Medical thoracoscopy is an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic tool for management of pleural diseases. There have been case reports of removal of foreign bodies from pleural spaces with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under general anaesthesia by thoracic surgeons. We present a case of successful removal of an 8?cm long metal needle from the pleural space with single port medical semirigid thoracoscopy under local anaesthesia by a chest physician. Removal of a foreign body from the pleural space is one more indication for medical thoracoscopy, however, an experienced chest physician and proper case selection are very important for safety and a successful outcome of this procedure.
Recombination mediator proteins (RMPs) are important for genome stability in all organisms. Several RMPs support two alternative reactions: initiation of homologous recombination and DNA annealing. We examined mechanisms of RMPs in both reactions with Mycobacterium smegmatis RecO (MsRecO) and demonstrated that MsRecO interacts with ssDNA by two distinct mechanisms. Zinc stimulates MsRecO binding to ssDNA during annealing, whereas the recombination function is zinc-independent and is regulated by interaction with MsRecR. Thus, different structural motifs or conformations of MsRecO are responsible for interaction with ssDNA during annealing and recombination. Neither annealing nor recombinase loading depends on MsRecO interaction with the conserved C-terminal tail of single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding protein (SSB), which is known to bind Escherichia coli RecO. However, similarly to E. coli proteins, MsRecO and MsRecOR do not dismiss SSB from ssDNA, suggesting that RMPs form a complex with SSB-ssDNA even in the absence of binding to the major protein interaction motif. We propose that alternative conformations of such complexes define the mechanism by which RMPs initiate the repair of stalled replication and support two different functions during recombinational repair of DNA breaks.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting tumor vaccines are bioactive, but limited by disease burden and immune tolerance. Cyclophosphamide augments vaccine activity in tolerant neu mice and in patients with metastatic breast cancer. HER2-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) enhance vaccine activity in neu mice. We hypothesized that cyclophosphamide-modulated vaccination with HER2-specific mAb safely induces relevant HER2-specific immunity in neu mice and patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Adding both cyclophosphamide and the HER2-specific mAb 7.16.4 to vaccination maximized HER2-specific CD8+ T-cell immunity and tumor-free survival in neu transgenic mice. We, therefore, conducted a single-arm feasibility study of cyclophosphamide, an allogeneic HER2+ GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor vaccine, and weekly trastuzumab in 20 patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Primary clinical trial objectives were safety and clinical benefit, in which clinical benefit represents complete response + partial response + stable disease. Secondary study objectives were to assess HER2-specific T-cell responses by delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and intracellular cytokine staining. Patients received three monthly vaccinations, with a boost 6 to 8 months from trial entry. This combination immunotherapy was safe, with clinical benefit rates at 6 months and 1 year of 55% [95% confidence interval (CI), 32%-77%; P = 0.013] and 40% (95% CI, 19%-64%), respectively. Median progression-free survival and overall survival durations were 7 months (95% CI, 4-16) and 42 months (95% CI, 22-70), respectively. Increased HER2-specific DTH developed in 7 of 20 patients [of whom 4 had clinical benefit (95% CI, 18-90)], with a trend toward longer progression-free survival and overall survival in DTH responders. Polyfunctional HER2-specific CD8+ T cells progressively expanded across vaccination cycles. Further investigation of cyclophosphamide-modulated vaccination with trastuzumab is warranted.
One-third of schwannomas occur in head and neck region, mostly in the parapharyngeal region. Cystic change is seen in only 4% of schwannomas. The diagnosis of such tumors remains a challenge due to the rarity of these lesions and limited utility of fine needle aspiration cytology. When cystic, branchial cleft cyst is an important differential diagnosis more so due to radiological resemblance. We present a case of 42-year-old male with left sided neck mass masquerading as branchial cleft cyst clinically and radiologically. Multiple sections examined from the cystic areas of the mass revealed lymphoid aggregates beneath the cyst wall in addition to the schwannomatous areas.
Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a recently described bacterial DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that has been best characterized for mycobacteria. NHEJ can religate transformed linear plasmids, repair ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells, and seal I-SceI-induced chromosomal DSBs. The core components of the mycobacterial NHEJ machinery are the DNA end binding protein Ku and the polyfunctional DNA ligase LigD. LigD has three autonomous enzymatic modules: ATP-dependent DNA ligase (LIG), DNA/RNA polymerase (POL), and 3' phosphoesterase (PE). Although genetic ablation of ku or ligD abolishes NHEJ and sensitizes nonreplicating cells to ionizing radiation, selective ablation of the ligase activity of LigD in vivo only mildly impairs NHEJ of linearized plasmids, indicating that an additional DNA ligase can support NHEJ. Additionally, the in vivo role of the POL and PE domains in NHEJ is unclear. Here we define a LigD ligase-independent NHEJ pathway in Mycobacterium smegmatis that requires the ATP-dependent DNA ligase LigC1 and the POL domain of LigD. Mycobacterium tuberculosis LigC can also support this backup NHEJ pathway. We also demonstrate that, although dispensable for efficient plasmid NHEJ, the activities of the POL and PE domains are required for repair of IR-induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells. These findings define the genetic requirements for a LigD-independent NHEJ pathway in mycobacteria and demonstrate that all enzymatic functions of the LigD protein participate in NHEJ in vivo.
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare disease grouped under World health organization classification as chronic myeloproliferative disease. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in patients with sustained mature neutrophilia and splenomegaly with no evidence of other myeloproliferative disease or reactive neutrophilia. V617F JAK 2 mutation has been described in classical myeloproliferative diseases, but its association with CNL has been reported in a few cases. Here in, we describe three cases of CNL with presence of V617F JAK 2 mutation. To distinguish CNL from secondary neutrophilia can be difficult. Detection of the V617F JAK 2 mutation in such scenario can provide a useful diagnostic test to establish the neoplastic nature of the neutrophilia.
Foreign bodies in aerodigestive tract are frequent occurrence and may lead to life threatening situation due to obstruction caused in respiratory passages. To present foreign body ingestion cases observed in a 5-year period at the S.S. Medical College and G.M. Hospital, Rewa (MP). The present study is a retrospective analysis including 108 patients of foreign bodies of aerodigestive tract of Vindhya region who presented to the S.S. Medical College and G.M. Hospital, Rewa from January 2008 to August 2012. About 92 patients of total 108 patients had evidence of foreign body in food passage with age ranging from 9 month to 85 years. Most patients 65 (70.65 %) belong to <10 year age group. Radiological evidence was found in 76 (82.6 %) patients. Most common foreign body was found to be coin 75 (81.52 %). The commonest site of lodgement was cricopharynx. About 16 patients of total 108 patients had evidence of foreign body in airway with age ranging from 9 months to 72 years. Most cases 8 (50 %) belong to <10 year age. Maximum cases showed vegetative foreign body with right bronchus (58.33 %) as commonest site of lodgement. Early detection by meticulous history, imaging modality and prompt management remains basis for favourable outcome and prevents future complications.
Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. Two major theories of vitiligo pathogenesis include autoimmunity and oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in melanocytes. The present study aimed to evaluate both the hypotheses in vitiligo patients and to investigate their role in the disease onset and progression. Antimelanocyte antibody levels and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were evaluated in 427 patients and 440 controls; antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody levels were estimated in 102 patients and 72 controls. Patients showed a significant increase in LPO and antimelanocyte antibody levels compared to controls. Antimelanocyte antibody and LPO levels were higher in active vitiligo compared to stable. Only 9.8% of patients showed the presence of anti-TPO antibodies in their circulation. Oxidative stress may be the initial triggering event to precipitate vitiligo in Gujarat population, which is exacerbated by contributing autoimmune factors together with oxidative stress.
