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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Role of adiponectin in the metabolic effects of cannabinoid type 1 receptor blockade in mice with diet-induced obesity.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin promotes fatty acid oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity and thus plays a key role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Chronic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor blockade also increases lipid oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals or animals, resulting in reduced cardiometabolic risk. Chronic CB1 blockade reverses the obesity-related decline in serum adiponectin levels, which has been proposed to account for the metabolic effects of CB1 antagonists. Here, we investigated the metabolic actions of the CB1 inverse agonist rimonabant in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese adiponectin knockout (Adipo(-/-)) mice and their wild-type littermate controls (Adipo(+/+)). HFD-induced obesity and its hormonal/metabolic consequences were indistinguishable in the two strains. Daily treatment of obese mice with rimonabant for 7 days resulted in significant and comparable reductions in body weight, serum leptin, free fatty acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in the two strains. Rimonabant treatment improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity to the same extent in Adipo(+/+) and Adipo(-/-) mice, whereas it reversed the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular damage only in the former. The adiponectin-dependent, antisteatotic effect of rimonabant was mediated by reduced uptake and increased ?-oxidation of fatty acids in the liver. We conclude that reversal of the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis by chronic CB1 blockade, but not the parallel reduction in adiposity and improved glycemic control, is mediated by adiponectin.
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Monounsaturated fatty acids generated via stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 are endogenous inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance are associated with increased activity of the endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor (CB1R) system that promotes the hepatic expression of lipogenic genes, including stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). Mice deficient in CB1R or SCD1 remain lean and insulin-sensitive on an HFD, suggesting a functional link between the two systems. The HFD-induced increase in the hepatic levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide [i.e., arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA)] has been attributed to reduced activity of the AEA-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here we show that HFD-induced increased hepatic AEA levels and decreased FAAH activity are absent in SCD1(-/-) mice, and the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) products of SCD1, palmitoleic and oleic acid, inhibit FAAH activity in vitro at low micromolar concentrations. HFD markedly increases hepatic SCD1 activity in WT mice as well as in CB1R(-/-) mice with transgenic reexpression of CB1R in hepatocytes, but not in global CB1R(-/-) mice. Treatment of HFD-fed mice with the SCD1 inhibitor A939572 prevents the diet-induced reduction of hepatic FAAH activity, normalizes hepatic AEA levels, and improves insulin sensitivity. SCD1(-/-) mice on an HFD remain insulin-sensitive, but develop glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in response to chronic treatment with the FAAH inhibitor URB597. An HFD rich in MUFA or feeding mice pure oleic acid fail to inhibit hepatic FAAH activity. We conclude that MUFAs generated via SCD1 activity, but not diet-derived MUFAs, function as endogenous FAAH inhibitors mediating the HFD-induced increase in hepatic AEA, which then activates hepatic CB1R to induce insulin resistance.
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Chronic alcohol produces neuroadaptations to prime dorsal striatal learning.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Drug addictions including alcoholism are characterized by degradation of executive control over behavior and increased compulsive drug seeking. These profound behavioral changes are hypothesized to involve a shift in the regulation of behavior from prefrontal cortex to dorsal striatum (DLS). Studies in rodents have shown that ethanol disrupts cognitive processes mediated by the prefrontal cortex, but the potential effects of chronic ethanol on DLS-mediated cognition and learning are much less well understood. Here, we first examined the effects of chronic EtOH on DLS neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity, and endocannabinoid-CB1R signaling. We next tested for ethanol-induced changes in striatal-related learning and DLS in vivo single-unit activity during learning. Mice exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exhibited expansion of dendritic material in DLS neurons. Following CIE, DLS endocannabinoid CB1 receptor signaling was down-regulated, and CB1 receptor-dependent long-term depression at DLS synapses was absent. CIE mice showed facilitation of DLS-dependent pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning, relative to air-exposed controls. CIE mice were also quicker to extinguish a stimulus-reward instrumental response and faster to reduce Pavlovian approach behavior under an omission schedule. In vivo single-unit recording during learning revealed that CIE mice had augmented DLS neuronal activity during correct responses. Collectively, these findings support a model in which chronic ethanol causes neuroadaptations in the DLS that prime for greater DLS control over learning. The shift to striatal dominance over behavior may be a critical step in the progression of alcoholism.
