sleep. The consolidation may arise along with possible reorganization of a larger-scale cortical network that involves the SMA and cortical regions outside the motor regions, including prefrontal and parietal regions.
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Immunogenicity, Safety, and Immune Persistence of a Novel Inactivated Human Enterovirus 71 Vaccine: A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Background.?Vaccination is considered a top priority for the control of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection outbreaks. Methods.?On the basis of phase I trial results, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the optimal dose, immunogenicity, safety and immune persistence of the vaccine. A total of 480 healthy infants were randomly assigned to receive 2 injections of 100 U of vaccine, 200 U of vaccine, 400 U of vaccine, or placebo. Solicited adverse events (AEs) within 7 days and unsolicited AEs within 28 days after each vaccination were collected for safety evaluation. Blood samples were collected for neutralizing antibody assay. Results.?EV71 vaccine was well tolerated, and no dose-related safety concerns were observed. Two doses of the vaccine yielded seropositivity frequencies of 92.3%, 95.9%, and 99.0% (with titers ?1:8) in the 100 U, 200 U, and 400 U groups, respectively. Geometric mean titers measured by neutralizing antibody assay increased to 60.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 41.9-86.4), 72.8 (95% CI, 50.8-104.3), and 252.1 (95% CI, 180.8-351.6) for the 100 U, 200 U, and 400 U groups, respectively. The dose-response relationship, with the 400 U dose showing higher immunogenicity than the 100 U and 200 U doses, remained until 13 months after the second vaccination, despite waning antibody levels. Conclusions.?The 400 U dose was recommended as the optimal dose for the phase III trial because of its good safety profile and higher immunogenicity.
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Pressor mechanism evaluation for phytochemical compounds using in silico compound-protein interaction prediction.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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In this study, a method was applied to evaluate pressor mechanisms through compound-protein interactions. Our method assumed that the compounds with different pressor mechanisms should bind to different target proteins, and thereby these mechanisms could be differentiated using compound-protein interactions. Twenty-six phytochemical components and 46 tested target proteins related to blood pressure (BP) elevation were collected. Then, in silico compound-protein interactions prediction probabilities were calculated using a random forest model, which have been implemented in a web server, and the credibility was judged using related literature and other methods. Further, a heat map was constructed, it clearly showed different prediction probabilities accompanied with hierarchical clustering analysis results. Followed by a compound-protein interaction network was depicted according to the results, we can see the connectivity layout of phytochemical components with different target proteins within the BP elevation network, which guided the hypothesis generation of poly-pharmacology. Lastly, principal components analysis (PCA) was carried out upon the prediction probabilities, and pressor targets could be divided into three large classes: neurotransmitter receptors, hormones receptors and monoamine oxidases. In addition, steroid glycosides seem to be close to the region of hormone receptors, and a weak difference existed between them. This work explored the possibility for pharmacological or toxicological mechanism classification using compound-protein interactions. Such approaches could also be used to deduce pharmacological or toxicological mechanisms for uncharacterized compounds.
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Nrf2-dependent upregulation of antioxidative enzymes: a novel pathway for hypoxic preconditioning-mediated delayed cardioprotection.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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It has been well demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) can attenuate hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidant stress and elicit delayed cardioprotection by upregulating the expression of multiple antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and so on. However, the underlying mechanisms of HPC-induced upregulation of antioxidative enzymes are not fully understood. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an essential transcription factor that regulates expression of several antioxidant genes via binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE) and plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress. Here, we wondered whether activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway is responsible for the induction of antioxidative enzymes by HPC and contributes to the delayed cardioprotection of HPC. Cellular model of HPC from rat heart-derived H9c2 cells was induced 24 h prior to H/R. The results showed that HPC efficiently attenuated H/R-induced viability loss and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. In addition, HPC increased nuclear translocation and ARE binding of Nrf2 during the late phase, upregulated the expression of antioxidative enzymes (HO-1 and MnSOD), inhibited H/R-induced oxidant stress. However, when Nrf2 was specifically knocked down by siRNA, the induction of antioxidative enzymes by HPC was completely abolished and, as a result, the inhibitory effect of HPC on H/R-induced oxidant stress was reversed, and the delayed cardioprotection induced by HPC was also abolished. These results suggest that HPC upregulates antioxidative enzymes through activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway and confers delayed cardioprotection against H/R-induced oxidative stress.