Leiomyosarcomas of soft tissue are the rare tumors and the retroperitoneum is the most common site involved. We report a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the peritoneal cavity which clinically presented with suprapubic, freely mobile, nontender mass which measured 10×10 cm in size. Contrast enhanced computed tomography revealed well defined heterogenous hypodense solid cystic mass. The mass was surgically excised out in its entirety. The histopathological examination revealed spindle cells arranged in alternating fascicles having pleomorphic nuclei, indistinct margin and eosinophilic cytoplasm with foci of haemorrhage, necrosis and 5-6 mitosis/HPF. The spindle cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, desmin and negative for S-100, CD-34 and c-kit. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were helpful in making the final confirmatory diagnosis. Leiomyosarcomas are aggressive tumors, with poor prognosis and often difficult to treat. The survival rates are lowest among all soft tissue sarcomas.
The pathobiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) projecting to the striatum. Currently, there are no treatments that can halt or reverse the course of PD; only palliative therapies, such as replacement strategies for missing neurotransmitters, exist. Thus, the successful brain delivery of neurotrophic factors that promote neuronal survival and reverse the disease progression is crucial. We demonstrated earlier systemically administered autologous macrophages can deliver nanoformulated antioxidant, catalase, to the SNpc providing potent anti-inflammatory effects in PD mouse models. Here we evaluated genetically-modified macrophages for active targeted brain delivery of glial cell-line derived neurotropic factor (GDNF). To capitalize on the beneficial properties afforded by alternatively activated macrophages, transfected with GDNF-encoded pDNA cells were further differentiated toward regenerative M2 phenotype. A systemic administration of GDNF-expressing macrophages significantly ameliorated neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in PD mice. Behavioral studies confirmed neuroprotective effects of the macrophage-based drug delivery system. One of the suggested mechanisms of therapeutic effects is the release of exosomes containing the expressed neurotropic factor followed by the efficient GDNF transfer to target neurons. Such formulations can serve as a new technology based on cell-mediated active delivery of therapeutic proteins that attenuate and reverse progression of PD, and ultimately provide hope for those patients who are already significantly disabled by the disease.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), like Benzo[alpha]Pyrene (BaP) are known to cause a number of toxic manifestations including lung cancer. As Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have recently been shown to adsorb a number of PAHs from soil and water, we investigated whether TiO2 NPs could provide protection against the BaP induced toxicity in biological system. A549 cells when co-exposed with BaP (25 µM, 50 µM and 75 µM) along with 0.1 µg/ml,0.5 µg/ml and 1 µg/ml of TiO2 NPs, showed significant reduction in the toxic effects of BaP, as measured by Micronucleus Assay, MTT Assay and ROS Assay. In order to explore the mechanism of protection by TiO2 NP against BaP, we performed in silico studies. BaP and other PAHs are known to enter the cell via aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). TiO2 NP showed a much higher docking score with AHR (12074) as compared to the docking score of BaP with AHR (4600). This indicates a preferential binding of TiO2 NP with the AHR, in case if both the TiO2 NP and BaP are present. Further, we have done the docking of BaP with the TiO2 NP bound AHR-complex (score 4710), and observed that BaP showed strong adsorption on TiO2 NP itself, and not at its original binding site (at AHR). TiO2 NPs thereby prevent the entry of BaP in to the cell via AHR and hence protect cells against the deleterious effects induced by BaP.
Coexistence of scleroderma with multiple myeloma (MM) is an unusual finding with unclear significance. Only 13 cases of MM with scleroderma have been reported until now. We report a case of a 24-year-old man with 8-year history of progressive thickening of skin all over the body. Histopathology of skin lesion was consistent with scleroderma. Bone marrow biopsy showed interstitial and focal increase in plasma cells and increased bone marrow fibrosis. Skeletal survey showed osteopenia, but no osteolytic lesion or fracture. The patient was diagnosed as scleroderma with coexistence of immunoglobulin A, ?MM. The patient recovered with improvement of skin lesions after 9 months of therapy with thalidomide and dexamethasone.
