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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Strong and Moldable Cellulose Magnets with High Ferrite Nanoparticle Content.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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A major limitation in the development of highly functional hybrid nanocomposites is brittleness and low tensile strength at high inorganic nanoparticle content. Herein, cellulose nanofibers were extracted from wood and individually decorated with cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles and then for the first time molded at low temperature (<120 °C) into magnetic nanocomposites with up to 93 wt % inorganic content. The material structure was characterized by TEM and FE-SEM and mechanically tested as compression molded samples. The obtained porous magnetic sheets were further impregnated with a thermosetting epoxy resin, which improved the load-bearing functions of ferrite and cellulose material. A nanocomposite with 70 wt % ferrite, 20 wt % cellulose nanofibers, and 10 wt % epoxy showed a modulus of 12.6 GPa, a tensile strength of 97 MPa, and a strain at failure of ca. 4%. Magnetic characterization was performed in a vibrating sample magnetometer, which showed that the coercivity was unaffected and that the saturation magnetization was in proportion with the ferrite content. The used ferrite, CoFe2O4, is a magnetically hard material, demonstrated by that the composite material behaved as a traditional permanent magnet. The presented processing route is easily adaptable to prepare millimeter-thick and moldable magnetic objects. This suggests that the processing method has the potential to be scaled-up for industrial use for the preparation of a new subcategory of magnetic, low-cost, and moldable objects based on cellulose nanofibers.
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Antibacterial properties of tough and strong electrospun PMMA/PEO fiber mats filled with Lanasol--a naturally occurring brominated substance.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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A new type of antimicrobial, biocompatible and toughness enhanced ultra-thin fiber mats for biomedical applications is presented. The tough and porous fiber mats were obtained by electrospinning solution-blended poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), filled with up to 25 wt % of Lanasol--a naturally occurring brominated cyclic compound that can be extracted from red sea algae. Antibacterial effectiveness was tested following the industrial Standard JIS L 1902 and under agitated medium (ASTM E2149). Even at the lowest concentrations of Lanasol, 4 wt %, a significant bactericidal effect was seen with a 4-log (99.99%) reduction in bacterial viability against S. aureus, which is one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections in the world. The mechanical fiber toughness was insignificantly altered up to the maximum Lanasol concentration tested, and was for all fiber mats orders of magnitudes higher than electrospun fibers based on solely PMMA. This antimicrobial fiber system, relying on a dissolved antimicrobial agent (demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and Infrared (IR)-spectroscopy) rather than a dispersed and "mixed-in" solid antibacterial particle phase, presents a new concept which opens the door to tougher, stronger and more ductile antimicrobial fibers.
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Micromechanics of ultra-toughened electrospun PMMA/PEO fibres as revealed by in-situ tensile testing in an electron microscope.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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A missing cornerstone in the development of tough micro/nano fibre systems is an understanding of the fibre failure mechanisms, which stems from the limitation in observing the fracture of objects with dimensions one hundredth of the width of a hair strand. Tensile testing in the electron microscope is herein adopted to reveal the fracture behaviour of a novel type of toughened electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(ethylene oxide) fibre mats for biomedical applications. These fibres showed a toughness more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of pristine PMMA fibres. The in-situ microscopy revealed that the toughness were not only dependent on the initial molecular alignment after spinning, but also on the polymer formulation that could promote further molecular orientation during the formation of micro/nano-necking. The true fibre strength was greater than 150?MPa, which was considerably higher than that of the unmodified PMMA (17?MPa). This necking phenomenon was prohibited by high aspect ratio cellulose nanocrystal fillers in the ultra-tough fibres, leading to a decrease in toughness by more than one order of magnitude. The reported necking mechanism may have broad implications also within more traditional melt-spinning research.