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The diagnostic value of ultrasonography in carpal tunnel syndrome: a comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic patients.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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To compare the value of ultrasonography for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM).
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Immunosuppression and the infection in patients with early SAP.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed)
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Few data are available on the relationship between immune response and the infection caused by gut mucosal barrier dysfunction in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response to gut mucosal barrier dysfunction in patients with early SAP. The results showed that the levels of endotoxin, the lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio, the D(-)-lactate concentration, the proportion of HLA-DR-positive monocytes, and the expression levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-10 all decreased from a high level while the frequency of Tregs increased during the first 14 days. The Th1/Th2 ratio was decreased, with a decreased Th1 and an increased Th2 profile, in the beginning, but it was subsequently increased, with an increased Th1 profile. The data from this study showed that immunosuppression, the shift of the Th1/Th2 balance toward a Th2 response, increased Tregs, and related inflammatory cytokines are involved in the complex process of inflammation and infection caused by gut mucosal barrier dysfunction in patients with early SAP.
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Antineuroinflammatory effects of lycopene via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-?1/heme oxygenase-1 pathways.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Microglia play an important role in the immune defense in the central nervous system. Activation of microglia leads to the production of excessive inflammatory molecules and deleterious consequences, including neuronal death. Lycopene, 1 of the major carotenoids present in tomatoes, has been shown to exert antioxidant properties and to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. However, the effects of lycopene on neuroinflammatory responses in microglia remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in lycopene-inhibited expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inflammation mediators in BV-2 microglia, mouse primary cultured microglia, and rat primary cultured microglia. Lycopene inhibited the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity. In the present study, we demonstrated that lycopene inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 expression through heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activation. Our results also demonstrate that stimulation with lycopene increases the phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-?1. Treatment with AMPK inhibitors effectively antagonized lycopene-stimulated HO-1 expression. Interestingly, we also found that lycopene increased phospho-AMPK?1 accumulation in the nucleus in microglia. Preincubation of cells with HO-1 and AMPK selective pharmacological inhibitors dramatically reversed the inhibitory effect of lycopene on LPS-induced COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 production. Transfection of microglia with HO-1 and AMPK? small interfering RNA (siRNA) also effectively reversed the inhibitory effect of lycopene on LPS-induced COX-2 expression. In a mouse model, lycopene showed significant antineuroinflammatory effects on microglial activation and motor behavior deficits. These findings suggest that lycopene-inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression is mediated by HO-1 activation through the AMPK pathway. Therefore, lycopene might be useful as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation-associated disorders.
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Long-term effects on carotid intima-media thickness after radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Vascular abnormalities are the predominant histologic changes associated with radiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study examined if the duration after radiotherapy correlates with the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and investigated its relationship with inflammatory markers.
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Antibody-directed Double Suicide Gene Therapy Targeting of MUC1- Positive Leukemia Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.
Curr Gene Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Our aim was to specifically transfer the cytosine deaminase (CD) and thymidine kinase (TK) genes into mucin 1 (MUC1)-positive leukemia cells by anti-MUC1 antibody directed infection of replication-defective lentivirus and to evaluate the targeted cytotoxicity of double suicide genes to leukemia. The target gene vector (containing CD and TK) and envelope (containing GFP and anti-MUC1) and packaging plasmids were cotransfected into 293T cells to produce the recombinant lentivirus. Suicide genes in virus-infected leukemia cells (U937, Jurkat, and K562) were detected by western blot. The cytotoxicity and bystander effect in vitro and the therapeutic effect in vivo were detected after treatment with the prodrugs. The results revealed that combined treatment with prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ganciclovir (GCV) inhibited leukemia cell growth and caused significant bystander effect than treatment with either prodrug alone. TK/GCV treatment alone induced degeneration and cell death while the effect of CD/5-FC alone mainly caused vacuolar degeneration and necrosis. The addictive effects of combinatorial use of GCV and 5-FC mainly induced swelling of the mitochondria followed by necrosis of the leukemia cells. In vivo experiments revealed that both single and combinatorial prodrug treatments could prolong the survival time of leukemic mice. In summary, anti-MUC1 antibody directed lentiviral vector successfully transduced dual suicide genes and exerted targeted cytotoxicity against MUC1 positive leukemia cells. This targeted lentiviral dual suicide gene delivering system provides a promising approach for clinical treatment of leukemia in future.