Tracheomalacia is a rare condition characterized by weakness of tracheobronchial cartilaginous bridges. Severe weakness results in tracheal collapse during inspiration, obstructing normal airflow. Tracheomalacia may also be associated with esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, and gastroesophageal reflux. Aortopexy is an established surgical procedure for treatment of severe tracheomalacia. A 2-month-old boy was scheduled for aortopexy. He had already undergone repair of tracheoesophageal fistula and had failed multiple attempts at extubation. Intraoperative flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed to guide the amount and direction of aortopexy for assuring the most effective tracheal decompression. Since tracheomalacia is best assessed in a spontaneously breathing patient, it was an anesthetic challenge to maintain an adequate depth of anesthesia while allowing the patient to breathe spontaneously. Throughout the intraoperative period, SpO2 remained ?96%. Following the procedure, the trachea was extubated and patient was able to breathe normally.
The present investigation was aimed at exploring the targeting potential of sulfasalazine (NF-?B inhibitor drug) loaded fucose tethered poly (propylene imine) (PPI) dendritic nanoarchitecture (SSZ-FUCO-PPID) to Kupffer cells for effective management of cytokine-induced liver damage. The SSZ-FUCO-PPID formulation was characterized for entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, stability, toxicological investigations, macrophage uptake, NF-?B inhibition, and in vivo studies. In cell uptake assay the uptake of SSZ-FUCO-PPID was found to be higher and preferentially by J774 macrophage cell line. Cytokine assay suggested that the SSZ-FUCO-PPID potentially inhibited the IL-12 p40 production in LPS activated macrophages. Western blot analysis clearly suggested that SSZ-FUCO-PPID inhibited the activation of NF-?B as indicated by the absence of p-I?B band. Pharmacokinetic study revealed improved bioavailability, half-life and mean residence time of SSZ upon fucosylation of dendrimers. The biodistribution pattern clearly established the higher amount of SSZ-FUCO-PPID in liver. Hematological data suggest that the fucosylated formulations are less immunogenic as compared to unconjugated formulations. The results suggest that the SSZ-FUCO-PPID formulation holds targeting potential to Kupffer cells for the treatment of cytokine-induced liver damage.
Little data are available regarding the frequencies of the blood group antigens other than ABO and RhD in the Indian population. Knowledge of the antigen frequencies is important to assess risk of antibody formation and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which is especially useful when blood is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. This study was carried out to determine the frequencies of the D, C, c, E, e, K, k, Fy(a), Fy(b), Jk(a), Jk(b), M, N, S and s antigens in over 3,000 blood donors.
Hydatid cyst disease of lungs may not be symptomatic. It may present as spontaneous rupture in pleura or a bronchus. During spontaneous breathing, cyst content of endobronchially ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst is mostly evacuated by coughing. However, during positive pressure ventilation such extruded fragments may lodge into smaller airway leading to an airway catastrophe. We present such accidental endobronchial rupture of pulmonary hydatid cyst during surgery, its prompt detection, and management by rigid bronchoscopy.
The Montgomery silicone t-tube used for post-procedural tracheal stenosis has advantage of acting as both stent and tracheostomy tube. The anesthetic management of patient with t-tube in situ poses a challenge. Safe management of such patients requires careful planning. We describe anesthetic management for direct laryngoscopy of a patient with t-tube in situ.
During routine dissection of 82-year-old female cadaver with no known unfavorable medical history, we observed bilateral bifid ureter and variation in arterial supply of left kidney only. Careful examination revealed that there were bifid ureters on both sides enclosed in single facial sheath. It was also observed that both the ureter have different pattern of origin. On the right side, both the ureters were seen to be emerging from the hilum, one below another and joined together at the brim of the lesser pelvis just before crossing the right external iliac artery. Right kidney was supplied by single renal artery lying anterior to both the ureters. On the left side one ureter emerged from the hilum while the second one exited the kidney from a prominent lobule present below the inferior pole.
