JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Children's responses to mother-infant and father-infant interaction with a baby sibling: jealousy or joy?
J Fam Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Firstborn children's reactions to mother-infant and father-infant interaction after a sibling's birth were examined in an investigation of 224 families. Triadic observations of parent-infant-sibling interaction were conducted at 1 month after the birth. Parents reported on children's problem behaviors at 1 and 4 months after the birth and completed the Attachment Q-sort before the birth. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified 4 latent classes (behavioral profiles) for mother-infant and father-infant interactions: regulated-exploration, disruptive-dysregulated, approach-avoidant, and anxious-clingy. A fifth class, attention-seeking, was found with fathers. The regulated-exploration class was the normative pattern (60%), with few children in the disruptive class (2.7%). Approach-avoidant children had more behavior problems at 4 months than any other class, with the exception of the disruptive children, who were higher on aggression and attention problems. Before the birth, anxious-clingy children had less secure attachments to their fathers than approach avoidant children but more secure attachments to their mothers. Results underscore individual differences in firstborns' behavioral responses to parent-infant interaction and the importance of a person-centered approach for understanding children's jealousy.
Related JoVE Video
Snapshots of Mixtures of Affective Experiences in a Day: Findings from the Health and Retirement Study.
J Popul Ageing
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2009, a representative subsample of participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS: N = 5333; Age 50-101) responded to a short day reconstruction self-administered questionnaire that asked about their time and experiences on seven activities the previous day. We evaluate the quality and reliability of responses to this 10-minute measure of experienced well-being and compare the properties and correlates of three intensity-based composites reflecting mixtures of activity-linked affective experiences (Mean Activity-Positive Affect, Activity-Negative Affect, and Net Affect), and a frequency-based index, Activity Affective Complexity, that summarizes the proportion of activities that include a mixture of positive and negative affective experiences regardless of intensity. On average, older adults reported that 36% of the activities in their day provided some mixture of feelings (e.g., interested and frustrated). Regression models revealed differential associations for the four constructs of affective well-being with socio-demographic factors, physical and mental health, and proximal indicators of the day's context. We conclude that the HRS short day reconstruction measure is reliable and discuss the conceptual issues in assessing, summarizing, and interpreting the complexity of emotional experience in older adults.
Related JoVE Video
Blood transfusion products contain mitochondrial DNA damage-associated molecular patterns: a potential effector of transfusion-related acute lung injury.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most frequent and severe complication in patients receiving multiple blood transfusions. Current pathogenic concepts hold that proinflammatory mediators present in transfused blood products are responsible for the initiation of TRALI, but the identity of the critical effector molecules is yet to be determined. We hypothesize that mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are present in blood transfusion products, which may be important in the initiation of TRALI.
Related JoVE Video
Helmet use is associated with a decrease in intracranial hemorrhage following all-terrain vehicle crashes.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With the recent increase in size and horsepower of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), it is imperative that preventable injuries be identified to protect the large population using ATVs. Currently, many states have no laws regulating ATV or helmet use. By identifying preventable injuries, the legislature can design appropriate laws to protect both children and adults.
Related JoVE Video
Prehospital clinical clearance of the cervical spine: a prospective study.
Am Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physician clinical clearance of the cervical spine after blunt trauma is practiced in many trauma centers. Prehospital clinical clearance of the cervical spine (c-spine) performed by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel can decrease cost, improve patient comfort, decrease complications, and decrease prehospital time. The purpose of this study was to assess whether EMS personnel can effectively clinically clear the c-spine of injury in the prehospital setting. All paramedics from a single urban fire department were trained in clinical clearance of the c-spine. During the 14-month period from January 2008 through March 2009, clinical examination of the c-spine was performed by paramedics on blunt trauma patients in the prehospital setting. Paramedics immobilized the c-spine and delivered the patients to the University of South Alabama Medical Center. After trauma center arrival, paramedics documented their clinical examination of the c-spine in a computerized data collection form. Paramedic clinical findings were compared with trauma surgeon clinical examination findings and computed tomographic findings of the c-spine. All patients had prehospital Glasgow Coma Score 14 or greater. Patients were not excluded for distracting injuries. One hundred ninety-three blunt trauma patients were entered. Sixty-five (34%) c-spines were clinically cleared by EMS. There were no known missed injuries in this patient group. Eight (6%) patients who were not clinically cleared by EMS were diagnosed with c-spine injury. Trauma surgeons clinically cleared 135 (70%) of the patients with no known missed injury. EMS personnel in the prehospital setting may reliably and effectively perform clinical clearance of the c-spine. Further prospective study for prehospital c-spine clinical clearance is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a new understanding of human behavior and promising interventions. However, a limitation of this fast moving research is that most findings are based on small samples of convenience. Furthermore, our understanding of individual differences may be distorted by unrepresentative samples, undermining findings regarding brain-behavior mechanisms. These limitations are issues that social demographers, epidemiologists, and other population scientists have tackled, with solutions that can be applied to neuroscience. By contrast, nearly all social science disciplines, including social demography, sociology, political science, economics, communication science, and psychology, make assumptions about processes that involve the brain, but have incorporated neural measures to differing, and often limited, degrees; many still treat the brain as a black box. In this article, we describe and promote a perspective--population neuroscience--that leverages interdisciplinary expertise to (i) emphasize the importance of sampling to more clearly define the relevant populations and sampling strategies needed when using neuroscience methods to address such questions; and (ii) deepen understanding of mechanisms within population science by providing insight regarding underlying neural mechanisms. Doing so will increase our confidence in the generalizability of the findings. We provide examples to illustrate the population neuroscience approach for specific types of research questions and discuss the potential for theoretical and applied advances from this approach across areas.