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Ligand-specific regulation of the endogenous mu-opioid receptor by chronic treatment with mu-opioid Peptide agonists.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Since the discovery of the endomorphins (EM), the postulated endogenous peptide agonists of the mu-opioid receptors, several analogues have been synthesized to improve their binding and pharmacological profiles. We have shown previously that a new analogue, cis-1S,2R-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid(2)-endomorphin-2 (ACHC-EM2), had elevated mu-receptor affinity, selectivity, and proteolytic stability over the parent compound. In the present work, we have studied its antinociceptive effects and receptor regulatory processes. ACHC-EM2 displayed a somewhat higher (60%) acute antinociceptive response than the parent peptide, EM2 (45%), which peaked at 10?min after intracerebroventricular (icv) administration in the rat tail-flick test. Analgesic tolerance developed to the antinociceptive effect of ACHC-EM2 upon its repeated icv injection that was complete by a 10-day treatment. This was accompanied by attenuated coupling of mu-sites to G-proteins in subcellular fractions of rat brain. Also, the density of mu-receptors was upregulated by about 40% in the light membrane fraction, with no detectable changes in surface binding. Distinct receptor regulatory processes were noted in subcellular fractions of rat brains made tolerant by the prototypic full mu-agonist peptide, DAMGO, and its chloromethyl ketone derivative, DAMCK. These results are discussed in light of the recently discovered phenomenon, that is, the "so-called biased agonism" or "functional selectivity".
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Hepatic cannabinoid-1 receptors mediate diet-induced insulin resistance by increasing de novo synthesis of long-chain ceramides.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Obesity is associated with increased activity of two lipid signaling systems (endocannabinoids [ECs] and ceramides), with both being implicated in insulin resistance. Cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1 R) antagonists reverse obesity and insulin resistance, but have psychiatric side effects. Here we analyzed the role of ceramide in CB1 R-mediated insulin resistance in C57Bl6/J mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO), using JD5037, a peripherally restricted CB1 R inverse agonist. Chronic JD5037 treatment of DIO mice reduced body weight and steatosis and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Peripheral CB1 R blockade also attenuated the diet-induced increase in C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, and C20:0 ceramide species with either C16 or C18 sphingosine-base in the liver. Decreased ceramide levels reflected their reduced de novo synthesis, due to inhibition of the activity of serine-palmitoyl transferase (SPT) and the expression of its SPTLC3 catalytic subunit, as well as reduced ceramide synthase (CerS) activity related to reduced expression of CerS1 and CerS6. JD5037 treatment also increased ceramide degradation due to increased expression of ceramidases. In primary cultured mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells, the EC anandamide increased ceramide synthesis in an eIF2?-dependent manner, and inhibited insulin-induced akt phosphorylation by increased serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and increased expression of the serine/threonine phosphatase Phlpp1. These effects were abrogated by JD5037 or the SPT inhibitor myriocin. Chronic treatment of DIO mice with myriocin or JD5037 similarly reversed hepatic insulin resistance, as verified using a euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp. Conclusion: ECs induce CB1 R-mediated, endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent synthesis of specific ceramide subspecies in the liver, which plays a key role in obesity-related hepatic insulin resistance. (Hepatology 2014;58:143-153).
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Activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome in infiltrating macrophages by endocannabinoids mediates beta cell loss in type 2 diabetes.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) progresses from compensated insulin resistance to beta cell failure resulting in uncompensated hyperglycemia, a process replicated in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. The Nlrp3 inflammasome has been implicated in obesity-induced insulin resistance and beta cell failure. Endocannabinoids contribute to insulin resistance through activation of peripheral CB1 receptors (CB?Rs) and also promote beta cell failure. Here we show that beta cell failure in adult ZDF rats is not associated with CB?R signaling in beta cells, but rather in M1 macrophages infiltrating into pancreatic islets, and that this leads to activation of the Nlrp3-ASC inflammasome in the macrophages. These effects are replicated in vitro by incubating wild-type human or rodent macrophages, but not macrophages from CB?R-deficient (Cnr1(-/-)) or Nlrp3(-/-) mice, with the endocannabinoid anandamide. Peripheral CB?R blockade, in vivo depletion of macrophages or macrophage-specific knockdown of CB?R reverses or prevents these changes and restores normoglycemia and glucose-induced insulin secretion. These findings implicate endocannabinoids and inflammasome activation in beta cell failure and identify macrophage-expressed CB?R as a therapeutic target in T2DM.
