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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).
Comp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque.
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CD4+ invariant natural killer T cells protect from murine GVHD lethality through expansion of donor CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Dysregulated donor T cells lead to destruction of host tissues resulting in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We investigated the impact of highly purified (>95%) donor CD4(+) invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells on GVHD in a murine model of allogeneic HCT. We found that low doses of adoptively transferred donor CD4(+) iNKT cells protect from GVHD morbidity and mortality through an expansion of donor CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). These Treg express high levels of the Ikaros transcription factor Helios and expand from the Treg pool of the donor graft. Furthermore, CD4(+) iNKT cells preserve T cell-mediated graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. Our studies reveal new aspects of the cellular interplay between iNKT cells and Treg in the context of tolerance induction after allogeneic HCT and set the stage for clinical translation.
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Avidity-controlled hydrogels for injectable co-delivery of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells and growth factors.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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To translate recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell biology to clinical regenerative medicine therapies, new strategies to control the co-delivery of cells and growth factors are needed. Building on our previous work designing Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogels (MITCHs) from engineered proteins, here we develop protein-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid hydrogels, MITCH-PEG, which form physical gels upon mixing for cell and growth factor co-delivery. MITCH-PEG is a mixture of C7, which is a linear, engineered protein containing seven repeats of the CC43 WW peptide domain (C), and 8-arm star-shaped PEG conjugated with either one or two repeats of a proline-rich peptide to each arm (P1 or P2, respectively). Both 20kDa and 40kDa star-shaped PEG variants were investigated, and all four PEG-peptide variants were able to undergo a sol-gel phase transition when mixed with the linear C7 protein at constant physiological conditions due to noncovalent hetero-dimerization between the C and P domains. Due to the dynamic nature of the C-P physical crosslinks, all four gels were observed to be reversibly shear-thinning and self-healing. The P2 variants exhibited higher storage moduli than the P1 variants, demonstrating the ability to tune the hydrogel bulk properties through a biomimetic peptide-avidity strategy. The 20kDa PEG variants exhibited slower release of encapsulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), due to a decrease in hydrogel mesh size relative to the 40kDa variants. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs) adopted a well-spread morphology within three-dimensional MITCH-PEG cultures, and MITCH-PEG provided significant protection from cell damage during ejection through a fine-gauge syringe needle. In a mouse hindlimb ischemia model of peripheral arterial disease, MITCH-PEG co-delivery of hiPSC-ECs and VEGF was found to reduce inflammation and promote muscle tissue regeneration compared to a saline control.
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Associations between in vivo neuroimaging and postmortem brain cytokine markers in a rodent model of Wernicke's encephalopathy.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, associated with a variety of conditions, including chronic alcoholism and bariatric surgery for morbid obesity, can result in the neurological disorder Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE). Recent work building upon early observations in animal models of thiamine deficiency has demonstrated an inflammatory component to the neuropathology observed in thiamine deficiency. The present, multilevel study including in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) and postmortem quantification of chemokine and cytokine proteins sought to determine whether a combination of these in vivo neuroimaging tools could be used to characterize an in vivo MR signature for neuroinflammation. Thiamine deficiency for 12days was used to model neuroinflammation; glucose loading in thiamine deficiency was used to accelerate neurodegeneration. Among 38 animals with regional brain tissue assayed postmortem for cytokine/chemokine protein levels, three groups of rats (controls+glucose, n=6; pyrithiamine+saline, n=5; pyrithiamine+glucose, n=13) underwent MRI/MRS at baseline (time 1), after 12days of treatment (time 2), and 3h after challenge (glucose or saline, time 3). In the thalamus of glucose-challenged, thiamine deficient animals, correlations between in vivo measures of pathology (lower levels of N-acetyle aspartate and higher levels of lactate) and postmortem levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as chemokine ligand 2, CCL2) support a role for this chemokine in thiamine deficiency-related neurodegeneration, but do not provide a unique in vivo signature for neuroinflammation.