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Early Failure of Frontline Rituximab-Containing Chemo-immunotherapy in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Does Not Predict Futility of Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The poor prognosis for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who relapse within 1 year of initial diagnosis after first-line rituximab-based chemo-immunotherapy has created controversy about the role of autologous transplantation (HCT) in this setting. We compared autologous HCT outcomes for chemosensitive DLBCL patients between 2000 and 2011 in 2 cohorts based on time to relapse from diagnosis. The early rituximab failure (ERF) cohort consisted of patients with primary refractory disease or those with first relapse within 1 year of initial diagnosis. The ERF cohort was compared with those relapsing >1 year after initial diagnosis (late rituximab failure [LRF] cohort). ERF and LRF cohorts included 300 and 216 patients, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM), progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of ERF versus LRF cohorts at 3 years were 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6% to 13%) versus 9% (95% CI, 5% to 13%), 47% (95% CI, 41% to 52%) versus 39% (95% CI, 33% to 46%), 44% (95% CI, 38% to 50%) versus 52% (95% CI, 45% to 59%), and 50% (95% CI, 44% to 56%) versus 67% (95% CI, 60% to 74%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, ERF was not associated with higher NRM (relative risk [RR], 1.31; P = .34). The ERF cohort had a higher risk of treatment failure (progression/relapse or death) (RR, 2.08; P < .001) and overall mortality (RR, 3.75; P <.001) within the first 9 months after autologous HCT. Beyond this period, PFS and OS were not significantly different between the ERF and LRF cohorts. Autologous HCT provides durable disease control to a sizeable subset of DLBCL despite ERF (3-year PFS, 44%) and remains the standard-of-care in chemosensitive DLBCL regardless of the timing of disease relapse.
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Older patients with myeloma derive similar benefit from autologous transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for plasma cell myeloma is performed less often in people >70 years old than in people ?70 years old. We analyzed 11,430 AHCT recipients for plasma cell myeloma prospectively reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 2008 and 2011, representing the majority of US AHCT activity during this period. Survival (OS) was compared in 3 cohorts: ages 18 to 59 years (n = 5818), 60 to 69 years (n = 4666), and >70 years (n = 946). Median OS was not reached for any cohort. In multivariate analysis, increasing age was associated with mortality (P = .0006). Myeloma-specific mortality was similar among cohorts at 12%, indicating an age-related effect on nonmyeloma mortality. Analyses were performed in a representative subgroup comparing relapse rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). One-year NRM was 0% for age >70 years and 2% for other ages (P = not significant). The three-year relapse rate was 56% in age 18 to 59 years, 61% in age 60 to 69 years, and 63% age >70 (P = not significant). Three-year PFS was similar at 42% in age 18 to 59 years, 38% in age 60 to 69 years, and 33% in age >70 years (P = not significant). Postrelapse survival was significantly worse for the older cohort (P = .03). Older subjects selected for AHCT derived similar antimyeloma benefit without worse NRM, relapse rate, or PFS.
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Comparison of the properties of cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibrils isolated from bacteria, tunicate, and wood processed using acid, enzymatic, mechanical, and oxidative methods.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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This work describes the measurement and comparison of several important properties of native cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), such as crystallinity, morphology, aspect ratio, and surface chemistry. Measurement of the fundamental properties of seven different CNCs/CNFs, from raw material sources (bacterial, tunicate, and wood) using typical hydrolysis conditions (acid, enzymatic, mechanical, and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation), was accomplished using a variety of measurement methods. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to conclude that CNCs, which are rodlike in appearance, have a higher crystallinity than CNFs, which are fibrillar in appearance. CNC aspect ratio distributions were measured and ranged from 148±147 for tunicate-CNCs to 23±12 for wood-CNCs. Hydrophobic interactions, measured using inverse gas chromatography (IGC), were found to be an important contribution to the total surface energy of both types of cellulose. In all cases, a trace amount of naturally occurring fluorescent compounds was observed after hydrolysis. Confocal and Raman microscopy were used to confirm that the fluorescent species were unique for each cellulose source, and demonstrated that such methods can be useful for monitoring purity during CNC/CNF processing. This study reveals the broad, tunable, multidimensional material space in which CNCs and CNFs exist.
