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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Defining and Analyzing Retention-in-Care Among Pregnant and Breastfeeding HIV-Infected Women: Unpacking the Data to Interpret and Improve PMTCT Outcomes.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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: The prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) "cascade" describes the programmatic steps for pregnant and breastfeeding women that influence HIV transmission rates. To this end, HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers need access to health services and adhere to antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis or lifetime treatment. Within the cascade, the concept of "retention-in-care" is commonly used as a proxy for adherence to ARV interventions and, even, viral suppression. Yet surprisingly, there is no standard definition of retention-in-care either for the purposes of HIV surveillance or implementation research. Implicit to the concept of retention-in-care is the sense of continuity and receipt of care at relevant time points. In the context of PMTCT, the main challenge for surveillance and implementation research is to estimate effective coverage of ARV interventions over a prolonged period of time. These data are used to inform program management and also to estimate postnatal MTCT rates. Attendance of HIV-infected mothers at clinic at 12-month postpartum is often equated with full retention in PMTCT programs over this period. Yet, measurement approaches that fail to register missed visits, or inconsistent attendance or other missing data in the interval period, fail to capture patterns of attendance and care received by mothers and children and risk introducing systematic errors and bias. More importantly, providing only an aggregated rate of attendance as a proxy for retention-in-care fails to identify specific gaps in health services where interventions to improve retention along the PMTCT cascade are most needed. In this article, we discuss how data on retention-in-care can be understood and analyzed, and what are the implications and opportunities for programs and implementation research.
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Increasing Retention in Care of HIV-Positive Women in PMTCT Services Through Continuous Quality Improvement-Breakthrough (CQI-BTS) Series in Primary and Secondary Health Care Facilities in Nigeria: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. The Lafiyan Jikin Mata Study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Rates of retention in care of HIV-positive pregnant women in care programs in Nigeria remain generally poor with rates around 40% reported for specific programs. Poor quality of services in health facilities and long waiting times are among the critical factors militating against retention of these women in care. The aim of the interventions in this study is to assess whether a continuous quality improvement intervention using a Breakthrough Series approach in local district hospitals and primary health care clinics will lead to improved retention of HIV-positive women and mothers.
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Incidence of pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy initiation and associated factors in 8 West African countries.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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This study aimed at estimating the incidence of pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in 8 West African countries over a 10-year period.
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Intimate partner sexual and physical violence among women in Togo, West Africa: prevalence, associated factors, and the specific role of HIV infection.
Glob Health Action
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-seeking behaviors of women exposed to intimate partner violence.
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Willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care among men who have sex with men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In Vietnam, men who have sex with men (MSM) are highly affected by HIV and need new targeted HIV prevention strategies.
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[Survival, clinical and biological outcomes of HIV-infected children treated by antiretroviral therapy in Africa: systematic review, 2004-2009].
Presse Med
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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With 2.1 million HIV-infected children in 2008 in the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, the paediatric HIV/AIDS care remains an important public health challenge and is principally based on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and antiretroviral treatments. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of cotrimoxole prophylaxis and antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected children in Africa, specifically mortality and treatment outcomes.
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Net survival of perinatally and postnatally HIV-infected children: a pooled analysis of individual data from sub-Saharan Africa.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Previously, HIV epidemic models have used a double Weibull curve to represent high initial and late mortality of HIV-infected children, without distinguishing timing of infection (peri- or post-natally). With more data on timing of infection, which may be associated with disease progression, a separate representation of children infected early and late was proposed.
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Quality of life assessment in HIV clinical research in resource-limited settings: better late than never.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Comprehensive and sustained optimal care for patients infected with HIV can now be achieved in resource-constrained settings, thanks to the sustainability of programs providing antiretroviral therapy (ART). But the primary goals of HIV virological suppression and improved survival need to be accompanied by a substantial improvement in patients experience with HIV care and treatment. An assessment of both patients quality of life and perceived toxicity and symptoms should now be systematically integrated into HIV clinical research in resource-constrained countries. This will allow treatment strategies aimed at optimizing the durability of response to ART in these settings to be properly evaluated and compared.