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Role of lymphocyte activation gene-3 (Lag-3) in conventional and regulatory T cell function in allogeneic transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lag-3 has emerged as an important molecule in T cell biology. We investigated the role of Lag-3 in conventional T cell (Tcon) and regulatory T cell (Treg) function in murine GVHD with the hypothesis that Lag-3 engagement diminishes alloreactive T cell responses after bone marrow transplantation. We demonstrate that Lag-3 deficient Tcon (Lag-3(-/-) Tcon) induce significantly more severe GVHD than wild type (WT) Tcon and that the absence of Lag-3 on CD4 but not CD8 T cells is responsible for exacerbating GVHD. Lag-3(-/-) Tcon exhibited increased activation and proliferation as indicated by CFSE and bioluminescence imaging analyses and higher levels of activation markers such as CD69, CD107a, granzyme B, and Ki-67 as well as production of IL-10 and IFN-g early after transplantation. Lag-3(-/-) Tcon were less responsive to suppression by WT Treg as compared to WT Tcon. The absence of Lag-3, however, did not impair Treg function as both Lag-3(-/-) and WT Treg equally suppress the proliferation of Tcon in vitro and in vivo and protect against GVHD. Further, we demonstrate that allogeneic Treg acquire recipient MHC class II molecules through a process termed trogocytosis. As MHC class II is a ligand for Lag-3, we propose a novel suppression mechanism employed by Treg involving the acquisition of host MHC-II followed by the engagement of Lag-3 on T cells. These studies demonstrate for the first time the biologic function of Lag-3 expression on conventional and regulatory T cells in GVHD and identify Lag-3 as an important regulatory molecule involved in alloreactive T cell proliferation and activation after bone marrow transplantation.
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Rat strain differences in brain structure and neurochemistry in response to binge alcohol.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Ventricular enlargement is a robust phenotype of the chronically dependent alcoholic human brain, yet the mechanism of ventriculomegaly is unestablished. Heterogeneous stock Wistar rats administered binge EtOH (3 g/kg intragastrically every 8 h for 4 days to average blood alcohol levels (BALs) of 250 mg/dL) demonstrate profound but reversible ventricular enlargement and changes in brain metabolites (e.g., N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing compounds (Cho)).
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Ultra-low doses of chirality sorted (6,5) carbon nanotubes for simultaneous tumor imaging and photothermal therapy.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit intrinsic fluorescence and strong optical absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) biological window (0.7-1.4 ?m), rendering them ideal for in vivo imaging and photothermal therapy. Advances in SWCNT sorting have led to improved nanoelectronics and are promising for nanomedicine. To date, SWCNTs used in vivo consist of heterogeneous mixtures of nanotubes and only a small subset of chirality nanotubes fluoresces or heats under a NIR laser. Here, we demonstrate that separated (6,5) SWCNTs exchanged into a biocompatible surfactant, C18-PMH-mPEG, are more than 6-fold brighter in photoluminescence on the per mass basis, afford clear tumor imaging, and reach requisite photothermal tumor ablation temperatures with a >10-fold lower injected dose than as-synthesized SWCNT mixtures while exhibiting relatively low (6,5) accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system. The intravenous injection of ?4 ?g of (6,5) SWCNTs per mouse (0.254 mg/kg) for dual imaging/photothermal therapy is, by far, the lowest reported dose for nanoparticle-based in vivo therapeutics.
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Depleting tumor-specific Tregs at a single site eradicates disseminated tumors.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Activation of TLR9 by direct injection of unmethylated CpG nucleotides into a tumor can induce a therapeutic immune response; however, Tregs eventually inhibit the antitumor immune response and thereby limit the power of cancer immunotherapies. In tumor-bearing mice, we found that Tregs within the tumor preferentially express the cell surface markers CTLA-4 and OX40. We show that intratumoral coinjection of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-OX40 together with CpG depleted tumor-infiltrating Tregs. This in situ immunomodulation, which was performed with low doses of antibodies in a single tumor, generated a systemic antitumor immune response that eradicated disseminated disease in mice. Further, this treatment modality was effective against established CNS lymphoma with leptomeningeal metastases, sites that are usually considered to be tumor cell sanctuaries in the context of conventional systemic therapy. These results demonstrate that antitumor immune effectors elicited by local immunomodulation can eradicate tumor cells at distant sites. We propose that, rather than using mAbs to target cancer cells systemically, mAbs could be used to target the tumor infiltrative immune cells locally, thereby eliciting a systemic immune response.
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Molecular imaging of inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease with a clinically translatable dual-selectin-targeted US contrast agent: comparison with FDG PET/CT in a mouse model.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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To develop and test a molecular imaging approach that uses ultrasonography (US) and a clinically translatable dual-targeted (P- and E-selectin) contrast agent (MBSelectin) in the quantification of inflammation at the molecular level and to quantitatively correlate selectin-targeted US with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) combined positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) in terms of visualization and quantification of different levels of inflammation in a murine acute colitis model.