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Effect of body mass in children with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The rising incidence of pediatric obesity may significantly affect bone marrow transplantation (BMT) outcomes. We analyzed outcomes in 3687 children worldwide who received cyclophosphamide-based BMT regimens for leukemias between 1990 and 2007. Recipients were classified according to age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) percentiles as underweight (UW), at risk of UW (RUW), normal, overweight (OW), or obese (OB). Median age and race were similar in all groups. Sixty-one percent of OB children were from the United States/Canada. Three-year relapse-free and overall survival ranged from 48% to 52% (P = .54) and 55% to 58% (P = .81) across BMI groups. Three-year leukemia relapses were 33%, 33%, 29%, 25%, and 21% in the UW, RUW, normal, OW, and OB groups, respectively (P < .001). Corresponding cumulative incidences for transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 18%, 19%, 21%, 22%, and 28% (P < .01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a decreased risk of relapse compared with normal BMI (relative risk [RR] = 0.73; P < .01) and a trend toward higher TRM (RR = 1.28; P = .014). BMI in children is not significantly associated with different survival after BMT for hematologic malignancies. Obese children experience less relapse posttransplant compared with children with normal BMI; however, this benefit is offset by excess in TRM.
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Allotransplantation for patients age ?40 years with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: encouraging progression-free survival.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ?40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ?65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ?65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ?65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ?65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ?55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ?55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL.
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Unrelated umbilical cord blood transplant for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first and second complete remission: a comparison with allografts from adult unrelated donors.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has an established role in treating adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia with survival using adult unrelated donors approaching those of sibling donors. Our aim was to determine the role of mismatched unrelated cord blood grafts in transplantation for 802 adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first or second complete remission. Using Cox regression we compared outcomes after 116 mismatched single or double cord blood, 546 peripheral blood progenitor-cells and 140, bone marrow. Patient and disease characteristics of recipients were similar except cord blood recipients were younger, more likely to be non-Caucasians and to have low white blood cell count at diagnosis. There were differences in donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen-match between the donor sources. Most adult donor transplants were matched at the allele-level considering human leukocyte antigen-A, -B, -C and DRB1. In contrast, most cord blood transplants were mismatched and considered antigen-level match; 57% were mismatched at 2- and 29% at 1-loci whereas only 29% of adult donor transplants were mismatched at 1 locus and none at 2-loci. There were no differences in the 3-year probabilities of survival between cord blood (44%), matched (44%) and mismatched (43%) adult donor transplants. Cord blood transplants had slower engraftment, less grade 2-4 acute but similar chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse, and transplant-related mortality. Cord blood grafts achieved similar survival to matched or mismatched unrelated donor grafts and should be considered a valid alternative stem-cell source for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the absence of a matched unrelated adult donor.
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A low-oxygenated subpopulation of pancreatic islets constitutes a functional reserve of endocrine cells.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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The blood perfusion of pancreatic islets is highly variable and tightly regulated by the blood glucose concentration. Thus, oxygen levels are considered crucial for islet metabolism and function. Although islet oxygenation has been extensively studied in vitro, little is known about it in vivo. The current study aimed to investigate the oxygenation of the endocrine pancreas in vivo.
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Increased numbers of low-oxygenated pancreatic islets after intraportal islet transplantation.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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No previous study has measured the oxygenation of intraportally transplanted islets, although recent data suggest that insufficient engraftment may result in hypoxia and loss of islet cells.