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The association between circulating endothelial progenitor cells and outcome in different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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This study evaluated the relationship between serial changes in circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and outcomes in patients with different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS).
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Strategic cognitive sequencing: a computational cognitive neuroscience approach.
Comput Intell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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We address strategic cognitive sequencing, the "outer loop" of human cognition: how the brain decides what cognitive process to apply at a given moment to solve complex, multistep cognitive tasks. We argue that this topic has been neglected relative to its importance for systematic reasons but that recent work on how individual brain systems accomplish their computations has set the stage for productively addressing how brain regions coordinate over time to accomplish our most impressive thinking. We present four preliminary neural network models. The first addresses how the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basal ganglia (BG) cooperate to perform trial-and-error learning of short sequences; the next, how several areas of PFC learn to make predictions of likely reward, and how this contributes to the BG making decisions at the level of strategies. The third models address how PFC, BG, parietal cortex, and hippocampus can work together to memorize sequences of cognitive actions from instruction (or "self-instruction"). The last shows how a constraint satisfaction process can find useful plans. The PFC maintains current and goal states and associates from both of these to find a "bridging" state, an abstract plan. We discuss how these processes could work together to produce strategic cognitive sequencing and discuss future directions in this area.
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A new phenylethanoid glycoside with antioxidant and anti-HBV activity from Tarphochlamys affinis.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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A new phenylethanoid glycoside, named taraffinisoside A (1), together with five known glycosides were isolated from the stems and leaves of Tarphochlamys affinis. The structure of taraffinisoside A was identified on the basis of detailed spectral analysis. Compounds 1-4 and 6 showed potent antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 10.36, 19.73, 43.95, 15.30 and 46.04 ?M by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 showed anti-HBV activities, with IC50 values of 0.50, 0.72 and 0.26 mM for HBsAg and 0.93, 0.42 and 0.07 mM for HBeAg, respectively.
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[Tumor suppressor role of chromatin-remodeling factor ARID1A].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The mammalian SWI/SNF complex is one of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes, which plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, development and tumor suppression. ARID1A (AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A) is a large subunit of SWI/SNF complex, and also an ARID family member with non- sequence-specific DNA binding activity. ARID1A is a tumor suppressor gene which is frequently mutated in many cancers, such as ovarian, bladder and gastric cancers. ARID1A can suppress cell proliferation through the up-regulation of p21 and the down-regulation of E2F-responsive genes. These findings on ARID1A and its role of tumor suppression contribute to understanding the mechanism of cancer development and developing new therapy for cancer.It is introduced in the review that ARID1A basic characteristic, related to cancer development, and biological role for full understanding of ARID1A.
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Anti-neuroinflammatory effect of a novel caffeamide derivative, KS370G, in microglial cells.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play important roles in several neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, development of methods for microglial inhibition is considered an important strategy in the search for neuroprotective agents. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is distributed wildly in nature, but rapid decomposition by esterase leads to its low bioavailability. In this study, we investigated the effects of KS370G, a novel caffeic acid phenylethyl amide, on microglial activation. KS370G significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Treatment with KS370G also induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression in the microglia. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effects of KS370G were found to be regulated by phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-? (AMPK-?) translocated to the nucleus. Moreover, KS370G showed significant anti-neuroinflammatory effects on microglial activation in vivo and on motor behavior as well. The protective effect of KS370G was weakened by an AMPK inhibitor Compound C. This study focuses on the importance of key molecular determinants of inflammatory homeostasis, AMPK, HO-1, and SOCS-3, and their possible involvement in anti-neuroinflammatory responses.
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The effects of artemisinin on the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells of rats.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of artemisinin on the proliferation and apoptosis of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).