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A mechanism of rapidly reversible cerebral ventricular enlargement independent of tissue atrophy.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Ventricular enlargement, a common in vivo marker of aging, disease, and insult, is presumed to reflect atrophy of surrounding brain regions. Pathological mechanisms underlying ventricular enlargement, however, are likely specific to the condition under investigation. Here, multimodal imaging, incorporating structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), was used in rats exposed to binge ethanol (EtOH) to provide insight into a mechanism of reversible ventricular enlargement. During intoxication, MRI revealed expansion of ventricles, but volume changes in dorsal or ventral hippocampi, caudate-putamen, or thalamus were not detectible. MRS of whole-brain parenchyma showed decreases in N-acetylasparate (NAA) and tissue water T2, and increases in choline-containing compounds (Cho). DWI showed decreased diffusivity selective to the thalamus. All MR parameters returned to baseline with 7 days of recovery. Rapid recovery of ventricular volume and the absence of detectable tissue volume reductions in brain regions adjacent to ventricles argue against atrophy as a mechanism of ventricular expansion. Decreased tissue water T2 and decreased thalamic diffusivity suggest lower tissue water content and a role for both NAA and Cho, as osmolytes is proposed. Together, these data support a model of fluid redistribution during acute EtOH intoxication and recovery to account for rapid ventricular volume changes.
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Conditional deletion of the Pten gene in the mouse prostate induces prostatic intraepithelial neoplasms at early ages but a slow progression to prostate tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The PTEN tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated in human prostate cancer. Using Osr1 (odd skipped related 1)-Cre mice, we generated a novel conditional Pten knockout mouse strain, Pten(LoxP):Osr1-Cre. Conditional biallelic and monoallelic Pten knockout mice were viable. Deletion of Pten expression was detected in the prostate of Pten(LoxP/LoxP):Osr1-Cre mice as early as 2 weeks of age. Intriguingly, Pten(LoxP/LoxP):Osr1-Cre mice develop high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PINs) with high penetrance as early as one-month of age, and locally invasive prostatic tumors after 12-months of age. Pten(LoxP/+):Osr1-Cre mice show only mild oncogenic changes after 8-weeks of age. Castration of Pten(LoxP/LoxP):Osr1-Cre mice shows no significant regression of prostate tumors, although a shift of androgen receptor (AR) staining from the nuclei to cytoplasm is observed in Pten null tumor cells of castrated mice. Enhanced Akt activity is observed in Pten null tumor cells of castrated Pten(LoxP/LoxP):Osr1-Cre. This study provides a novel mouse model that can be used to investigate a primary role of Pten in initiating oncogenic transformation in the prostate and to examine other genetic and epigenetic changes that are required for tumor progression in the mouse prostate.
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Detection of carcinoma micrometastases in bone marrow of dogs and cats using conventional and cell block cytology.
Vet Clin Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The presence of human breast carcinoma micrometastases in bone marrow is associated with poor overall survival, poor breast-cancer-specific survival, poor disease-free survival, and poor distant disease-free survival. In veterinary practice, the detection of micrometastases as a component of clinical staging is a routine practice for lymphomas and mast cell tumors, but not for carcinomas.
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A novel clinically translatable fluorescent nanoparticle for targeted molecular imaging of tumors in living subjects.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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The use of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical research has grown tremendously, yet successful examples of clinical applications are absent due to many clinical concerns. Here, we report on a new type of stable and biocompatible dendron-coated InP/ZnS core/shell QD as a clinically translatable nanoprobe for molecular imaging applications. The QDs (QD710-Dendron) were demonstrated to hold several significant features: near-infrared (NIR) emission, high stability in biological media, suitable size with possible renal clearance, and ability of extravasation. More importantly, a pilot mouse toxicity study confirmed that QD710-Dendron lacks significant toxicity at the doses tested. The acute tumor uptake of QD710-Dendron resulted in good contrast from the surrounding nontumorous tissues, indicating the possibility of passive targeting of the QDs. The highly specific targeting of QD710-Dendron-RGD(2) to integrin ?(v)?(3)-positive tumor cells resulted in high tumor uptake and long retention of the nanoprobe at tumor sites. In summary, QD710-Dendron and RGD-modified nanoparticles demonstrate small size, high stability, biocompatibility, favorable in vivo pharmacokinetics, and successful tumor imaging properties. These features satisfy the requirements for clinical translation and should promote efforts to further investigate the possibility of using QD710-Dendron-based nanoprobes in the clinical setting in the near future.