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Lack of Regulatory Changes of ?-Opioid Receptors by 14-Methoxymetopon Treatment in Rat Brain. Further Evidence for Functional Selectivity.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Here we have studied regulatory changes of ?-opioid receptors accompanying in vivo 14-methoxymetopon treatments of rats.  Previously, this ligand has been shown to be an extremely potent, centrally acting ?-opioid specific analgesic with low physical dependence, tolerance, respiratory depression, constipation and other side effects. Our work shows that it is a highly potent full agonist of ?-opioid receptor coupled G-protein signaling in vitro, alike the well-known opioid agonist, etorphine. However, unlike etorphine, which desensitized and down-regulated the endogenous ?-opioid receptors, 14-methoxymetopon, given to rats intraperitoneally (i.p.) either acutely or chronically, did not change the binding or G-protein signaling of ?-opioid receptors in rat brain subcellular membranes. Thereby, these data provide further evidence that there is no direct relationship between the efficacy of the ligand in signaling and its ability to internalize or desensitize the receptor. Viewed collectively with published work, it is discussed that ?-opioid receptors display functional selectivity, also called biased agonism. This concept implies that each ligand may induce unique, ligand-specific receptor conformation that can result in distinct agonist-directed trafficking and/or signal transduction pathways associated with the receptor. Ligand-specific signaling may open up new directions for designing potent analgesics that do not interact with unwanted signaling pathways, which mediate undesired side-effects, such as tolerance and dependence.
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Hyperactivation of anandamide synthesis and regulation of cell-cycle progression via cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors in the regenerating liver.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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The mammalian liver regenerates upon tissue loss, which induces quiescent hepatocytes to enter the cell cycle and undergo limited replication under the control of multiple hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Endocannabinoids acting via cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB(1)R) promote neural progenitor cell proliferation, and in the liver they promote lipogenesis. These findings suggest the involvement of CB(1)R in the control of liver regeneration. Here we report that mice lacking CB(1)R globally or in hepatocytes only and wild-type mice treated with a CB(1)R antagonist have a delayed proliferative response to two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHX). In wild-type mice, PHX leads to increased hepatic expression of CB(1)R and hyperactivation of the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid anandamide in the liver via an in vivo pathway involving conjugation of arachidonic acid and ethanolamine by fatty-acid amide hydrolase. In wild-type but not CB(1)R(-/-) mice, PHX induces robust up-regulation of key cell-cycle proteins involved in mitotic progression, including cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), cyclin B2, and their transcriptional regulator forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1), as revealed by ultrahigh-throughput RNA sequencing and pathway analysis and confirmed by real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Treatment of wild-type mice with anandamide induces similar changes mediated via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. We conclude that activation of hepatic CB(1)R by newly synthesized anandamide promotes liver regeneration by controlling the expression of cell-cycle regulators that drive M phase progression.
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Endocannabinoids in liver disease.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators of the same cannabinoid (CB) receptors that mediate the effects of marijuana. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of CB receptors, endocannabinoids, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, and it is present in both brain and peripheral tissues, including the liver. The hepatic ECS is activated in various liver diseases and contributes to the underlying pathologies. In patients with cirrhosis of various etiologies, the activation of vascular and cardiac CB(1) receptors by macrophage-derived and platelet-derived endocannabinoids contributes to the vasodilated state and cardiomyopathy, which can be reversed by CB(1) blockade. In mouse models of liver fibrosis, the activation of CB(1) receptors on hepatic stellate cells is fibrogenic, and CB(1) blockade slows the progression of fibrosis. Fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet or chronic alcohol feeding depends on the activation of peripheral receptors, including hepatic CB(1) receptors, which also contribute to insulin resistance and dyslipidemias. Although the documented therapeutic potential of CB(1) blockade is limited by neuropsychiatric side effects, these may be mitigated by using novel, peripherally restricted CB(1) antagonists.
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Inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase normalizes cardiovascular function in hypertension without adverse metabolic effects.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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The enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) catalyzes the in vivo degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide, thus controlling its action at receptors. A novel FAAH inhibitor, AM3506, normalizes the elevated blood pressure and cardiac contractility of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) without affecting these parameters in normotensive rats. These effects are due to blockade of FAAH and a corresponding rise in brain anandamide levels, resulting in CB? receptor-mediated decrease in sympathetic tone. The supersensitivity of SHR to CB? receptor-mediated cardiovascular depression is related to increased G protein coupling of CB? receptors. Importantly, AM3506 does not elicit hyperglycemia and insulin resistance seen with other FAAH inhibitors or in FAAH?/? mice, which is related to its inability to inhibit FAAH in the liver due to rapid hepatic uptake and metabolism. This unique activity profile offers improved therapeutic value in hypertension.