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Tumor-Associated Macrophages Promote Oral Cancer Progression Through Activation of the Axl Signaling Pathway.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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Recent studies suggest that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumor growth and metastasis. Our previous report demonstrated that Axl signaling promotes carcinogenesis and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study aims to test the potential involvement of growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6)/Axl signaling in the protumoral effect of TAMs.
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Interaction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in microglia by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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We investigated the interaction between proinflammatory and inflammatory responses caused by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in primary cultured microglial cells and BV-2 microglia. LTA induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels increase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, LTA also increased nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 production in microglia. Administration of TLR2 antagonist effectively inhibited LTA-induced NO, iNOS, and COX-2 expression. Moreover, treatment of cells with LTA caused a time-dependent activation of ERK, p38, JNK, as well as AKT. We also found that LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 up-regulation were attenuated by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. On the other hand, LTA-enhanced HO-1 expression was attenuated by p38 and PI3-kinase inhibitors. Treatment of cells with NF-?B and AP-1 inhibitors antagonized LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression. However, only NF-?B inhibitors reduced LTA-induced HO-1 expression in microglia. Furthermore, stimulation of cells with LTA also activated I?B? phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation at Ser?³?, and c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover, LTA-induced increases of ?B-DNA and AP-1-DNA binding activity were inhibited by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. HO-1 activator CoPP IX dramatically reversed LTA-induced iNOS expression. Our results provided mechanisms linking LTA and inflammation/anti-inflammation, and indicated that LTA plays a regulatory role in microglia activation.
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Characterization of an efficient dengue virus replicon for development of assays of discovery of small molecules against dengue virus.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Dengue virus (DENV) is a public health threat to approximately 40% of the global population. At present, neither licensed vaccines nor effective therapies exist, and the mechanism of viral RNA replication is not well understood. Here, we report the development of efficient Renilla luciferase reporter-based DENV replicons that contain the full-length capsid sequence for transient and stable DENV RNA replication. A comparison of the transient and stable expression of this RNA-launched replicon to replicons containing various deletions revealed dengue replicon containing entire mature capsid RNA element has higher replicon activity. An efficient DNA-launched DENV replicon, pCMV-DV2Rep, containing a full-length capsid sequence, was created and successfully applied to evaluate the potency of known DENV inhibitors. Stable cell lines harboring the DENV replicon were easily established by transfecting pCMV-DV2Rep into BHK21 cells. Steady and high replicon reporter signals were observed in the stable DENV replicon cells, even after 30 passages. The stable DENV replicon cells were successfully used to determine the potency of known DENV inhibitors. A high-throughput screening assay based on stable DENV replicon cells was evaluated and shown to have an excellent Z factor of 0.74. Altogether, the development of our efficient DENV replicon system will facilitate the study of virus replication and the discovery of antiviral compounds.
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Concomitant horner and harlequin syndromes after inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Intraoral anesthesia is probably the most commonly used procedure in dentistry.
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Assembling old tricks for new tasks: a neural model of instructional learning and control.
J Cogn Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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We can learn from the wisdom of others to maximize success. However, it is unclear how humans take advice to flexibly adapt behavior. On the basis of data from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging, a biologically plausible model is developed to illustrate the neural mechanisms of learning from instructions. The model consists of two complementary learning pathways. The slow-learning parietal pathway carries out simple or habitual stimulus-response (S-R) mappings, whereas the fast-learning hippocampal pathway implements novel S-R rules. Specifically, the hippocampus can rapidly encode arbitrary S-R associations, and stimulus-cued responses are later recalled into the basal ganglia-gated pFC to bias response selection in the premotor and motor cortices. The interactions between the two model learning pathways explain how instructions can override habits and how automaticity can be achieved through motor consolidation.
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Serum adhesion molecules as predictors of bacteremia in adult severe sepsis patients at the emergency department.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Bacteremia is a severe bacterial infection with significant mortality. Clinical parameters that reliably predict it are less elucidated. We assessed the potential of serum adhesion molecules for predicting bacteremia and compare it with current available infection biomarkers to determine a more timely predictor of adult severe sepsis patients on admission to the emergency department (ED).