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The leucine zipper putative tumor suppressor 2 protein LZTS2 regulates kidney development.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Members of the leucine zipper putative tumor suppressor (LZTS) family play crucial roles in transcription modulation and cell cycle control. We previously demonstrated that LZTS2 functions as a novel ?-catenin-interacting protein and represses ?-catenin-mediated transcription on T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor. Here, we investigate the biological role of LZTS2 using newly established Lzts2 KO mice. Homozygosity for loss-of-function of the Lzts2-targeted allele resulted in severe kidney and urinary tract developmental defects, including renal/ureteral duplication, hydroureter, and hydronephrosis, which were visible prenatally. Altered ureteric bud outgrowth was identified in Lzts2 null embryos. Further analysis indicated that ?-catenin subcellular localization was altered in fibroblasts isolated from Lzts2 null embryos. In addition, Wnt growth factor-induced ?-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity was increased in Lzts2 null fibroblasts, suggesting a direct role for Lzts2 in the Wnt signaling pathway. These data demonstrate a critical role of LZTS2 in renal development and implicate LZTS2 as a critical regulator of ?-catenin-mediated nephrogenesis.
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Conditional expression of the androgen receptor induces oncogenic transformation of the mouse prostate.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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The androgen signaling pathway, mediated through the androgen receptor (AR), is critical in prostate tumorigenesis. However, the precise role of AR in prostate cancer development and progression still remains largely unknown. Specifically, it is unclear whether overexpression of AR is sufficient to induce prostate tumor formation in vivo. Here, we inserted the human AR transgene with a LoxP-stop-loxP (LSL) cassette into the mouse ROSA26 locus, permitting "conditionally" activated AR transgene expression through Cre recombinase-mediated removal of the LSL cassette. By crossing this AR floxed strain with Osr1-Cre (odd skipped related) mice, in which the Osr1 promoter activates at embryonic day 11.5 in urogenital sinus epithelium, we generated a conditional transgenic line, R26hAR(loxP):Osr1-Cre+. Expression of transgenic AR was detected in both prostatic luminal and basal epithelial cells and is resistant to castration. Approximately one-half of the transgenic mice displayed mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) lesions. Intriguingly, four mice (10%) developed prostatic adenocarcinomas, with two demonstrating invasive diseases. Positive immunostaining of transgenic AR protein was observed in the majority of atypical and tumor cells in the mPIN and prostatic adenocarcinomas, providing a link between transgenic AR expression and oncogenic transformation. An increase in Ki67-positive cells appeared in all mPIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma lesions of the mice. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that conditional activation of transgenic AR expression by Osr1 promoter induces prostate tumor formation in mice. This new AR transgenic mouse line mimics the human disease and can be used for study of prostate tumorigenesis and drug development.
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Hematologic, serologic, and histologic profile of aged Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Biologic samples from 18 (12 female, 6 male) Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) representing an aged colony (17 to 27 mo) were examined. Values for CBC and serum biochemical parameters were determined, and macroscopic and microscopic pathologic evaluations were performed. Blood urea nitrogen levels were significantly higher in male (54.2 ± 14 mg/dL) compared with female (35.3 ± 22 mg/dL) hamsters and correlated histologically with a higher incidence of chronic glomerulonephropathy in males (5 of 6 males; 0 of 12 females). All 18 hamsters had histologic evidence of follicular mite infestation. Half (6 of 12) of the female hamsters showed cystic rete ovarii. Other histologic findings included thymic or thyroid branchial cysts (3 of 18), focal enteritis (2 of 18), and single cases of hepatic hemangiosarcoma, renal adenoma, subcutaneous mast cell tumor, cutaneous sebaceous adenoma, cutaneous trichofolliculoma, squamous papilloma of the nonglandular stomach, epididymal cholesteatoma, pyometra, and pituitary craniopharyngeal cyst. This study is the first published report of hematologic and serum chemical values for any population of Siberian hamsters and the first published report showing a potential male predisposition for chronic progressive glomerulonephropathy and a potential female predisposition for cystic rete ovarii.