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CB1 receptor-independent actions of SR141716 on G-protein signaling: coapplication with the mu-opioid agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-(NMe)Phe-Gly-ol unmasks novel, pertussis toxin-insensitive opioid signaling in mu-opioid receptor-Chinese hamster ovary cells.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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The CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide hydrochloride (SR141716) has been shown by many investigators to inhibit basal G-protein activity, i.e., to display inverse agonism at high concentrations. However, it is not clear whether this effect is cannabinoid CB(1) receptor-mediated. Using the ligand-stimulated [(35)S]guanosine 5-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS) assay, we have found that 10 microM SR141716 slightly but significantly decreases the basal [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding in membranes of the wild-type and CB(1) receptor knockout mouse cortex, parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and CHO cells stably transfected with micro-opioid receptors, MOR-CHO. Accordingly, we conclude that the inverse agonism of SR141716 is CB(1) receptor-independent. Although the specific MOR agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-(NMe)Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) saturably and concentration-dependently stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding, SR141716 (10 microM) inhibited the basal by 25% and competitively inhibited DAMGO stimulation in the mouse cortex. In MOR-CHO membranes, DAMGO caused a 501 +/- 29% stimulation of the basal activity, which was inhibited to 456 +/- 22% by 10 microM SR141716. The inverse agonism of SR141716 was abolished, and DAMGO alone displayed weak, naloxone-insensitive stimulation, whereas the combination of DAMGO and SR141716 (10 microM each) resulted in a 169 +/- 22% stimulation of the basal activity (that was completely inhibited by the prototypic opioid antagonist naloxone) because of pertussis toxin (PTX) treatment to uncouple MORs from G(i)/G(o) proteins. SR141716 proved to bind directly to MORs with low affinity (IC(50) = 5.7 microM). These results suggest the emergence of novel, PTX-insensitive G-protein signaling that is blocked by naloxone when MORs are activated by the combination of DAMGO and SR141716.
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Peripheral cannabinoid-1 receptor inverse agonism reduces obesity by reversing leptin resistance.
Cell Metab.
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Obesity-related leptin resistance manifests in loss of leptins ability to reduce appetite and increase energy expenditure. Obesity is also associated with increased activity of the endocannabinoid system, and CB(1) receptor (CB(1)R) inverse agonists reduce body weight and the associated metabolic complications, although adverse neuropsychiatric effects halted their therapeutic development. Here we show that in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), the peripherally restricted CB(1)R inverse agonist JD5037 is equieffective with its brain-penetrant parent compound in reducing appetite, body weight, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance, even though it does not occupy central CB(1)R or induce related behaviors. Appetite and weight reduction by JD5037 are mediated by resensitizing DIO mice to endogenous leptin through reversing the hyperleptinemia by decreasing leptin expression and secretion by adipocytes and increasing leptin clearance via the kidney. Thus, inverse agonism at peripheral CB(1)R not only improves cardiometabolic risk in obesity but has antiobesity effects by reversing leptin resistance.
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Cannabinoid 1 receptor promotes cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Diabetes
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Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid 1 (CB(1)) receptors have been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, inflammation, and cell death associated with various forms of shock, heart failure, and atherosclerosis, in addition to their recognized role in the development of various cardiovascular risk factors in obesity/metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In this study, we explored the role of CB(1) receptors in myocardial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways, using a mouse model of type 1 diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was characterized by increased myocardial endocannabinoid anandamide levels, oxidative/nitrative stress, activation of p38/Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), enhanced inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, cyclooxygenase 2, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), increased expression of CB(1), advanced glycation end product (AGE) and angiotensin II type 1 receptors (receptor for advanced glycation end product [RAGE], angiotensin II receptor type 1 [AT(1)R]), p47(phox) NADPH oxidase subunit, ?-myosin heavy chain isozyme switch, accumulation of AGE, fibrosis, and decreased expression of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a). Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of CB(1) receptors attenuated the diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction and the above-mentioned pathological alterations. Activation of CB(1) receptors by endocannabinoids may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy by facilitating MAPK activation, AT(1)R expression/signaling, AGE accumulation, oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Conversely, CB(1) receptor inhibition may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications.
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