Babies born before 28 weeks gestation have lower plasma thyroid hormone concentrations than more mature infants. This may contribute to their risk of poor developmental outcome. Previous studies have suggested that thyroxine supplementation for extremely preterm neonates may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of administration of supplemental thyroxine to very premature babies on brain size and somatic growth at 36 weeks corrected gestational age (CGA).
Mycobacteria have two genetically distinct pathways for the homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks: homologous recombination (HR) and single-strand annealing (SSA). HR is abolished by deletion of RecA and reduced in the absence of the AdnAB helicase/nuclease. By contrast, SSA is RecA-independent and requires RecBCD. Here we examine the function of RecO in mycobacterial DNA recombination and repair. Loss of RecO elicits hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents similar to that caused by deletion of RecA. We show that RecO participates in RecA-dependent HR in a pathway parallel to the AdnAB pathway. We also find that RecO plays a role in the RecA-independent SSA pathway. The mycobacterial RecO protein displays a zinc-dependent DNA binding activity in vitro and accelerates the annealing of SSB-coated single-stranded DNA. These findings establish a role for RecO in two pathways of mycobacterial DNA double-strand break repair and suggest an in vivo function for the DNA annealing activity of RecO proteins, thereby underscoring their similarity to eukaryal Rad52.
A four-year-old boy presented with constipation and mild abdominal distention for one year. Radiologic investigations showed a multiloculated cystic lesion in the caudate lobe of liver with focal calcification in the wall. The child underwent laparotomy with marsupialization of the cystic lesion. Histopathologic examination showed mature teratoma of liver.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) converts 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate and affects the activity of cellular cycles participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, genome stability, maintenance of methyl pool, and gene regulation. Genetically compromised MTHFR activity has been suggested to affect male fertility. The objective of the present study was to find the impact on infertility risk of c.203G>A, c.1298A>C, and c.1793G>A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene.
One-half of the worlds population lives in cities and towns; this is expected to increase to 70% by 2050. One in three urban dwellers lives in slums. As the urban population grows, so does the number of urban poor. Out of a billion children living in urban areas, approximately 300 million are suffering from exclusion or are at risk of exclusion. Urban poor children are devoid of basic rights of survival, development and protection and are marginalised in challenging conditions in overcrowded settlements. Rapid urbanisation and the consequent increase in urban population is one of the biggest challenges that developing countries, including India are facing. Thirty per cent (that is, 367.5 million) of Indias population of 1.23 billion live in urban areas. Moreover, this figure is increasing rapidly and is expected to reach 432 million (40%) by 2021. Rapid urbanisation has unfortunately outpaced development, and a large proportion (43 million) live in substandard conditions in slums. Now is the time to pay attention to the basic rights of the urban poor, especially the urban poor children, the most vulnerable group at the launching of 12(th) Five-Year Plan & National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) in India.
Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor in that the crown form is symmetric and it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Presence of SMMCI with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a very rare clinical condition. We report a case of HFM in a male of Indian origin who presented with SMMCI in both primary and permanent dentitions. The association of HFM with SMMCI may be due to defective development of neural crest cells and/or lack of space in maxilla.
MspNI and MspNII, isoschizomers of prototype Type II restriction endonucleases AvaII and BstYI, were extracted from an extreme thermophile bacterium belonging to the genus Meiothermus, isolated from the hot sulphur springs in north Himalayan region of India where temperature and pH ranged from 60 to 80°C and 7.5 to 8.5, respectively. The two enzymes were purified to homogeneity using Cibacron-Blue 3GA Agarose, Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose chromatography and were homodimers with subunit molecular weights of 27 and 45 kDa, respectively. Restriction mapping and run-off sequencing of MspNI and MspNII cleaved pBR322 DNA showed that they recognized and cleaved 5-G/GWCC-3 and 5-R/GATCY-3 sites, respectively. MspNI and MspNII worked optimally at 60 and 70°C, 6 and 5 mM MgCl(2), respectively and showed no star activity in organic solvents. Both were resistant to sequence methylation and were stable up to 25 PCR cycles.