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Improved survival after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in recent years. A single-center study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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We analyzed the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) over the past 2 decades. Between 1992 and 2009, 953 patients were treated with HSCT, mainly for a hematologic malignancy. They were divided according to 4 different time periods of treatment: 1992 to 1995, 1996 to 2000, 2001 to 2005, and 2006 to 2009. Over the years, many factors have changed considerably regarding patient age, diagnosis, disease stage, type of donor, stem cell source, genomic HLA typing, cell dose, type of conditioning, treatment of infections, use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), use of mesenchymal stem cells, use of cytotoxic T cells, and home care. When we compared the last period (2006-2009) with earlier periods, we found slower neutrophil engraftment, a higher incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) of grades II-IV, and less chronic GVHD (cGHVD). The incidence of relapse was unchanged over the 4 periods (22%-25%). Overall survival (OS) and transplant-related mortality (TRM) improved significantly in the more recent periods, with the best results during the last period (2006-2009) and a 100-day TRM of 5.5%. This improvement was also apparent in a multivariate analysis. When correcting for differences between the 4 groups, the hazard ratio for mortality in the last period was 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.79; P < .001) and for TRM it was 0.63 (CI: 0.43-0.92; P = .02). This study shows that the combined efforts to improve outcome after HSCT have been very effective. Even though we now treat older patients with more advanced disease and use more alternative HLA nonidentical donors, OS and TRM have improved. The problem of relapse still has to be remedied. Thus, several different developments together have resulted in significantly lower TRM and improved survival after HSCT over the last few years.
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Second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a treatment for graft failure.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
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We evaluated the results in 20 recent patients treated with a second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after graft failure (GF). There were 10 children <18 yr of age. Ten patients had a non-malignant disease, and the other 10 had a malignant disease. In most of the transplantations, fludarabine-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) was given. Bone marrow was given to 11 patients, peripheral blood system cell (PBSC) in seven and cord blood to two patients. For the second transplantation (n = 20), a new donor was used in nine cases, while the initial donor was used in 11 transplants. Eight patients (40%) suffered from a second GF. Five of these patients were treated with a third HSCT. The probability of survival was 65% one yr and 60% three yr after the second HSCT. No difference in survival was found between patients transplanted with a new donor (56%) compared to those using the original donor (64%). The three-yr survival was 70% for children compared to 50% for adults (p = ns). Patients with a non-malignant disorder showed a three-yr survival of 90% compared to 20% in patients with a malignant disease (p = 0.005). We concluded that re-transplantation using RIC is a valid option for GF, especially in patients with non-malignant disorders.
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Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor induced acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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A recent experimental study in mice shed new light on the controversy as to whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Total body irradiation and bone marrow were found to be prerequisites for acute GVHD. This study encouraged us to perform a retrospective clinical study.
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GVHD prophylaxis using low-dose cyclosporine improves survival in leukaemic recipients of HLA-identical sibling transplants.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis of short duration (6 months) with low-dose cyclosporine A (CsA) starting at 1 mg/kg per day i.v. and four doses of methotrexate (MTX) were given to 171 consecutive leukaemic recipients of HLA-identical sibling transplants. In contrast, apart from MTX, retrospective controls received high-dose CsA, starting at 5-7.5 mg/kg per day i.v. and discontinued 1 yr post-transplant. In the low-dose CsA group, the probability of acute GVHD grades I-II (70% vs. 53%, P < 0.01), and chronic GVHD were increased (58% vs. 25%, P < 0.01), whereas the incidences of acute GVHD grades III-IV (9% vs. 5%, P = 0.62), and non-relapse mortality (20% vs. 22%, P = 0.58) were similar. Moreover, the probability of relapse was decreased (31% vs. 54%, P < 0.01), and both relapse-free (56% vs. 38%, P = 0.04) and overall survival (61% vs. 40%, P = 0.04) were markedly improved using the low-dose CsA regimen. In multivariate analyses, low-dose CsA was strongly associated with chronic GVHD [relative hazard (RH) 2.56, P < 0.01], which decreased the risk of relapse (RH 0.46, P < 0.01) and improved the probability of survival (RH 1.84, P < 0.01). In conclusion, a low-dose CsA regimen in leukaemic recipients of HLA-identical sibling transplants increases the rate of chronic GVHD, which seems to attenuate the risk of relapse, thereby improving patient survival owing to enhanced graft-versus-leukaemia effect.