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The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Raman spectroscopy is an optical imaging method that is based on the Raman effect, the inelastic scattering of a photon when energy is absorbed from light by a surface. Although Raman spectroscopy is widely used for chemical and molecular analysis, its clinical application has been hindered by the inherently weak nature of the Raman effect. Raman-silica-gold-nanoparticles (R-Si-Au-NPs) overcome this limitation by producing larger Raman signals through surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Because we are developing these particles for use as targeted molecular imaging agents, we examined the acute toxicity and biodistribution of core polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated R-Si-Au-NPs after different routes of administration in mice. After intravenous administration, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were removed from the circulation by macrophages in the liver and spleen (that is, the reticuloendothelial system). At 24 hours, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs elicited a mild inflammatory response and an increase in oxidative stress in the liver, which subsided by 2 weeks after administration. No evidence of significant toxicity was observed by measuring clinical, histological, biochemical, or cardiovascular parameters for 2 weeks. Because we are designing targeted PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs (for example, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs labeled with an affibody that binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor) to detect colorectal cancer after administration into the bowel lumen, we tested the toxicity of the core nanoparticle after administration per rectum. We observed no significant bowel or systemic toxicity, and no PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were detected systemically. Although additional studies are required to investigate the long-term effects of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs and their toxicity when carrying the targeting moiety, the results presented here support the idea that PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs can be safely used in living subjects, especially when administered rectally.
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Contrast-enhanced C-arm CT evaluation of radiofrequency ablation lesions in the left ventricle.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate use of cardiac C-arm computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of the dimensions and temporal characteristics of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) lesions. This imaging modality uses a standard C-arm fluoroscopy system rotating around the patient, providing CT-like images during the RFA procedure.
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Heme oxygenase-1 deletion affects stress erythropoiesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here, we describe the specific effects of HO-1 deficiency on stress erythropoiesis.
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Low doses of natural killer T cells provide protection from acute graft-versus-host disease via an IL-4-dependent mechanism.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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CD4(+) natural killer T (NKT) cells, along with CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), are capable of controlling aberrant immune reactions. We explored the adoptive transfer of highly purified (> 95%) CD4(+)NKT cells in a murine model of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). NKT cells follow a migration and proliferation pattern similar to that of conventional T cells (Tcons), migrating initially to secondary lymphoid organs followed by infiltration of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) target tissues. NKT cells persist for more than 100 days and do not cause significant morbidity or mortality. Doses of NKT cells as low as 1.0 × 10(4) cells suppress GVHD caused by 5.0 × 10(5) Tcons in an interleukin-4 (IL-4)-dependent mechanism. Protective doses of NKT cells minimally affect Tcon proliferation, but cause significant reductions in interferon-? (IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) production by donor Tcons and in skin, spleen, and gastrointestinal pathology. In addition, NKT cells do not impact the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect of Tcons against B-cell lymphoma-1 (BCL-1) tumors. These studies elucidate the biologic function of donor-type CD4(+)NKT cells in suppressing GVHD in an allogeneic transplantation setting, demonstrating clinical potential in reducing GVHD in HCT.
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The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2010
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Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was determined in adult female Xenopus laevis after single-dose administration (10 mg/kg) by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. Frogs were evaluated at various time points until 8 h after injection. Plasma was analyzed for antibiotic concentration levels by HPLC. We computed pharmacokinetic parameters by using noncompartmental analysis of the pooled concentrations (naive pooled samples). After intramuscular administration of enrofloxacin, the half-life was 5.32 h, concentration maximum was 10.85 ?g/mL, distribution volume was 841.96 mL/kg, and area under the time-concentration curve was 57.59 ?g×h/mL; after subcutaneous administration these parameters were 4.08 h, 9.76 ?g/mL, 915.85 mL/kg, and 47.42 ?g×h/mL, respectively. According to plasma pharmacokinetics, Xenopus seem to metabolize enrofloxacin in a manner similar to mammals: low levels of the enrofloxacin metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were detected in the frogs habitat water and plasma. At necropsy, there were no gross or histologic signs of toxicity after single-dose administration; toxicity was not evaluated for repeated dosing. The plasma concentrations reached levels considered effective against common aquatic pathogens and suggest that a single, once-daily dose would be a reasonable regimen to consider when treating sick frogs. The treatment of sick frogs should be based on specific microbiologic identification of the pathogen and on antibiotic susceptibility testing.
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Measurement of serum, liver, and brain cytokine induction, thiamine levels, and hepatopathology in rats exposed to a 4-day alcohol binge protocol.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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?In rodent and human studies, ethanol (EtOH) exposure is associated with elevated brain levels of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) signal representing choline-containing compounds (Cho). One interpretation of elevated brain Cho is that it is a marker of neuroinflammation, and some evidence suggests that EtOH exposure promotes neuroinflammation. This study aimed to determine whether binge EtOH exposure (intragastric 3 g/kg 25% EtOH every 8 hours for 4 days) would induce the expression of certain cytokines in blood, liver, or brain, thereby supporting the neuroinflammation hypothesis of elevated Cho.