Storage of red cells causes a progressive increase in hemolysis. In spite of the use of additive solutions for storage and filters for leucoreduction, some amount of hemolysis is still inevitable. The extent of hemolysis, however, should not exceed the permissible threshold for hemolysis even on the 42(nd) day of storage.
Even with the use of maximum pharmacological treatment, asthma still remains uncontrolled in some cases. For such cases of uncontrolled asthma, a novel therapy--Bronchial Thermoplasty (BT)--has shown some promising results over the past few years. BT is application of controlled radiofrequency heat via catheter inserted through a flexible bronchoscope, to the bronchial walls. It reduces the smooth muscle mass in bronchial wall and thus results in decreased contractility. Three major trials of BT show that it does not cause any improvement in FEV1. However, BT causes improvement the quality of life and decreases the future exacerbations and emergency hospital visits due to asthma. But the benefit observed was too small to be clinically significant. Follow up (two to five years) results of these BT trials did not show any significant long-term adverse event related to BT. However, further independent large randomized controlled trials and results of application of BT in real hospital settings are needed to define its role in asthma management.
Systemic air embolism is recognized as a rare but potentially fatal complication of trans-thoracic needle biopsy of the lung. Methods:? We report the case of a young female who developed fatal cerebral air embolism following computed tomography (CT) guided needle biopsy of a lung mass.
Bacterial pathogens rely on their DNA repair pathways to resist genomic damage inflicted by the host. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are especially threatening to bacterial viability. DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR) requires nucleases that resect DSB ends and a strand exchange protein that facilitates homology search. RecBCD and RecA perform these functions in Escherichia coli and constitute the major pathway of error-free DSB repair. Mycobacteria, including the human pathogen M. tuberculosis, elaborate an additional error-prone pathway of DSB repair via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) catalysed by Ku and DNA ligase D (LigD). Little is known about the relative contributions of HR and NHEJ to mycobacterial chromosome repair, the factors that dictate pathway choice, or the existence of additional DSB repair pathways. Here we demonstrate that Mycobacterium smegmatis has three DSB repair pathway options: HR, NHEJ and a novel mechanism of single-strand annealing (SSA). Inactivation of NHEJ or SSA is compensated by elevated HR. We find that mycobacterial RecBCD does not participate in HR or confer resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), but is required for the RecA-independent SSA pathway. In contrast, the mycobacterial helicase-nuclease AdnAB participates in the RecA-dependent HR pathway, and is a major determinant of resistance to IR and oxidative DNA damage. These findings reveal distinctive features of mycobacterial DSB repair, most notably the dedication of the RecBCD and AdnAB helicase-nuclease machines to distinct repair pathways.
Cancer vaccines consisting of intact tumor cells genetically modified to secrete the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have undergone extensive preclinical development. These vaccines induce the massive accumulation of dendritic cells at the intradermal injection site, which engulf, process, and present tumor antigens to activate tumor-specific T cells. Early phase clinical testing demonstrated promising evidence of safety and bioactivity, although initial phase III clinical trials were unsuccessful. Together, the preclinical and clinical data argue for the continued clinical development of these vaccines, integrating them with standard and novel cancer therapeutics that enhance vaccine activity by overcoming immune tolerance and suppression, and/or augmenting co-stimulatory pathways of T cell activation.
Thoracoscopy is usually carried out using rigid metallic instruments. Recently, video flex-rigid or semi-rigid thoracoscopes have been introduced. These have the advantage of easy maneuverability, although the biopsy samples are smaller as compared to those with rigid thoracoscopy. We have looked at the usefulness of flex rigid thoracoscope in the diagnosis and treatment of pleural diseases, remained undiagnosed after thoracentesis and closed biopsy.