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The allogeneic graft-versus-cancer effect.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Allogeneic haematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has developed into immunotherapy. Donor CD4+, CD8+ and natural killer (NK) cells have been reported to mediate graft-versus-leukaemia (GVL) effects, using Fas-dependent killing and perforin degranulation to eradicate malignant cells. Cytokines, such as interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha potentiate the GVL effect. Post-transplant adoptive therapy of cytotoxic T-cells (CTL) against leukaemia-specific antigens, minor histocompatibility antigens, or T-cell receptor genes may constitute successful approaches to induce anti-tumour effects. Clinically, a significant GVL effect is induced by chronic rather than acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). An anti-tumour effect has also been reported for myeloma, lymphoma and solid tumours. Reduced intensity conditioning enables HSCT in older and disabled patients and relies on the graft-versus-tumour effect. Donor lymphocyte infusions promote the GVL effect and can be given as escalating doses with response monitored by minimal residual disease. A high CD34+ cell dose of peripheral blood stem cells increases GVL. There is a balance between effective immunosuppression, low incidence of GVHD and relapse. For instance, T-cell depletion of the graft increases the risk of relapse. This paper reviews the current knowledge in graft-versus-cancer effects. Future directions, such as immunotherapy using leukaemia-specific CTLs, allo-depleted T-cells and suicide gene manipulated T-cells, are presented.
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Reduced intensity conditioning compared with myeloablative conditioning using unrelated donor transplants in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2009
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Reduced intensity conditioning regimen (RIC) is increasingly used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Unrelated donor (UD) transplants have more complications. We wanted to examine if RIC is a valid treatment option using UD in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML).
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Particle size and magnetic properties dependence on growth temperature for rapid mixed co-precipitated magnetite nanoparticles.
Nanotechnology
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Magnetite nanoparticles have been prepared by co-precipitation using a custom-designed jet mixer to achieve rapid mixing (RM) of reactants in a timescale of milliseconds. The quick and stable nucleation obtained allows control of the particle size and size distribution via a more defined growth process. Nanoparticles of different sizes were prepared by controlling the processing temperature in the first few seconds post-mixing. The average size of the nanoparticles investigated using a Tecnai transmission electron microscope is found to increase with the temperature from 3.8 nm at 1 ± 1?°C to 10.9 nm for particles grown at 95 ± 1?°C. The temperature dependence of the size distribution follows the same trend and is explained in terms of Ostwald ripening of the magnetite nanoparticles during the co-precipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). The magnetic properties were studied by monitoring the blocking temperature via both DC and AC techniques. Strikingly, the obtained RM particles maintain the high magnetization (as high as ?88 A m(2) kg(-1) at 500 kA m(-1)) while the coercivity is as low as ?12 A m(-1) with the expected temperature dependence. Besides, by adding a drop of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, aqueous ferrofluids with long term stability are obtained, suggesting their suitability for applications in ferrofluid technology and biomedicine.
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Reduced intensity conditioning is superior to nonmyeloablative conditioning for older chronic myelogenous leukemia patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant during the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era.
Blood
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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and reduced intensity conditioning (RIC)/nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning hematopoietic cell transplants (HCTs) have changed the therapeutic strategy for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. We analyzed post-HCT outcomes of 306 CML patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research aged 40 years and older undergoing RIC/NMA HCT from 2001 to 2007: 117 (38%) aged 40 to 49 years, 119 (39%) 50 to 59 years, and 70 (23%) 60 years or older. The majority (74%) had treatment with imatinib before HCT. At HCT, most patients aged 40 to 49 years were in chronic phase (CP) 1 (74%), compared with 31% aged 60 years or older. Siblings were donors for 56% aged 40 to 49 years; older cohorts had more unrelated donors. The majority received peripheral blood grafts and RIC across all age groups. 3 year overall survival (54%, 52%, and 41%), day + 100 grade II-IV acute GVHD (26%, 32%, and 32%), chronic GVHD (58%, 51%, and 43%), and 1-year treatment-related mortality (18%, 20%, and 13%) were similar across ages. The 3-year relapse incidence (36%, 43%, and 66%) and disease-free survival (35%, 32%, and 16%) were inferior in the oldest cohort. Importantly, for CP1 patients, relapse and disease-free survival were similar across age cohorts. Allogeneic RIC HCT for older patients with CML can control relapse with acceptable toxicity and survival in TKI-exposed CML, especially if still in CP1.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.