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Universal antiretroviral therapy for pregnant and breast-feeding HIV-1-infected women: towards the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a challenge in most resource-limited settings, particularly in Africa. Single-dose and short-course antiretroviral (ARV) regimens are only partially effective and have failed to achieve wide coverage despite their apparent simplicity. More potent ARV combinations are restricted to pregnant women who need treatment for themselves and are also infrequently used. Furthermore, postnatal transmission via breast-feeding is a serious additional threat. Modifications of infant feeding practices aim to reduce HIV-1 transmission through breast milk; replacement feeding is neither affordable nor safe for the majority of African women, and early breast-feeding cessation (eg, prior to 6 months of life) requires substantial care and nutritional counseling to be practiced safely. The recent roll out of ARV treatment has changed the paradigm of prevention of MTCT. To date, postnatal ARV interventions that have been evaluated target either maternal ARV treatment to selected breast-feeding women, with good efficacy, or single-drug postexposure prophylaxis for short periods of time to their neonates, with a partial efficacy and at the expense of acquisition of drug-related viral resistance. We hypothesize that a viable solution to eliminate pediatric AIDS lies in the universal provision of fully suppressive ARV regimens to all HIV-1-infected women through pregnancy, delivery, and the entire breast-feeding period. On the basis of available evidence, we suggest translating into practice the recently available evidence on this matter without any further delay.
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Beneficial effects of offering prenatal HIV counselling and testing on developing a HIV preventive attitude among couples. Abidjan, 2002-2005.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
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Prenatal HIV counselling and testing is mainly an entry-point to the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, but it may also play an important role in triggering the development of spousal communication about HIV and sexual risks and thus the adoption of a preventive attitude. In Abidjan, Côte dIvoire, we investigated couple communication on STIs and HIV, male partner HIV-testing and condom use at sex resumption after delivery among three groups of pregnant women who were offered prenatal counselling and HIV testing: HIV-infected women, uninfected women, and women who refused HIV-testing. The proportion of women who discussed STIs with their regular partner greatly increased after prenatal HIV counselling and testing in all three groups, irrespective of the womens serostatus and even in the case of test refusal. Spousal communication was related to more frequent male partner HIV-testing and condom use. Prenatal HIV counselling and testing proposal appears to be an efficient tool to sensitize women and their partner to safer sexual practices.
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Duration, pattern of breastfeeding and postnatal transmission of HIV: pooled analysis of individual data from West and South African cohorts.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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Both breastfeeding pattern and duration are associated with postnatal HIV acquisition; their relative contribution has not been reliably quantified.
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From prenatal HIV testing of the mother to prevention of sexual HIV transmission within the couple.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
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The first step in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes is offering HIV counselling and testing to pregnant women. In developing countries where HIV testing remains rare, it represents a unique opportunity for many women to learn their HIV status. This prenatal HIV testing is not only the entry point to prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, but also an occasion for women to sensitize their male partner to sexual risks. Here we explore if these women, HIV-tested as mothers, apply the prevention recommendations they also receive as women. In the Ditrame Plus PMTCT program in Abidjan, Côte dIvoire, two cohorts of women (475 HIV-infected women and 400 HIV-negative women) were followed up two years after the pregnancy when they were offered prenatal HIV testing. In each cohort, we compared the proportion of women who communicated with their regular partner on sexual risks, prior to and after prenatal HIV testing. We analysed socio-demographic factors related to this communication. We measured two potential conjugal outcomes of women HIV testing: the level of condom use at sex resumption after delivery and the risk of union break-up. Prenatal HIV testing increased conjugal communication regarding sexual risks, whatever the womans serostatus. This communication was less frequent for women in a polygamous union or not residing with their partner. Around 30% of women systematically used condoms at sex resumption. Among HIV infected ones, conjugal talk on sexual risks was related to improved condom use. After HIV testing, more HIV-infected women separated from their partners than HIV-uninfected women, despite very few negative reactions from the notified partners. In conclusion, offering prenatal HIV counselling and testing is an efficient tool for sensitizing women and their partners to HIV prevention. But sexual prevention in a conjugal context remains difficult and need to be specifically addressed.
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Estimates of peripartum and postnatal mother-to-child transmission probabilities of HIV for use in Spectrum and other population-based models.
Sex Transm Infect
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The Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children and Keeping Their Mothers Alive aims to reduce by 2015 the number of new infections in children, in 22 priority countries, by at least 90% from 2009 levels. Mathematical models, such as Spectrum, are used to estimate national and global trends of the number of infants infected through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). However, other modelling exercises have also examined MTCT under different settings. MTCT probabilities applied in models to populations that are assumed to receive antiretroviral interventions need to reflect the most current risk estimates.
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Feasibility and acceptability of rapid HIV screening in a labour ward in Togo.
J Int AIDS Soc
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HIV screening in a labour ward is the last opportunity to initiate an antiretroviral prophylaxis among pregnant women living with HIV to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of HIV screening during labour in West Africa.
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Children who acquire HIV infection perinatally are at higher risk of early death than those acquiring infection through breastmilk: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
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Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.