Related JoVE Video
Medial frontal cortex and anterior insula are less sensitive to outcome predictability when monetary stakes are higher.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prior research links greater activation of posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) and anterior insula (AI) with decreasing outcome predictability during decision making, as measured by decreasing probability for the more likely outcome out of two or increasing outcome variance. In addition to predictability, much work indicates that the magnitude or stakes of the outcome is also important. Despite the interest in the neural correlates of these decision variables, it is unknown whether pMFC and AI are differentially sensitive to predictability when magnitude is varied. This study examined brain activity during decision making in relation to decreasing outcome predictability for low as compared with high magnitude decisions. For low magnitude decisions, reduced predictability of the outcome was associated with greater activity in pMFC and bilateral AI, replicating prior studies. In contrast, there was no relationship between predictability and brain activity for high magnitude decisions, which tended to elicit greater pMFC and AI activity than low magnitude decisions for more predictable outcomes. These data indicate that the relationship between outcome predictability and pMFC and AI activity during decision making depends on magnitude, and suggest that these regions may be responding to the motivational salience of the decision rather than predictability information per se.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated levels of plasma mitochondrial DNA DAMPs are linked to clinical outcome in severely injured human subjects.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our objective was to execute a prospective cohort study to determine relationships between plasma mtDNA DAMP levels and the occurrence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and mortality.
Related JoVE Video
Within-group health disparities among Blacks: the effects of Afrocentric features and unfair treatment.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prior research on the impact of Afrocentric features on health has focused primarily on a single feature, skin color. We explored the effects of two other Afrocentric features (lip thickness, nose width) on Blacks health status and whether unfair treatment mediates any relationship between these features and health. A secondary analysis of a prior study of Black patients health was conducted. Patients with strong (high lip and high nose ratios) and weak (low lip and low nose ratios) Afrocentric features (i.e., congruent features) had poorer health than patients with incongruent features. Unlike findings for skin color, congruence of features rather than strength predicted health. Congruence predicted perceived unfair treatment in the same manner. Importantly, perceived unfair treatment mediated the relation between Afrocentric features and health. The study suggests that even subtle differences in Afrocentric features can have serious long-term health consequences among Blacks. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Racial attitudes, physician-patient talk time ratio, and adherence in racially discordant medical interactions.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physician racial bias and patient perceived discrimination have each been found to influence perceptions of and feelings about racially discordant medical interactions. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined how they may simultaneously influence the dynamics of these interactions. This study examined how (a) non-Black primary care physicians explicit and implicit racial bias and (b) Black patients perceived past discrimination affected physician-patient talk time ratio (i.e., the ratio of physician to patient talk time) during medical interactions and the relationship between this ratio and patients subsequent adherence. We conducted a secondary analysis of self-report and video-recorded data from a prior study of clinical interactions between 112 low-income, Black patients and their 14 non-Black physicians at a primary care clinic in the Midwestern United States between June, 2006 and February, 2008. Overall, physicians talked more than patients; however, both physician bias and patient perceived past discrimination affected physician-patient talk time ratio. Non-Black physicians with higher levels of implicit, but not explicit, racial bias had larger physician-patient talk time ratios than did physicians with lower levels of implicit bias, indicating that physicians with more negative implicit racial attitudes talked more than physicians with less negative racial attitudes. Additionally, Black patients with higher levels of perceived discrimination had smaller physician-patient talk time ratios, indicating that patients with more negative racial attitudes talked more than patients with less negative racial attitudes. Finally, smaller physician-patient talk time ratios were associated with less patient subsequent adherence, indicating that patients who talked more during the racially discordant medical interactions were less likely to adhere subsequently. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of factors that affect the dynamics of racially discordant medical interactions.
Related JoVE Video
Improved outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a trauma population.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains controversial.
Related JoVE Video
EMS relocation in a rural area using a geographic information system can improve response time to motor vehicle crashes.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess whether repositioning of ambulance stations in a rural county of Alabama can improve emergency medical services (EMS) response time to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) without adversely affecting response time to non-MVC-related emergencies.
Related JoVE Video
Determination of sex from juvenile crania by means of discriminant function analysis.
J. Forensic Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study provides evidence of craniofacial growth variation between the sexes in juveniles of European descent. Data were collected from lateral cephalometric radiographs belonging to the Michigan Craniofacial Growth Study. The collection consists of longitudinal lateral radiographs that represent individuals 5-16 years of age. Each radiograph was manually traced on hyprint vellum from which eight craniometric points were identified. From these points, 20 craniofacial measurements were recorded and then analyzed by means of a canonical discriminant function analysis. Sex classification equations were then created by applying a backward stepwise procedure to the discriminant functions. The analysis demonstrates the presence of sexually dimorphic differences in craniofacial growth. The neurocranium is the most sexually dimorphic region of the juvenile craniofacial skeleton, until the onset of puberty. Size is the main source of variation with males having taller and longer heads than females. Overall, sex classification in the sample ranges from 78 to 89% accuracy.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of human metapneumovirus in adults with acute respiratory tract infection in Beijing, China.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in immunocompetent Chinese adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs).
Related JoVE Video
Does temporary chest wall closure with or without chest packing improve survival for trauma patients in shock after emergent thoracotomy?