Among healthcare workers in developing countries, nurses spend a large amount of time in direct contact with tuberculosis (TB) patients, and are at high risk for acquisition of TB infection and disease. To better understand the epidemiology of nosocomial TB among nurses, we recruited a cohort of young nursing trainees at Christian Medical College, a large, tertiary medical school hospital in Southern India.
Rhabdoid tumor, first described in kidneys of infants and children, is an aggressive tumor that has been reported in several extrarenal locations. In this report, we describe the case of a 40-year-old patient with gastric adenocarcinoma composed of histologically well-differentiated glandular areas and focal rhabdoid zones. The rhabdoid component showed typical features such as abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, eccentric nuclei, prominent nucleoli and intense focal positive immunohistochemical cytoplasmic reaction for vimentin. Recognition of the rhabdoid phenotype in gastrointestinal tract neoplasms is important because this feature is associated with poor prognosis and unresponsiveness to conventional therapy.
Yoga is a popular form of complementary and alternative therapy. It is practiced both in developing and developed countries. Female sexual dysfunctions are common and do not always get adequate clinical attention. Pharmacotherapies for treating female sexual dysfunctions are available but suffer from drawbacks such as poor compliance, low efficacy, and side effects. Many patients and yoga protagonists claim that it is useful in improving sexual functions and treating sexual disorders.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the West Bengal basin in India is unfolding as one of the worst natural geo-environmental disasters to date. Chelation therapy with chelating agents is considered to be the best known treatment against arsenic poisoning; however, they are compromised with certain serious drawbacks/side-effects. Efficacy of combined administration of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) (English: Drumstick tree) seed powder, a herbal extract, with a thiol chelator monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) post-arsenic exposure in mice was studied. Mice were exposed to 100 ppm arsenic in drinking water for 6 months, followed by 10-days treatment with M. oleifera seed powder (500 mg/kg, orally through gastric gavage, once daily), MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) either individually or in combination. Arsenic exposure caused significant decrease in blood glutathione, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species in blood and soft tissues. Significant inhibition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in tissues (liver in particular) along with significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and metallothionein levels in arsenic intoxicated mice was also noted. Combined administration of MiADMSA with M. oleifera proved better than all other treatments in the recovery of most of the above parameters accompanied by more pronounced depletion of arsenic. The results suggest that concomitant administration of M. oleifera during chelation treatment with MiADMSA might be a better treatment option than monotherapy with the thiol chelator in chronic arsenic toxicity.
Garlic is well known as a folk remedy for a variety of ailments since ancient times, however, very few studies are available suggesting its beneficial role against arsenic toxicity pertaining to its ability to eliminate arsenic from the blood and soft tissues and in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress in affected tissues. The present study was planned to investigate the protective efficacy of aqueous garlic extract using two different doses on parameters suggestive of hepatic injury, tissue oxidative stress and mobilization of arsenic. Further, an attempt to understand the mechanism of arsenic in inducing hepatic apoptosis was also studied. Results of the present study suggested that arsenic administration in mice caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. The ROS generation in hepatic tissue reverted to normal values after co-administration of garlic extracts. The study provides significant evidence that garlic extracts contain strong anti-oxidant property which could be beneficial in preventing arsenic-induced toxicity in cells. However, further research is required to determine whether the results from animal studies are applicable to humans before garlic can be recommended as a putative agent against arsenic toxicity.
Leiomyoma is the most common tumor in the uterus. A spectrum of histologic variants have been noted, however, metaplasia in the leiomyoma is a rare phenomenon. Adipose metaplasia being most commonly reported. Cartilaginous metaplasia in leiomyoma is very rare.
