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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Transforming science, service, and society.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Management of the cancer burden in low- and lower-middle-income countries requires global partnerships between cancer-care mentors from high-income countries and community health workers familiar with the local circumstances.
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Forearm oxygenation and blood flow kinetics during a sustained contraction in multiple ability groups of rock climbers.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Abstract Currently, the physiological mechanisms that allow elite level climbers to maintain intense isometric contractions for prolonged periods of time are unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether blood flow or muscle oxidative capacity best governs performance. This study aimed to determine the haemodynamic kinetics of 2 forearm flexor muscles in 3 ability groups of rock climbers. Thirty-eight male participants performed a sustained contraction at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until volitional fatigue. Oxygen saturation and blood flow was assessed using near infrared spectroscopy and Doppler ultrasound. Compared to control, intermediate, and advanced groups, the elite climbers had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher strength-to-weight ratio (MVC/N), de-oxygenated the flexor digitorum profundus significantly (P < 0.05) more (32, 34.3, and 42.8 vs. 63% O2, respectively), and at a greater rate (0.32, 0.27, and 0.34 vs. 0.77 O2%·s(-1), respectively). Furthermore, elite climbers de-oxygenated the flexor carpi radialis significantly (P < 0.05) more and at a greater rate than the intermediate group (36.5 vs. 14.6% O2 and 0.43 vs. 0.1O2%·s(-1), respectively). However, there were no significant differences in total forearm ? blood flow. An increased MVC/N is not associated with greater blood flow occlusion in elite climbers; therefore, oxidative capacity may be more important for governing performance.
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Characterisation of mixing in the proximal duodenum of the rat during longitudinal contractions and comparison with a fluid mechanical model based on spatiotemporal motility data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The understanding of mixing and mass transfers of nutrients and drugs in the small intestine is of prime importance in creating formulations that manipulate absorption and digestibility. We characterised mixing using a dye tracer methodology during spontaneous longitudinal contractions, i.e. pendular activity, in 10 cm segments of living proximal duodenum of the rat maintained ex-vivo. The residence time distribution (RTD) of the tracer was equivalent to that generated by a small number (8) of continuous stirred tank reactors in series. Fluid mechanical modelling, that was based on real sequences of longitudinal contractions, predicted that dispersion should occur mainly in the periphery of the lumen. Comparison with the experimental RTD showed that centriluminal dispersion was accurately simulated whilst peripheral dispersion was underestimated. The results therefore highlighted the potential importance of micro-phenomena such as microfolding of the intestinal mucosa in peripheral mixing. We conclude that macro-scale modeling of intestinal flow is useful in simulating centriluminal mixing, whereas multi-scales strategies must be developed to accurately model mixing and mass transfers at the periphery of the lumen.
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Should the Augmentation Index be Normalized to Heart Rate?
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Pulse wave analysis(PWA) is widely used to investigate systemic arterial stiffness. The augmentation index(AIx), the primary outcome derived from PWA, is influenced by the mean arterial pressure(MAP), age, gender and heart rate(HR). Gender- and age-specific reference values have been devised, and it is recommended that the MAP be used as a statistical covariate. The AIx is also commonly statistically adjusted to a HR of 75 b·min(-1); however, this approach may be physiologically and statistically inappropriate. First, there appears to be an important physiological chronic interaction between HR and arterial stiffness. Second, the method used to correct to HR assumes that the relationship with AIx is uniform across populations. A more appropriate practice may be to include HR as an independent predictor or covariate; this approach is particularly recommended for longitudinal studies, in which changes in HR may help to explain changes in arterial stiffness.
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Response to "Comment on Resonant acoustic scattering by swimbladder-bearing fish?" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 571-580 (1978)].
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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In the 1970s a model of resonant scattering from a swimbladder-bearing fish was developed. The fish was modeled as an air bubble, representing a swimbladder, encased in a viscous spherical shell, representing the fish flesh. This model has been used successfully to correlate acoustic scattering data with fish information in a number of ocean locations. Recently, questions have arisen about viscous damping of the flesh and the thickness of the shell [K. Baik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 5-8 (2013)]. This Letter responds to those questions and provides practical insight into the models use.
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Bone mineral density following surgical oophorectomy and tamoxifen adjuvant therapy for breast cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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In premenopausal women treated for breast cancer, loss of bone mineral density (BMD) follows from menopause induced by chemotherapy or loss of ovarian function biochemically or by surgical oophorectomy. The impact on BMD of surgical oophorectomy plus tamoxifen therapy has not been described.
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CYP2D6 genotypes, endoxifen levels, and disease recurrence in 224 Filipino and Vietnamese women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen for operable breast cancer.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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While tamoxifen activity is mainly due to endoxifen and the concentration of this active metabolite is, in part, controlled by CYP2D6 metabolic status, clinical correlative studies have produced mixed results.