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Magnolol ameliorates ligature-induced periodontitis in rats and osteoclastogenesis: in vivo and in vitro study.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Periodontal disease characterized by alveolar bone resorption and bacterial pathogen-evoked inflammatory response has been believed to have an important impact on human oral health. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether magnolol, a main constituent of Magnolia officinalis, could inhibit the pathological features in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats and osteoclastogenesis. The sterile, 3-0 (diameter; 0.2?mm) black braided silk thread, was placed around the cervix of the upper second molars bilaterally and knotted medially to induce periodontitis. The morphological changes around the ligated molars and alveolar bone were examined by micro-CT. The distances between the amelocemental junction and the alveolar crest of the upper second molars bilaterally were measured to evaluate the alveolar bone loss. Administration of magnolol (100?mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited alveolar bone resorption, the number of osteoclasts on bony surface, and protein expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor- ? B ligand (RANKL), a key mediator promoting osteoclast differentiation, in ligated rats. Moreover, the ligature-induced neutrophil infiltration, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9, superoxide formation, and nuclear factor- ? B activation in inflamed gingival tissues were all attenuated by magnolol. In the in vitro study, magnolol also inhibited the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans that are key pathogens initiating periodontal disease. Furthermore, magnolol dose dependently reduced RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from RAW264.7 macrophages, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of differentiated cells accompanied by a significant attenuation of resorption pit area caused by osteoclasts. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that magnolol significantly ameliorates the alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced experimental periodontitis by suppressing periodontopathic microorganism accumulation, NF- ? B-mediated inflammatory mediator synthesis, RANKL formation, and osteoclastogenesis. These activities support that magnolol is a potential agent to treat periodontal disease.
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Untangling the transcriptome from fungus-infected plant tissues.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The development of sequencing technology allows low-cost generation of sequence data. The huge amount of raw sequence data now available has introduced many challenges associated with analysis of these large-scale data banks. For example, it is very important to distinguish materials of plant and fungal origin in fungus-infected plant tissue. The origin of transcripts that were sequenced from Library 895-M6 (poplar tissue infected by Marssonina brunnea) on Illumina/Solexa GA IIx was determined by combining three methods: (1) based on the taxonomic information of homologous sequences; (2) based on the reference genome sequence; (3) based on the transcriptome sequence of the host and its pathogen obtained from Library 895 (poplar) and Library M6 (M. brunnea) as well as Library 895-M6 (mixture of poplar and M. brunnea). We idenified accurately the origin of 80,978 (99.5%) contigs in the mixed poplar and M. brunnea sample (Library 895-M6) by integrating the results from the three methods. The results of this study demonstrate that a combination of these three approaches described here is an effective strategy for determining the origin of sequences in a mixed pool, and provides a basis for further transcriptome analysis of the mixed sample.
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Factors affecting treatment decisions and outcomes of root-resected molars: a nationwide study.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Treatment of furcation-involved molars presents a clinical challenge. This study retrospectively investigates the demographic parameters affecting treatment decisions and outcomes of root-resected molars using a nationwide population-based dataset.
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The HIV antiretroviral drug efavirenz has LSD-like properties.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Anecdotal reports have surfaced concerning misuse of the HIV antiretroviral medication efavirenz ((4S)-6-chloro-4-(2-cyclopropylethynyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2,4-dihydro-1H-3,1-benzoxazin-2-one) by HIV patients and non-infected teens who crush the pills and smoke the powder for its psychoactive effects. Molecular profiling of the receptor pharmacology of efavirenz pinpointed interactions with multiple established sites of action for other known drugs of abuse including catecholamine and indolamine transporters, and GABAA and 5-HT(2A) receptors. In rodents, interaction with the 5-HT(2A) receptor, a primary site of action of lysergic acid diethylamine (LSD), appears to dominate efavirenzs behavioral profile. Both LSD and efavirenz reduce ambulation in a novel open-field environment. Efavirenz occasions drug-lever responding in rats discriminating LSD from saline, and this effect is abolished by selective blockade of the 5-HT(2A) receptor. Similar to LSD, efavirenz induces head-twitch responses in wild-type, but not in 5-HT(2A)-knockout, mice. Despite having GABAA-potentiating effects (like benzodiazepines and barbiturates), and interactions with dopamine transporter, serotonin transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (like cocaine and methamphetamine), efavirenz fails to maintain responding in rats that self-administer cocaine, and it fails to produce a conditioned place preference. Although its molecular pharmacology is multifarious, efavirenzs prevailing behavioral effect in rodents is consistent with LSD-like activity mediated via the 5-HT(2A) receptor. This finding correlates, in part, with the subjective experiences in humans who abuse efavirenz and with specific dose-dependent adverse neuropsychiatric events, such as hallucinations and night terrors, reported by HIV patients taking it as a medication.