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many surgeons avoid the damage-control techniques of intrathoracic packing and temporary chest wall closure after thoracotomy for trauma because of concerns about packings effects on intrathoracic pressure and infectious risks. We hypothesized that temporary chest closure with or without intrathoracic packing (TCC-P) as a method of thoracic damage control would yield higher than expected survival rates for trauma thoracotomy patients with metabolic exhaustion, whereas traditional definitive chest closure (DEF) would exhibit predicted survival rates.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of a highly conserved H1 subtype-specific epitope with diagnostic potential in the hemagglutinin protein of influenza A virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Subtype specificity of influenza A virus (IAV) is determined by its two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). For HA, 16 distinct subtypes (H1-H16) exist, while nine exist for NA. The epidemic strains of H1N1 IAV change frequently and cause annual seasonal epidemics as well as occasional pandemics, such as the notorious 1918 influenza pandemic. The recent introduction of pandemic A/H1N1 IAV (H1N1pdm virus) into humans re-emphasizes the public health concern about H1N1 IAV. Several studies have identified conserved epitopes within specific HA subtypes that can be used for diagnostics. However, immune specific epitopes in H1N1 IAV have not been completely assessed. In this study, linear epitopes on the H1N1pdm viral HA protein were identified by peptide scanning using libraries of overlapping peptides against convalescent sera from H1N1pdm patients. One epitope, P5 (aa 58-72) was found to be immunodominant in patients and to evoke high titer antibodies in mice. Multiple sequence alignments and in silico coverage analysis showed that this epitope is highly conserved in influenza H1 HA [with a coverage of 91.6% (9,860/10,767)] and almost completely absent in other subtypes [with a coverage of 3.3% (792/23,895)]. This previously unidentified linear epitope is located outside the five well-recognized antigenic sites in HA. A peptide ELISA method based on this epitope was developed and showed high correlation (?(2)?=?51.81, P<0.01, Pearson correlation coefficient R?=?0.741) with a hemagglutination inhibition test. The highly conserved H1 subtype-specific immunodominant epitope may form the basis for developing novel assays for sero-diagnosis and active surveillance against H1N1 IAVs.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of human coronaviruses in adults with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing, China.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are a common etiological agent of acute respiratory tract infections. HCoV infections, especially those caused by the two HCoVs identified most recently, NL63 and HKU-1, have not been characterized fully. To evaluate the prevalence and clinical presentations of HKU1 and NL63 in adults with acute respiratory tract infections, an investigation of HCoV infections in Beijing, China from 2005 to 2009 was performed by using reverse transcriptase PCR assays and sequencing analysis. Among 8,396 respiratory specimens studied, 87 (1%) clinical samples were positive for HCoVs, of which 50 samples (0.6% of the total) were positive for HCoV-OC43, 15 (0.2%) for HCoV-229E, 14 (0.2%) for HCoV-HKU1, and 8 (0.1%) for HCoV-NL63. The prevalence of HCoV infection in adults exhibited distinct seasonal fluctuations during the study period. In addition, patients positive for HCoV-229E infections were more likely to be co-infected with other respiratory viruses. Enterovirus, rhinovirus, and parainfluenza virus type 3 were the most common viruses found in patients with HCoV infections. The demographic and clinical data present in this study of HCoV infections in adults with acute respiratory tract infections should improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HCoVs.
Related JoVE Video
Rural EMS en route IV insertion improves IV insertion success rates and EMS scene time.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel are trained to insert intravenous (IV) lines at trauma scenes if the time for insertion does not prolong scene time. However, EMS providers continue to insert IV lines on scene.
Related JoVE Video
Large-scale seroprevalence analysis of human metapneumovirus and human respiratory syncytial virus infections in Beijing, China.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a recently identified virus, causes acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in infants and children. However, studies on the seroepidemeology of hMPV are very limited in China. To assess the seroprevalence of hMPV infection in China, we tested a total of 1,156 serum specimens for the presence of anti-hMPV IgG antibody in children and adults free of acute respiratory illness in Beijing, China by using hMPV nucleocapsid (N) protein as an antigen. As a control, we used the human serum antibody against the N protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), the most important viral agent responsible for ARIs in children.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of twelve real-time reverse transcriptase PCR primer-probe sets for detection of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) assays have greatly contributed to the detection, control, and prevention of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus. To improve the rRT-PCR assays for detection of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus, we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and performance of 12 rRT-PCR primer-probe sets [SW (a) to SW (l)] using a panel of virus strains and clinical specimens. These primer-probe sets were derived from published work and designed for detecting the hemagglutinin (HA) or the neuraminidase (NA) gene of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus. A primer-probe set, SW (CDC), developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S. CDC) to target the HA gene of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus, was used as a referee method. Our results demonstrated that although all primer-probe sets in this study had as high as 98.4 to 100% in silico coverage, some of the primer-probe sets had better specificity, sensitivity, and amplification efficiency than others. Two primer-probe sets, SW (h) and SW (l), which target the NA gene of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus, were highly sensitive (10(4) copies/reaction), had high detection rates (56/60, P = 0.134, and 59/60, P = 1.000), and showed ideal specificity compared with SW (CDC). In addition, a cocktail of primer-probe sets targeted to the HA and NA genes displayed higher detection sensitivity than primer-probe sets targeting HA or NA alone, indicating that for practical applications, a combination of primer-probes targeting HA and NA genes is the best option for the detection of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus.