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High Performance In Vivo Near-IR (>1 ?m) Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy with Carbon Nanotubes.
Nano Res
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Short single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized by PEGylated phospholipids are biologically non-toxic and long-circulating nanomaterials with intrinsic near infrared photoluminescence (NIR PL), characteristic Raman spectra, and strong optical absorbance in the near infrared (NIR). This work demonstrates the first dual application of intravenously injected SWNTs as photoluminescent agents for in vivo tumor imaging in the 1.0-1.4 ?m emission region and as NIR absorbers and heaters at 808 nm for photothermal tumor elimination at the lowest injected dose (70 ?g of SWNT/mouse, equivalent to 3.6 mg/kg) and laser irradiation power (0.6 W/cm(2)) reported to date. Ex vivo resonance Raman imaging revealed the SWNT distribution within tumors at a high spatial resolution. Complete tumor elimination was achieved for large numbers of photothermally treated mice without any toxic side effects after more than six months post-treatment. Further, side-by-side experiments were carried out to compare the performance of SWNTs and gold nanorods (AuNRs) at an injected dose of 700 ?g of AuNR/mouse (equivalent to 35 mg/kg) in NIR photothermal ablation of tumors in vivo. Highly effective tumor elimination with SWNTs was achieved at 10 times lower injected doses and lower irradiation powers than for AuNRs. These results suggest there are significant benefits of utilizing the intrinsic properties of biocompatible SWNTs for combined cancer imaging and therapy.
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Uterine leiomyoma in a Guyanese squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus sciureus).
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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An adult female squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) presented with a 3.0 x 2.5 cm firm mass palpable within the caudal abdomen. Differentiation of the organs or structures involved with the mass could not be achieved with radiography or ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass within the lumen of the uterus; the mass was removed by partial hysterectomy. On gross examination, the mass was a focally extensive, unencapsulated, firm, solitary tumor. Histologic examination revealed that the mass was composed of interlacing bundles of smooth muscle cells with little fibrous stroma. The cells were elongated with poorly delineated borders and cigar-shaped nuclei, each containing a single, small nucleolus. Fewer than 1 mitosis per 20 high-power (magnification, x 400) fields were present. These gross and histologic findings supported a diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma. Although leiomyomas are the most common tumor of the reproductive tract in nonhuman primates, to our knowledge the current lesion is the first uterine leiomyoma reported to occur in a squirrel monkey.
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Ineffective vaccination against solid tumors can be enhanced by hematopoietic cell transplantation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2009
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Vaccination with tumor Ags has not been an effective treatment for solid tumors. The goal of the current study was to determine whether a combination of vaccination and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can effectively treat primary, disseminated, or metastatic CT26 and MC38 murine colon tumors. Vaccination of tumor-bearing mice with irradiated tumor cells and CpG adjuvant failed to alter progressive tumor growth. However, mice bearing primary, disseminated lung, or metastatic liver tumors were uniformly cured after administration of total body irradiation, followed by the transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and T cells from syngeneic, but not allogeneic vaccinated donors. Requirements for effective treatment of tumors included irradiation of hosts, vaccination of donors with both tumor cells and CpG, transfer of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells along with progenitor cells, and ability of donor cells to produce IFN-gamma. Irradiation markedly increased the infiltration of donor T cells into the tumors, and the combined irradiation and HCT altered the balance of tumor-infiltrating cells to favor CD8(+) effector memory T cells as compared with CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells. The combination of vaccination and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation was also effective in treating tumors. In conclusion, these findings show that otherwise ineffective vaccination to solid nonhematologic tumors can be dramatically enhanced by HCT.
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High-contrast in vivo visualization of microvessels using novel FeCo/GC magnetic nanocrystals.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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FeCo-graphitic carbon shell nanocrystals are a novel MRI contrast agent with unprecedented high per-metal-atom-basis relaxivity (r(1) = 97 mM(-1) sec(-1), r(2) = 400 mM(-1) sec(-1)) and multifunctional capabilities. While the conventional gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced angiographic magnetic MRI has proven useful for diagnosis of vascular diseases, its short circulation time and relatively low sensitivity render high-resolution MRI of morphologically small vascular structures such as those involved in collateral, arteriogenic, and angiogenic vessel formation challenging. Here, by combining FeCo-graphitic carbon shell nanocrystals with high-resolution MRI technique, we demonstrate that such microvessels down to approximately 100 mum can be monitored in high contrast and noninvasively using a conventional 1.5-T clinical MRI system, achieving a diagnostic imaging standard approximating that of the more invasive X-ray angiography. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo toxicity study results also show no sign of toxicity.