To study clinico-pathological profile of sinonasal masses (SNM). This is a retrospective analytical review of 92 patients of SNM who presented to Department of ENT, S.S. Medical college & Associated Hospital, Rewa from January 2008 to August 2012. Their biodata, clinical profile and histolopathological diagnosis were analyzed. The study design was retrospective done in tertiary referral hospital setting. In the present study total 92 patients with age ranging from 7 to >70 years were analysed. The overall M:F ratio was 1.35:1. Most of the patients (35.86 %) belong to 11-20 year age group. The main presenting symptoms were nasal blockage (94 %) and rhinorrhoea (90 %). About 48.9 % cases showed mass on left side, 34.78 % on right side and 16.3 % bilateral. Maximum cases 42.39 % were reported to be antrochoanal polyp followed by ethmoidal polyp and angiomatous polyp. About 6.52 % cases were histopathologically reported to be malignant. This article gives an insight into prevalence of SNM in this region of North India thus advocating early recognition, proper diagnosis and treatment of SNM.
A misconception that milk and lactose intolerance increases disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease leads to the exclusion of dietary dairy products, and patients are at an increased risk of low bone mineral density.
A novel, thermostable, alkalophilic ?-D-galactosidase (Mbgl) was isolated from a metagenome of geothermal springs in northern Himalayan region of India. Mbgl was 447 amino acids in size and had conserved catalytic residues E170 and E358, indicating that it belonged to family 1 of glycosyl hydrolases showing maximum homology (89 %) with uncharacterized ?-galactosidase of Eubacterium, Meiothermus ruber DSM1279. Temperature and pH optima of Mbgl were 65 °C and 8.0 respectively, and it retained 80 % activity even at pH 10.0. Mbgl was active as a homotetramer, recognized ?-(1,4)-D-galactoside as the preferred glycosidic bond, and preferentially hydrolyzed pNPgal with K(m) 3.33 mM and k(cat) 2,000 s(-1). It displayed high transglycosylation activity with wide acceptor specificity including hexoses and pentoses leading to the formation of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides whereas its lactose hydrolysis potential was low.
Transpedicular stabilization of subaxial cervical spine is a very delicate procedure that requires thorough understanding of the pedicle anatomy to minimize the rate of neurovascular complications. The current study was conducted to investigate the morphometric details including dimensions and axis of typical cervical vertebrae (C3-C6) for transpedicular screw insertion surgery.
Congenital syphilis may present with unusual symptoms in early stages which needs to be identified for prompt treatment. Here, we present a case of 13-day-old female child with congenital syphilis presenting with cleft lip.
Type II restriction endonucleases (REs) are highly sequence-specific compared with other classes of nucleases. PD-(D/E)XK nucleases, initially represented by only type II REs, now comprise a large and extremely diverse superfamily of proteins and, although sharing a structurally conserved core, typically display little or no detectable sequence similarity except for the active site motifs. Sequence similarity can only be observed in methylases and few isoschizomers. As a consequence, REs are classified according to combinations of functional properties rather than on the basis of genetic relatedness. New alignment matrices and classification systems based on structural core connectivity and cleavage mechanisms have been developed to characterize new REs and related proteins. REs recognizing more than 300 distinct specificities have been identified in RE database (REBASE: http://rebase.neb.com/cgi-bin/statlist ) but still the need for newer specificities is increasing due to the advancement in molecular biology and applications. The enzymes have undergone constant evolution through structural changes in protein scaffolds which include random mutations, homologous recombinations, insertions, and deletions of coding DNA sequences but rational mutagenesis or directed evolution delivers protein variants with new functions in accordance with defined biochemical or environmental pressures. Redesigning through random mutation, addition or deletion of amino acids, methylation-based selection, synthetic molecules, combining recognition and cleavage domains from different enzymes, or combination with domains of additional functions change the cleavage specificity or substrate preference and stability. There is a growing number of patents awarded for the creation of engineered REs with new and enhanced properties.
Regional anesthesia plays a key role in elective as well as emergency orthopedic and other surgeries in children. However, peripheral nerve blocks are quite challenging in children due to lack of precise anatomical knowledge of the course and distribution of these nerves. The purpose of this study was to explore the terminal branches of the superficial branch of the radial nerve in fetuses. The relationship of the superficial branch of the radial nerve with cephalic vein and surrounding tendons was also observed.
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.