Related JoVE Video
Neural and behavioral effects of interference resolution in depression and rumination.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) often ruminate about their depression and their life situations, impairing their concentration and performance on daily tasks. We examined whether rumination might be due to a deficit in the ability to expel negative information from short-term memory (STM), and fMRI was used to examine the neural structures involved in this ability. MDD and healthy control (HC) participants were tested using a directed-forgetting procedure in a short-term item recognition task. As predicted, MDD participants had more difficulty than did HCs in expelling negative, but not positive, words from STM. Overall, the neural networks involved in directed forgetting were similar for both groups, but the MDDs exhibited more spatial variability in activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (a region critical for inhibiting irrelevant information), which may contribute to their relative inability to inhibit negative information.
Related JoVE Video
Nanostructured Pt(NH(3))(4)Cl(2)/SiO(2) for nanomedicine: catalytic degradation of DNA in cancer cells.
Nano Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In vivo suppression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in Wistar rats using silica-shelled biocatalytic Pt(NH(3))(4)Cl(2) nanoparticles is reported. These nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel technique and characterized by SEM and HRTEM imaging. We confirmed morphological uniformity (30 nm) and surface acidity of the nanoparticles, respectively, by TEM imaging and FTIR spectral analysis. Interestingly, treatment of Wistar rats intraperitoneally inoculated with C(6) cells using the biocatalysts resulted in considerable tumor shrinkage. Efficiency of the biocatalyst to shrink a tumor is superior to that by the commercial cytotoxic agent cisplatin. The tumor suppression property of Pt(NH(3))(4)Cl(2) nanoparticles is attributed to catalytic damage of DNA in C(6) cells.
Related JoVE Video
Human parainfluenza virus type 4 infection in Chinese children with lower respiratory tract infections: a comparison study.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a leading cause of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Although HPIV-4 has been associated with mild ARTIs for years, recent investigations have also associated HPIV-4 infection with severe respiratory syndromes and with outbreaks of ARTIs in children.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of Parkinsons disease: nanostructured sol-gel silica-dopamine reservoirs for controlled drug release in the central nervous system.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have evaluated the use of silica-dopamine reservoirs synthesized by the sol-gel approach with the aim of using them in the treatment of Parkinsons disease, specifically as a device for the controlled release of dopamine in the striatum. Theoretical calculations illustrate that dopamine is expected to assume a planar structure and exhibit weak interactions with the silica surface.
Related JoVE Video
Prestorage leukoreduction ameliorates the effects of aging on banked blood.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that the transfusion of older blood is independently associated with higher rates of infectious complications, multiple organ failure, and mortality. Putative mechanisms implicate leukocytes in stored blood that generate immunomodulatory mediators as the stored blood ages. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to describe the effect of prestorage leukoreduction (PS-LR) on the detrimental clinical effects of increasing age on blood products used in trauma patients.
Related JoVE Video
Saffold cardioviruses of 3 lineages in children with respiratory tract infections, Beijing, China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To clarify the potential for respiratory transmission of Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) and characterize the pathogen, we analyzed respiratory specimens from 1,558 pediatric patients in Beijing. We detected SAFV in 7 (0.5%) patients and identified lineages 1-3. However, because 3 patients had co-infections, we could not definitively say SAFV caused disease.
Related JoVE Video
Updating beliefs for a decision: neural correlates of uncertainty and underconfidence.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some decisions are made after obtaining several pieces of information, whereas others are reached quickly. Such differences may depend on the quality of information acquired, as well as individual variability in how cautiously evidence is evaluated. The current study examined neural activity while subjects accumulated sequential pieces of evidence and then made a decision. Uncertainty was updated with each piece of evidence, with individual ratings of subjective uncertainty characterizing underconfidence when observing evidence. Increased uncertainty during evidence accumulation was associated with activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, whereas greater uncertainty when executing a decision uniquely elicited lateral frontal and parietal activity. Greater underconfidence when observing evidence correlated with activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that neural mechanisms of uncertainty depend on the stage of decision-making (belief updating vs decision) and that greater subjective uncertainty when evaluating evidence is associated with activity in ventromedial brain regions, even in the absence of overt risk.
Related JoVE Video
Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences.
Related JoVE Video
The neural correlates of intertemporal decision-making: contributions of subjective value, stimulus type, and trait impulsivity.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Making choices between payoffs available at different points in time reliably engages a decision-making brain circuit that includes medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and ventral striatum (VS). Previous neuroimaging studies produced differing accounts of the functions of these regions, including that these regions: (1) are sensitive to the value of rewards discounted by a function of delay (subjective value); (2) are differentially sensitive to the availability of an immediate reward; and (3) are implicated in impulsive decision-making. In this event-related fMRI study of 20 volunteers, these hypotheses were investigated simultaneously using a delay discounting task in which magnitude of rewards and stimulus type, i.e., the presence or absence of an immediate option, were independently varied, and in which participants trait impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Results showed that mPFC, PCC, and VS are sensitive to the subjective value of rewards, whereas mPFC and PCC, but not VS, are sensitive to the presence of an immediate reward in the choice option. Moderation by individual differences in trait impulsivity was specific to the mPFC. Conjunction analysis showed significant overlap in mPFC and PCC for the main effects of subjective value and stimulus type, indicating these regions may serve multiple distinct roles during intertemporal decision-making. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the specificity and overlap of functions subserved by different regions involved in intertemporal decision-making, and help to reconcile conflicting accounts in the literature.