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In vivo evidence for alcohol-induced neurochemical changes in rat brain without protracted withdrawal, pronounced thiamine deficiency, or severe liver damage.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in human alcoholics report decreases in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing (Cho) compounds. Whether alterations in brain metabolite levels are attributable to alcohol per se or to physiological effects of protracted withdrawal or impaired nutritional or liver status remains unclear. Longitudinal effects of alcohol on brain metabolites measured in basal ganglia with single-voxel MRS were investigated in sibling pairs of wild-type Wistar rats, with one rat per pair exposed to escalating doses of vaporized alcohol, the other to vapor chamber air. MRS was conducted before alcohol exposure and twice during exposure. After 16 weeks of alcohol exposure, rats achieved average blood alcohol levels (BALs) of approximately 293 mg per 100 ml and had higher Cho and a trend for higher glutamine+glutamate (Glx) than controls. After 24 weeks of alcohol exposure, BALs rose to approximately 445 mg per 100 ml, and alcohol-exposed rats had higher Cho, Glx, and glutamate than controls. Thiamine and thiamine monophosphate levels were significantly lower in the alcohol than the control group but did not reach levels low enough to be considered clinically relevant. Histologically, livers of alcohol-exposed rats exhibited greater steatosis and lower glycogenosis than controls, but were not cirrhotic. This study demonstrates a specific pattern of neurobiochemical changes suggesting excessive membrane turnover or inflammation, indicated by high Cho, and alterations to glutamate homeostasis in the rat brain in response to extended vaporized alcohol exposure. Thus, we provide novel in vivo evidence for alcohol exposure as causing changes in brain chemistry in the absence of protracted withdrawal, pronounced thiamine deficiency, or severe liver damage.
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Tacrolimus ointment: a novel and effective topical treatment of localized atopic dermatitis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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An adult, male, rhesus macaque presented with pruritus and a focal, exudative, inflamed, erythematous skin lesion of approximately 2 cm in diameter on the ventral aspect of the mandible. The lesion resolved after 10 d of treatment with 1% chlorhexidine solution and triple-antibiotic ointment. However, the skin lesion subsequently recurred several times over a 2-mo period. A punch biopsy was performed, and histological changes were most consistent with a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. Treatment with topical tacrolimus ointment, an immunosuppressive drug, proved successful in the resolution of all clinical signs after 4 mo. According to a literature review, this article is the first report of the use of tacrolimus ointment as a topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in a rhesus macaque.
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Brain injury and recovery following binge ethanol: evidence from in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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The binge-drinking model in rodents using intragastric injections of ethanol (EtOH) for 4 days results in argyrophilic corticolimbic tissue classically interpreted as indicating irreversible neuronal degeneration. However, recent findings suggest that acquired argyrophilia can also identify injured neurons that have the potential to recover. The current in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy study was conducted to test the hypothesis that binge EtOH exposure would injure but not cause the death of neurons as previously ascertained postmortem.
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Deletion of leucine zipper tumor suppressor 2 (Lzts2) increases susceptibility to tumor development.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Using an Lzts2 knock-out mouse model, we characterized the biological role of Lzts2 in tumorigenesis. Both heterozygous and homozygous deletion of the Lzts2-targeted allele in mice shows an increased incidence in spontaneous tumor development, although Lzts2 homozygous knock-out mice show significantly higher incidences than heterozygous mice. Treatment of Lzts2-deficient mice with a carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, increases the susceptibility to N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine-induced bladder carcinoma development. Examination of human prostate cancer tissue specimens shows a reduction of LZTS2 protein expression in prostate cancer cells. Further analyses of mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from Lzts2 knock-out embryos show that loss of Lzts2 enhances cell growth. These data provide the first line of evidence demonstrating that deletion of Lzts2 increases susceptibility to spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumor development.
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Modulating the strength and threshold of NOTCH oncogenic signals by mir-181a-1/b-1.
PLoS Genet.