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Fluid mechanical consequences of pendular activity, segmentation and pyloric outflow in the proximal duodenum of the rat and the guinea pig.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We conducted numerical experiments to study the influence of non-propagating longitudinal and circular contractions, i.e. pendular activity and segmentation, respectively, on flow and mixing in the proximal duodenum. A lattice-Boltzmann numerical method was developed to simulate the fluid mechanical consequences for each of 22 randomly selected sequences of high-definition video of real longitudinal and radial contractile activity in the isolated proximal duodenum of the rat and guinea pig. During pendular activity in the rat duodenum, the flow was characterized by regions of high shear rate. Mixing was so governed by shearing deformation of the fluid that increased the interface between adjacent domains and accelerated their inter-diffusion (for diffusion coefficients approx. less than 10(-8) m² s(-1)). When pendular activity was associated with a slow gastric outflow characteristic of post-prandial period, the dispersion was also improved, especially near the walls. Mixing was not promoted by isolated segmentative contractions in the guinea pig duodenum and not notably influenced by pylorus outflow. We concluded that pendular activity generates mixing of viscous fluids in situ and accelerates the diffusive mass transfer, whereas segmentation may be more important in mixing particulate suspensions with high solid volume ratios.
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Cytoplasmic estrogen receptor in breast cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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In addition to genomic signaling, it is accepted that estrogen receptor-? (ER?) has nonnuclear signaling functions, which correlate with tamoxifen resistance in preclinical models. However, evidence for cytoplasmic ER localization in human breast tumors is less established. We sought to determine the presence and implications of nonnuclear ER in clinical specimens.
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Breast cancer: a neglected disease for the majority of affected women worldwide.
Breast J
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Recent progress with declines in mortality in some high-income countries has obscured the fact that for the majority of women worldwide who are newly diagnosed, breast cancer is a neglected disease in the context of other numerically more frequent health problems. For this growing majority, it is also an orphan disease, in that detailed knowledge about tumor characteristics and relevant host biology necessary to provide even basic care is absent. With the possible exception of nutritional recommendations, current international cancer policy and planning initiatives are irrelevant to breast cancer. The progress that has occurred in high-income countries has come at extraordinary fiscal expense and patient toxicity, which of themselves suggest nonrelevance to women and healthcare practitioners in middle- and low-income countries. The implications of these circumstances appear clear: if the promise of the now 60-year-old Declaration of Human Rights that the fruits of medical science accrue to all mankind is to be realized with respect to breast cancer, a basic and translational global research initiative should be launched.
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Effects on survival of menstrual cycle phase of adjuvant surgical oophorectomy in premenopausal women with breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
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Adjuvant surgical oophorectomy is an effective and remarkably cost effective treatment for premenopausal women with hormone receptor positive operable breast cancer. Previously published secondary analyses indicated a survival benefit for patients whose surgery was performed in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle as opposed to the follicular. This study utilizes additional follow-up and more fully examines this hypothesis and the general implications of long-term follow-up on trial design. Beginning in 1993 we recruited women to a multicenter randomized clinical trial of adjuvant surgical oophorectomy and tamoxifen for 5 years. We recorded the reported day 1 of the patients last menstrual cycle on the day of their adjuvant surgery. We conducted secondary analyses of the association of history-estimated luteal or follicular phase oophorectomy surgery with disease-free and overall survival. In multivariable Cox analyses, disease-free survival (DFS) exhibited a positive trend and overall survival (OS) showed a significant improvement in patients whose surgery was estimated to have occurred in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle compared to the follicular (HR for DFS: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.37-1.16; HR for OS: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.27-0.88). From the hazard function plots, it appears that the luteal phase surgery effect on DFS diminishes after 6 years of follow-up. In conclusion, adjuvant surgical oophorectomy during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle resulted in a reduced hazard of recurrence as compared to oophorectomy in the follicular phase during the first 5.5 years of follow-up. The practical and biological implications of these findings deserve rigorous evaluation in clinical trials.
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Randomized trial of adjuvant zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with high-risk breast cancer.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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We present the results of a randomized multicenter clinical trial of adjuvant zoledronic acid (ZA) in postmenopausal women with high-risk breast cancer. The primary objective was change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck at 1 year. Secondary objectives included change in calcaneal BMD, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity.
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Adjuvant hormonal therapy in premenopausal women with operable breast cancer: not-so-peripheral perspectives.
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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Reviews of issues around adjuvant hormonal therapies for breast cancer in premenopausal women often focus on recent and current large clinical trials, and fail to address other subjects that are very germane to evidence-based and investigatory clinical practice. These topics include: (1) the descriptive epidemiology of breast cancer globally, (2) critical issues in tumor hormone receptor testing, (3) compelling data demonstrating that hormone receptor-positive breast cancer is a chronic disease, (4) data supportive of combined hormonal therapy with tamoxifen as the standard of care, and the limited justifications for awaiting the SOFT and TEXT trial results, (5) pharmacogenetic hypotheses with tamoxifen, (6) ethical issues in ovarian suppression vs ablative treatment, and (7) emerging data about the importance of primary tumor removal surgery itself and "surgical stress" in solid tumor management.
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Global cancer research initiative.
Cancer Manag Res
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested.
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Breast cancer hormone receptor assay results of core needle biopsy and modified radical mastectomy specimens from the same patients.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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Hormone receptor (HR) expression is the most important biomarker and is the cornerstone in the management of breast cancer. Therefore, the accuracy of its testing is critical in treatment decisions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.