Related JoVE Video
Simultaneous typing and HA/NA subtyping of influenza A and B viruses including the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 by multiplex real-time RT-PCR.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 and seasonal influenza viruses are currently co-circulating worldwide. A rapid, sensitive, and specific assay for distinguishing pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 from seasonal influenza viruses and for subtyping seasonal influenza A viruses could aid in the surveillance and control of these viral infections. Here, such a multiplex real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay for typing influenza A and B viruses and the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 is developed. This assay can also subtype seasonal influenza A viruses simultaneously. The analytical sensitivity is 10-10(4) copies/reaction. The coefficients of variation of inter-assay and intra-assay are 0.04-0.45% and 0.08-0.97%, respectively. The new multiplex rRT-PCR assay is more sensitive in subtyping seasonal influenza viruses than the conventional PCR techniques. Results obtained with this assay for the detection of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 are highly consistent (96.88%) with those achieved using the US CDCs rRT-PCR protocol. A sample identified as "pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 positive" by the US CDCs rRT-PCR was reclassified correctly as subtype H3N2 using this assay. Taken together, this new multiplex rRT-PCR protocol could be an important tool for improving diagnosis and management of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 and seasonal influenza viruses.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of water on particle size, porosity and the rate of drug release from implanted titania reservoirs.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The implantation of controlled drug release devices represents a new strategy in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Sol-gel titania implants filled with valproic acid, have been used for this purpose to treat induced epilepsy in rats. The kinetics of the drug release depend on: (a) porosity, (b) chemical interactions between valproic acid and surface hydroxyl groups of titania, (c) particle size, and (d) particle size agglomerates. The concentration of water used in the hydrolysis reaction is an important variable in the degree of porosity, hydroxylation, and structural defects of the nanostructured titanium oxide reservoir. The titanium n-butoxide/water ratio was systematically varied during the sol-gel synthesis, while maintaining the amount of valproic acid constant. Characterization studies were performed using DTA-TGA, FTIR, Raman, TEM, SEM, BET, and in vitro release kinetic measurements. The particle agglomerate size and porosity were found to depend on the amount of water used in the sol-gel reaction.
Related JoVE Video
Human rhinovirus C infections mirror those of human rhinovirus A in children with community-acquired pneumonia.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are among the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. However, the differential roles of the three HRV species HRV-A, HRV-B, and HRV-C in pediatric CAP are not fully understood.
Related JoVE Video
Complete genome sequence of human astrovirus genotype 6.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are one of the important causes of acute gastroenteritis in children. Currently, eight HAstV genotypes have been identified and all but two (HAstV-6 and HAstV-7) have been fully sequenced. We here sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of a HAstV-6 strain (192-BJ07), which was identified in Beijing, China.
Related JoVE Video
Human rhinoviruses in Chinese adults with acute respiratory tract infection.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the roles of human rhinoviruses (HRVs) in acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in Chinese adults and determine the association between species of HRV and clinical presentations.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical examination in complement with computed tomography scan: an effective method for identification of cervical spine injury.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate a protocol that assesses the efficacy and sensitivity of clinical examination in complement with computed tomographic (CT) scan in screening for cervical spine (c-spine) injury.
Related JoVE Video
Improving rural emergency medical service response time with global positioning system navigation.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rural emergency medical services (EMS) often serves expansive areas that many EMS personnel are unfamiliar with. EMS response time is increased in rural areas, which has been suggested as a contributing factor to increased mortality rates from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and nontraumatic emergencies. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a global positioning system (GPS) on rural EMS response time.
Related JoVE Video
Saffold cardiovirus in children with acute gastroenteritis, Beijing, China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To understand Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) distribution, prevalence, and clinical relevance in China, we retrospectively studied SAFV in children with acute gastroenteritis and found SAFV in 12 (3.2%) of 373. Sequence homology of virus protein 1 genes suggested these strains belong to the SAFV-1 sublineage. SAFVs were found in samples positive for other diarrhea-causing viruses.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term follow-up of trauma patients with permanent prophylactic vena cava filters.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although permanent prophylactic Greenfield filters (PPGF) are effective, their use in young trauma patients who may eventually return to active lifestyles is controversial due to concerns about the safety of the devices over a lifetime. This descriptive study was undertaken to provide follow-up on the long-term safety and durability of PPGF.
Related JoVE Video
Petty-Laxova-Wiedemann progeroid syndrome: further phenotypical delineation and confirmation of a rare syndrome of premature aging.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 10-year-old boy with manifestations of Petty-Laxova-Wiedemann progeroid syndrome (PLWPS), a rare neonatal progeroid condition, is described and compared with those previously reported. Clinical manifestation include: severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, "progeroid" face, large open fontanelle in infancy, umbilical hernia at birth, pseudomacrocephaly, wide calvaria, sparse scalp hair, markedly diminished subcutaneous fat, scoliosis, partial cutaneous syndactyly, aplastic and hypoplastic distal phalanges with aplasia and hypoplasia of nails, undescended testes, and normal cognitive and motor development. This appears to be one of only a handful of cases of PLWPS reported in an older child or adult.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluating functional localizers: the case of the FFA.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Functional localizers are routinely used in neuroimaging studies to test hypotheses about the function of specific brain areas. The specific tasks and stimuli used to localize particular regions vary widely from study to study even when the same cortical region is targeted. Thus, it is important to ask whether task and stimulus changes lead to differences in localization or whether localization procedures are largely immune to differences in tasks and contrasting stimuli. We present two experiments and a literature review that explore whether face localizer tasks yield differential localization in the fusiform gyrus as a function of task and contrasting stimuli. We tested standard localization tasks-passive viewing, 1-back, and 2-back memory tests--and did not find differences in localization based on task. We did, however, find differences in the extent, strength and patterns/reliabilities of the activation in the fusiform gyrus based on comparison stimuli (faces vs. houses compared to faces vs. scrambled stimuli).