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Stable overexpression of DJ-1 protects H9c2 cells against oxidative stress under a hypoxia condition.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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It has been well accepted that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the subsequent oxidative stress is one of the major causes of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. DJ-1 protein, as a multifunctional intracellular protein, plays an important role in regulating cell survival and antioxidant stress. Here, we wondered whether DJ-1 overexpression attenuates simulated ischemia/reperfusion (sI/R)-induced oxidative stress. A rat cDNA encoding DJ-1 was inserted into a mammalian expression vector. After introduction of this construct into H9c2 myocytes, stable clones were obtained. Western blot analysis of the derived clones showed a 2.6-fold increase in DJ-1 protein expressing. Subsequently, the DJ-1 gene-transfected and control H9c2 cells were subjected to sI/R, and then cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, intracellular ROS and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) were measured appropriately. The results showed that stable overexpression of DJ-1 efficiently attenuated sI/R-induced viability loss and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Additionally, stable overexpression of DJ-1 inhibited sI/R-induced the elevation of ROS and MDA contents followed by the increase of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities and expression. Our data indicate that overexpression of DJ-1 attenuates ROS generation, enhances the cellular antioxidant capacity and prevents sI/R-induced oxidative stress, revealing a novel mechanism of cardioprotection. Importantly, DJ-1 overexpression may be an important part of a protective strategy against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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[Investigation on health workforce in county anti-schistosomiasis institutions of Jiangxi Province, 2010].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To understand and assess changes of health workforce in county anti-schistosomiasis institutions of Jiangxi Province, so as to provide the evidence for improving the health workforce construction.
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Three-generation experiment showed female C57BL/6J mice drink drainage canal water containing low level of TCDD-like activity causing high pup mortality.
J Toxicol Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and similar compounds are toxic to animals and humans. Based on a yeast reporter system, AhR-activating ligands similar in concentration to 2 ng/l of TCDD were detected in two canal waters in Guangzhou, China. In this study, a three-generation experiment was conducted to assess the reproductive and developmental risks associated with these waters in C57BL/6J female mice, including female reproduction, pup indices, reproductive hormone levels, and levels of AhR, ARNT, and CYP1A2 in the uterus. Similar reproductive toxic effects were produced in the offspring of mice that drank the canal water as would occur if they drank 2 ng/l/day TCDD. The major reproductive indices that were affected included mating time and gestation length over all the generations. A striking finding is the TCDD (2 ng/l) and the water samples significantly reduced Day 4 pup survival rates in the F2 and F3. Both TCDD exposure and drinking canal water decreased estradiol-17? (E2) levels in the multiparous females and decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and E2 levels in the virgin females. Immunochemical staining revealed that the AhR and CYP1A2 positive signals were enhanced, and the ARNT positive signal was weakened in the uteri of mice drinking water with TCDD (2 ng/l) and the canal water samples. These results imply that the canal water contains AhR ligands that could induce similar toxic effects as do low levels of TCDD. Exposure to these contaminants can significantly impair the reproductive health of female mice. Considering this canals are open directly to Pearl River, whether these effects could be caused in human reproduction and development warrants further study.
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Effects of long-term antiepileptic drug monotherapy on vascular risk factors and atherosclerosis.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Long-term therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been associated with metabolic consequences that lead to an increase in risk of atherosclerosis in patients with epilepsy. We compared the long-term effects of monotherapy using different categories of AEDs on markers of vascular risk and the atherosclerotic process.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.