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Oncogenes, which are essential for tumor initiation, development, and maintenance, are valuable targets for cancer therapy. However, it remains a challenge to effectively inhibit oncogene activity by targeting their downstream pathways without causing significant toxicity to normal tissues. Here we show that deletion of mir-181a-1/b-1 expression inhibits the development of Notch1 oncogene-induced T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). mir-181a-1/b-1 controls the strength and threshold of Notch activity in tumorigenesis in part by dampening multiple negative feedback regulators downstream of NOTCH and pre-T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. Importantly, although Notch oncogenes utilize normal thymic progenitor cell genetic programs for tumor transformation, comparative analyses of mir-181a-1/b-1 function in normal thymocyte and tumor development demonstrate that mir-181a-1/b-1 can be specifically targeted to inhibit tumor development with little toxicity to normal development. Finally, we demonstrate that mir-181a-1/b-1, but not mir-181a-2b-2 and mir-181-c/d, controls the development of normal thymic T cells and leukemia cells. Together, these results illustrate that NOTCH oncogene activity in tumor development can be selectively inhibited by targeting the molecular networks controlled by mir-181a-1/b-1.
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Mortality and morbidity in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) associated with construction noise and vibrations.
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
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In Spring 2008, 175 adult female Xenopus laevis were exposed to construction-related vibrations that caused overt water rippling in the frog tanks. The 3 affected tanks were custom-built static, 300-gal pond-style tanks that sat on the floor of the housing room. The water in the tank developed visible ripples as a result of the vibrations transmitted through the floor during jack-hammering in an adjacent room that was approximately 10 ftaway. All frogs in the tanks displayed buoyancy problems, excessive air gulping, and skin sloughing; ultimately 7 frogs died. In addition, these 7 animals were bloated, and 5 of these 7 had regurgitated and everted their stomach and distal esophagus into the oral cavity, resulting in airway obstruction and death. Gross pathologic findings included regurgitation and eversion of the stomach of the distal portion of the esophagus into the oral cavity, obstruction of the airway, and lung overinflation. No significant histologic lesions were observed. Construction vibrations transmitted through the water appeared to have disrupted the mechanoreceptive function of the lateral line system, resulting in overstimulation of the noxious feeding response, regurgitation, and eversion of the stomach and distal esophagus into the oral cavity and subsequent suffocation due to airway obstruction. After immediate cessation of the jack-hammering and relocation of the remaining frogs, no additional morbidities or mortalities occurred.
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Twist1 suppresses senescence programs and thereby accelerates and maintains mutant Kras-induced lung tumorigenesis.
PLoS Genet.
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KRAS mutant lung cancers are generally refractory to chemotherapy as well targeted agents. To date, the identification of drugs to therapeutically inhibit K-RAS have been unsuccessful, suggesting that other approaches are required. We demonstrate in both a novel transgenic mutant Kras lung cancer mouse model and in human lung tumors that the inhibition of Twist1 restores a senescence program inducing the loss of a neoplastic phenotype. The Twist1 gene encodes for a transcription factor that is essential during embryogenesis. Twist1 has been suggested to play an important role during tumor progression. However, there is no in vivo evidence that Twist1 plays a role in autochthonous tumorigenesis. Through two novel transgenic mouse models, we show that Twist1 cooperates with Kras(G12D) to markedly accelerate lung tumorigenesis by abrogating cellular senescence programs and promoting the progression from benign adenomas to adenocarcinomas. Moreover, the suppression of Twist1 to physiological levels is sufficient to cause Kras mutant lung tumors to undergo senescence and lose their neoplastic features. Finally, we analyzed more than 500 human tumors to demonstrate that TWIST1 is frequently overexpressed in primary human lung tumors. The suppression of TWIST1 in human lung cancer cells also induced cellular senescence. Hence, TWIST1 is a critical regulator of cellular senescence programs, and the suppression of TWIST1 in human tumors may be an effective example of pro-senescence therapy.
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Comparison of the acute inflammatory response of two commercial platelet-rich plasma systems in healthy rabbit tendons.
Am J Sports Med
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Numerous studies have shown platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations differ with respect to the inclusion of certain blood components, which may affect the hosts cellular response.
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Infection of pregnant mice with Listeria monocytogenes induces fetal bradycardia.
Pediatr. Res.
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Listeriosis is one of the most lethal bacterial diseases for fetuses and infants. However, pregnant women who get infected with Listeria may experience only mild symptoms, making the diagnosis difficult, even when the fetus is fatally infected.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.