Related JoVE Video
Decision-related loss: regret and disappointment.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both affective neuroscience and decision science focus on the role of emotions in decisions. Regret and disappointment are emotions experienced with negative decision outcomes. The present research examines the neural substrates of regret and disappointment as well as the role of regret and disappointment in decision making. Experiment 1 compared the subjective experience of regret and disappointment. Participants selected one of two gambles and received different types of feedback during the outcome phase. Despite identical nominal losses, regret induced a more intense dislike of the outcomes and a stronger desire to switch choices than disappointment. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, Experiment 2 examined the neural correlates of regret and disappointment. Both regret and disappointment activated anterior insula and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex relative to fixation, with greater activation in regret than in disappointment. In contrast to disappointment, regret also showed enhanced activation in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These findings suggest that regret and disappointment, emotions experienced during decision-related loss, share a general neural network but differ in both the magnitude of subjective feelings and with regret activating some regions with greater intensity.
Related JoVE Video
Computational models for the combination of advice and individual learning.
Cogn Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Decision making often takes place in social environments where other actors influence individuals decisions. The present article examines how advice affects individual learning. Five social learning models combining advice and individual learning-four based on reinforcement learning and one on Bayesian learning-and one individual learning model are tested against each other. In two experiments, some participants received good or bad advice prior to a repeated multioption choice task. Receivers of advice adhered to the advice, so that good advice improved performance. The social learning models described the observed learning processes better than the individual learning model. Of the models tested, the best social learning model assumes that outcomes from recommended options are more positively evaluated than outcomes from nonrecommended options. This model correctly predicted that receivers first adhere to advice, then explore other options, and finally return to the recommended option. The model also predicted accurately that good advice has a stronger impact on learning than bad advice. One-time advice can have a long-lasting influence on learning by changing the subjective evaluation of outcomes of recommended options.
Related JoVE Video
Anatomic location of penetrating lower-extremity trauma predicts compartment syndrome development.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Compartment syndrome of the lower extremity can be a difficult diagnosis to make with serious consequences if diagnosis and intervention is delayed. Identifying patients who are more likely to develop this syndrome can help prevent the associated complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the anatomic location of the penetrating lower-extremity injuries can predict development of compartment syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Does increased emergency medical services prehospital time affect patient mortality in rural motor vehicle crashes? A statewide analysis.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fatality rates from rural vehicular trauma are almost double those found in urban settings. It has been suggested that increased prehospital time is a factor that adversely affects fatality rates in rural vehicular trauma. By linking and analyzing Alabamas statewide prehospital data, emergency medical services (EMS) prehospital time was assessed for rural and urban vehicular crashes.
Related JoVE Video
[Utility of chromosome banding with ALU I enzyme for identifying methylated areas in breast cancer].
Invest Clin
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer is a group of disorders characterized by uncontrolled cell growth which is produced by two successive events: increased cell proliferation (tumor or neoplasia) and the invasive capacity of these cells (metastasis). DNA methylation is an epigenetic process which has been involved as an important pathogenic factor of cancer. DNA methylation participates in the regulation of gene expression, directly, by preventing the union of transcription factors, and indirectly, by promoting the "closed" structure of the chromatine. The objectives of this study were to identify hypermethyled chromosomal regions through the use of restriction Alu I endonuclease, and to relate cytogenetically these regions with tumor suppressive gene loci. Sixty peripheral blood samples of females with breast cancer were analyzed. Cell cultures were performed and cytogenetic spreads, previously digested with Alu I enzyme, were stained with Giemsa. Chromosomal centromeric and not centromeric regions were stained in 37% of cases. About 96% of stained hypermethyled chromosomal regions (1q, 2q, 6q) were linked with methylated genes associated with breast cancer. In addition, centromeric regions in chromosomes 3, 4, 8, 13, 14, 15 and 17, usually unstained, were found positive to digestion with Alu I enzime and Giemsa staining. We suggest the importance of this technique for the global visualization of the genome which can find methylated genes related to breast cancer, and thus lead to a specific therapy, and therefore a better therapeutic response.
Related JoVE Video
Application of the core competencies after unexpected patient death: consolation of the grieved.
J Surg Educ
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To review and assess educational strategies and formats regarding communication with families/survivors in the aftermath of unexpected and untimely patient death. To propose an integrated curriculum designed and intended to foster proficiency, competence, confidence, and composure in relaying catastrophic information in the context of the professional experience of a cohort of seasoned surgeons.
Related JoVE Video
Sweat rate and prediction validation during high-altitude treks on Mount Kilimanjaro.
J. Appl. Physiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study measured sweat rates (m(sw)) during high-altitude summer treks on Mt. Kilimanjaro to evaluate the efficacy of a recently developed fuzzy piecewise sweat prediction equation (Pw,sol) for application to high-altitude conditions. We hypothesized that the Pw,sol equation, adjusted for the barometric pressure (Pb) decreasing steadily at high altitude (Pw,sol+Alt), would allow for a more accurate prediction of m(sw) than Pw,sol unadjusted for altitude (Pw,sol(SL)). Fifteen men (43 ± 16 yr; 80 ± 22 kg) and seven women (46 ± 16 yr; 77 ± 18 kg) wearing hiking clothes (clo ?1.15; clothing evaporative potential = 0.27) and carrying light loads (9 ± 2 kg), were studied during morning and afternoon treks (?2-3 h) while ascending from 2,829 m to 3,505 m. After each trek, m(sw) was measured with specific biophysical parameters at 15-min intervals. During the trek day, Pb progressively declined (530 to 504 Torr), as solar radiation and ambient temperature (°C) rose transiently. During all treks, m(sw) ranged from 68 to 393 g·m(-2)·h(-1) (0.14 to 0.79 l/h). For each subject, derived Pw,sol(SL) and Pw,sol+Alt model outputs accurately predicted the morning and afternoon average m(sw) within a root mean square error of 0.145 l/h. No differences were found between Pw,sol(SL) and Pw,sol+Alt values. In conclusion, we report the first m(sw) measured during outdoor high-altitude activities and determined that Pw,sol(SL) equation can be used to predict fluid needs during high-altitude activities without alterations for lower Pb. This model prediction provides a valid water planning tool for outdoor activities at high altitude up to 3,500 m.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and clinical characteristics of human respiratory syncytial virus in Chinese adults with acute respiratory tract infection.
J. Med. Virol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of respiratory tract illnesses worldwide. Although the prevalence and clinical manifestations of the two subtypes, RSV-A and RSV-B, have been studied in some detail in infants and young children, they have not been determined in adults. To evaluate the prevalence of the RSV subtypes and disease severity between RSV-A and RSV-B infections in adults, nasal and throat swabs that were collected from patients ?15 years old who sought medical care for acute respiratory infections at the Fever Clinic of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital in Beijing, China between May 2005 and April 2010. The samples were tested for RSV infection using PCR and sequencing analysis. RSV was detected in 95 (1%) of the adult patients, of whom 53 (55.8%) were positive for RSV-A and 42 (44.2%) for RSV-B. The incidence of RSV infections increased with age (?(2) =?37.17, P?=?1.66E-07). Demographic data and clinical manifestations of RSV-A were similar to those of RSV-B. Although RSV-A and RSV-B co-circulated during the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 seasons, RSV-A was predominant in the 2006-2008 seasons, whereas RSV-B was predominant in the 2009-2010 season. Upper respiratory tract infections were diagnosed in most RSV-infected patients (n?=?80, 84.2%), and three patients suffered from pulmonary infection. This is the first study to provide data on the prevalence and clinical manifestations of RSV subgroups among Chinese adults with fever and acute illness, over five successive epidemic seasons.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical clearance of the cervical spine in patients with distracting injuries: It is time to dispel the myth.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the sensitivity and efficacy of clinical examination for screening of cervical spine (c-spine) injury in awake and alert blunt trauma patients with concomitant "distracting injuries."
Related JoVE Video
Supportive social relationships attenuate the appeal of choice.
Psychol Sci
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
People like having options when choosing, but having too many options can lead to negative decision-related consequences. The present study focused on how social-relational factors--common aspects of daily life--can maintain or attenuate the appeal of choice. Study 1 examined the effect of a supportive- or nonsupportive-relationship prime on the decision to pay for having more options in choosing a consumer product. People who thought of supportive relationships, compared with those who thought of nonsupportive ones (and control participants), were less willing to pay for a larger choice set. Study 2 showed that the activation of thoughts of security and calmness in participants recalling supportive relationships (compared with participants recalling nonsupportive relationships) mediated the appeal of choice. This finding offers one possible explanation for the reduced desire for options when people are reminded of supportive relationships.
Related JoVE Video
Neurocircuits underlying cognition-emotion interaction in a social decision making context.
Neuroimage
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Decision making (DM) in the context of others often entails complex cognition-emotion interaction. While the literature suggests that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), striatum, and amygdala are involved in valuation-based DM and hippocampus in context processing, how these neural mechanisms subserve the integration of cognitive and emotional values in a social context remains unclear. In this study we addressed this gap by systematically manipulating cognition-emotion interaction in a social DM context, when the participants played a card game with a hypothetical opponent in a behavioral study (n=73) and a functional magnetic-resonance-imaging study (n=16). We observed that payoff-based behavioral choices were influenced by emotional values carried by face pictures and identified neurocircuits involved in cognitive valuation, emotional valuation, and concurrent cognition-emotion value integration. Specifically, while the vmPFC, amygdala, and ventral striatum were all involved in both cognitive and emotional domains of valuation, these regions played dissociable roles in social DM. The payoff-dependent responses in vmPFC and amygdala, but not ventral striatum, were moderated by the social context. Furthermore, the vmPFC, but not amygdala, not only encoded the opponents gains as if selfs losses, but also represented a "final common currency" during valuation-based decisions. The extent to which emotional input influenced choices was associated with the functional connectivity between the value-signaling amygdala and value integrating vmPFC, and also with the functional connectivity between the context-setting hippocampus and value-signaling amygdala and ventral striatum. These results identify brain pathways through which emotion shapes subjective values in a social DM context.
Related JoVE Video
Is helicopter evacuation effective in rural trauma transport?
Am Surg
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Helicopter transport for trauma remains controversial because its appropriate utilization and efficacy with regard to improved survival is unproven. The purpose of this study was to assess rural trauma helicopter transport utilization and effect on patient survival. A retrospective chart review over a 2-year period (2007-2008) was performed of all rural helicopter and ground ambulance trauma patient transports to an urban Level I trauma center. Data was collected with regard to patient mortality and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Miles to the Level I trauma center were calculated from the point where helicopter or ground ambulance transport services initiated contact with the patient to the Level I trauma center. During the 2-year period, 1443 rural trauma patients were transported by ground ambulance and 1028 rural trauma patients were transported by helicopter. Of the patients with ISS of 0 to 10, 471 patients were transported by helicopter and 1039 transported by ground. There were 465 (99%) survivors with ISS 0 to 10 transported by helicopter with an average transport distance of 34.6 miles versus 1034 (99.5%) survivors with ISS 0 to 10 who were transported by ground an average of 41.0 miles. Four hundred and twenty-one patients with ISS 11 to 30 were transported by helicopter an average of 33.3 miles with 367 (87%) survivors versus a 95 per cent survival in 352 patients with ISS 11 to 30 who were transported by ground an average of 39.9 miles. One hundred and thirty-six patients with ISS > 30 were transported by helicopter an average of 32.8 miles with 78 (57%) survivors versus a 69 per cent survival in 52 patients with ISS > 30 who were transported by ground an average of 33.0 miles. Helicopter transport does not seem to improve survival in severely injured (ISS > 30) patients. Helicopter transport does not improve survival and is associated with shorter travel distances in less severely injured (ISS < 10) patients in rural areas. This data questions effective helicopter utilization for trauma patients in rural areas. Further study with regard to helicopter transport effect on patient survival and cost-effective utilization is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Coxsackievirus A21, enterovirus 68, and acute respiratory tract infection, China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During August 2006-April 2010, in Beijing, China, 2 rare human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus A21 and enterovirus 68, were detected most frequently in human enterovirus-positive adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, during some years, these 2 viruses cause a substantial proportion of enterovirus-associated adult acute respiratory tract infections.
Related JoVE Video
Subjective uncertainty and limbic hyperactivation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Hum Brain Mapp
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often associated with pathological uncertainty regarding whether an action has been performed correctly or whether a bad outcome will occur, leading to compulsive "evidence gathering" behaviors aimed at reducing uncertainty. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural functioning in OCD patients and controls as subjective certainty was rated in response to sequential pieces of evidence for a decision. Uncertainty was experimentally manipulated so that some decisions were associated with no "objective" uncertainty (all observed evidence pointed to one correct choice), whereas other decisions contained calculable but varying levels of objective uncertainty based on displayed probabilities. Results indicated that OCD patients differed from controls on decisions that contained no objective uncertainty, such that patients rated themselves as more uncertain. Patients also showed greater activation in a network of brain regions previously associated with internally-focused thought and valuation including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampus, middle temporal cortex, as well as amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex/ventral anterior insula. In the patient group, a significantly greater number of positive intersubject correlations were found among several of these brain regions, suggesting that this network is more interconnected in patients. OCD patients did not differ from controls on decisions where task parameters led to uncertainty. These results indicate that OCD is associated with hyperactivation in a network of limbic/paralimbic brain regions when making decisions, which may contribute to the greater subjective experience of doubt that characterizes the disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Patient, companion, and oncologist agreement regarding information discussed during triadic oncology clinical interactions.
Psychooncology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although people with cancer want and need information from their oncologists, patients and oncologists often disagree about what information was discussed during clinical interactions. Most patients have companions present during oncology visits; we investigated whether companions process information more accurately than patients. Specifically, we examined whether patients and companions differed in agreement with oncologists about what was discussed. We also investigated the effect of topic on agreement and patient/companion self-reported understanding of discussions.
Related JoVE Video
Sweat rate prediction equations for outdoor exercise with transient solar radiation.
J. Appl. Physiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the validity of employing a fuzzy piecewise prediction equation (PW) [Gonzalez et al. J Appl Physiol 107: 379-388, 2009] defined by sweat rate (m(sw), g·m(-2)·h(-1)) = 147 + 1.527·(E(req)) - 0.87·(E(max)), which integrates evaporation required (E(req)) and the maximum evaporative capacity of the environment (E(max)). Heat exchange and physiological responses were determined throughout the trials. Environmental conditions were ambient temperature (T(a)) = 16-26°C, relative humidity (RH) = 51-55%, and wind speed (V) = 0.5-1.5 m/s. Volunteers wore military fatigues [clothing evaporative potential (i(m)/clo) = 0.33] and carried loads (15-31 kg) while marching 14-37 km over variable terrains either at night (N = 77, trials 1-5) or night with increasing daylight (N = 33, trials 6 and 7). PW was modified (Pw,sol) for transient solar radiation (R(sol), W) determined from measured solar loads and verified in trials 6 and 7. PW provided a valid m(sw) prediction during night trials (1-5) matching previous laboratory values and verified by bootstrap correlation (r(bs) of 0.81, SE ± 0.014, SEE = ± 69.2 g·m(-2)·h(-1)). For trials 6 and 7, E(req) and E(max) components included R(sol) applying a modified equation Pw,sol, in which m(sw) = 147 + 1.527·(E(req,sol)) - 0.87·(E(max)). Linear prediction of m(sw) = 0.72·Pw,sol + 135 (N = 33) was validated (R(2) = 0.92; SEE = ±33.8 g·m(-2)·h(-1)) with PW ?-coefficients unaltered during field marches between 16°C and 26°C T(a) for m(sw) ? 700 g·m(-2)·h(-1). PW was additionally derived for cool laboratory/night conditions (T(a) < 20°C) in which E(req) is low but E(max) is high, as: PW,cool (g·m(-2)·h(-1)) = 350 + 1.527·E(req) - 0.87·E(max). These sweat prediction equations allow valid tools for civilian, sports, and military medicine communities to predict water needs during a variety of heat stress/exercise conditions.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.