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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prostaglandin E2 promotes features of replicative senescence in chronically activated human CD8+ T cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a pleiotropic immunomodulatory molecule, and its free radical catalyzed isoform, iso-PGE2, are frequently elevated in the context of cancer and chronic infection. Previous studies have documented the effects of PGE2 on the various CD4+ T cell functions, but little is known about its impact on cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes, the immune cells responsible for eliminating virally infected and tumor cells. Here we provide the first demonstration of the dramatic effects of PGE2 on the progression of human CD8+ T cells toward replicative senescence, a terminal dysfunctional state associated multiple pathologies during aging and chronic HIV-1 infection. Our data show that exposure of chronically activated CD8+ T cells to physiological levels of PGE2 and iso-PGE2 promotes accelerated acquisition of markers of senescence, including loss of CD28 expression, increased expression of p16 cell cycle inhibitor, reduced telomerase activity, telomere shortening and diminished production of key cytotoxic and survival cytokines. Moreover, the CD8+ T cells also produced higher levels of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that the resultant oxidative stress may have further enhanced telomere loss. Interestingly, we observed that even chronic activation per se resulted in increased CD8+ T cell production of PGE2, mediated by higher COX-2 activity, thus inducing a negative feedback loop that further inhibits effector function. Collectively, our data suggest that the elevated levels of PGE2 and iso-PGE2, seen in various cancers and HIV-1 infection, may accelerate progression of CD8+ T cells towards replicative senescence in vivo. Inhibition of COX-2 activity may, therefore, provide a strategy to counteract this effect.
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T cell replicative senescence in human aging.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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The decline of the immune system appears to be an intractable consequence of aging, leading to increased susceptibility to infections, reduced effectiveness of vaccination and higher incidences of many diseases including osteoporosis and cancer in the elderly. These outcomes can be attributed, at least in part, to a phenomenon known as T cell replicative senescence, a terminal state characterized by dysregulated immune function, loss of the CD28 costimulatory molecule, shortened telomeres and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Senescent CD8 T cells, which accumulate in the elderly, have been shown to frequently bear antigen specificity against cytomegalovirus (CMV), suggesting that this common and persistent infection may drive immune senescence and result in functional and phenotypic changes to the T cell repertoire. Senescent T cells have also been identified in patients with certain cancers, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections, such as HIV. This review discusses the in vivo and in vitro evidence for the contribution of CD8 T cell replicative senescence to a plethora of age-related pathologies and a few possible therapeutic avenues to delay or prevent this differentiative end-state in T cells. The age-associated remodeling of the immune system, through accumulation of senescent T cells has farreaching consequences on the individual and society alike, for the current healthcare system needs to meet the urgent demands of the increasing proportions of the elderly in the US and abroad.
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Immunosenescence is associated with presence of Kaposis sarcoma in antiretroviral treated HIV infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Some antiretroviral treated HIV-infected patients develop Kaposis sarcoma despite long-term suppression of HIV replication. These Kaposis sarcoma lesions are consistent with Kaposis sarcoma observed in the elderly uninfected population (classical Kaposis sarcoma). We investigated potential mechanisms for this phenomenon, focusing on measures of immune activation and T-cell senescence.
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Accelerated aging in HIV/AIDS: novel biomarkers of senescent human CD8+ T cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Clinical evaluation of immune reconstitution and health status during HIV-1 infection and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is largely based on CD4+ T cell counts and viral load, measures that fail to take into account the CD8+ T cell subset, known to show features of accelerated aging in HIV disease. Here, we compare adenosine deaminase (ADA), glucose uptake receptor 1 (GLUT1), and leucine-rich repeat neuronal 3 (LRRN3) to CD38 expression and telomerase activity, two strong predictors of HIV disease progression. Our analysis revealed that reduced ADA, telomerase activity and LRRN3 gene expression were significantly associated with high CD38 and HLA-DR in CD8+ T cells, with % ADA+ cells being the most robust predictor of CD8+ T cell activation. Our results suggest that ADA, LRRN3 and telomerase activity in CD8+ T cells may serve as novel, clinically relevant biomarkers of immune status in HIV-1 infection, specifically by demonstrating the degree to which CD8+ T cells have progressed to the end stage of replicative senescence. Since chronological aging itself leads to the accumulation of senescent CD8+ T cells, the prolonged survival and resultant increased age of the HIV+ population may synergize with the chronic immune activation to exacerbate both immune decline and age-associated pathologies. The identification and future validation of these new biomarkers may lead to fresh immune-based HIV treatments.
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Role of CD8 T Cell Replicative Senescence in Human Aging and in HIV-mediated Immunosenescence.
Aging Dis
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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As humans age, their immune systems undergo a process known as immunosenescence. This global aging of the immune system is associated with increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancer, reduced effectiveness of vaccination, increased autoimmune phenomena, and tissue damage due to dysregulated inflammation. One hallmark feature of immunosenescence is the accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD8 T cells with features of replicative senescence, such as inability to proliferate, absence of CD28 expression, shortened telomeres, loss of telomerase activity, and enhanced secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The proportion of senescent CD8 T cells increases progressively with age, and often consists of oligoclonal populations that are specific for cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens. In addition, there is evidence that senescent memory CD8 T cells acquire suppressive functions and may also contribute to carcinogenesis. Chronic HIV disease, even when controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART), is associated with accelerated immunosenescence, as evidenced by the higher numbers of senescent memory CD8 T cells and increased inflammatory milieu. Interestingly, even in HIV disease, a high proportion of late-differentiated, putatively senescent, memory CD8 T cells are specific for CMV antigens. As in age-related immunosenescence, these HIV-associated changes result in dysregulated immunity, chronic diseases linked to inflammatory damage, and increased morbidity and mortality. This review explores the evidence for CD8 T cell replicative senescence in vitro and in vivo, in the context of both chronological aging and HIV-mediated immunosenescence. We also highlight an important gap in our understanding of human immunosenescence, since all the studies to date have focused on peripheral blood, which contains a minority of the total body lymphocyte population.
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Low physical function as a risk factor for incident diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.
Future Virol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Data from 1790 HIV-infected and uninfected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) were analyzed to evaluate relationships between physical function, incident diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance among HIV-infected and -uninfected men. DM was defined in two ways, using less stringent and more stringent criteria. The 10-item Physical Functioning Scale from the Short Form-36 Health Survey measured baseline physical function. Cumulative DM incidence was highest among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected men with low physical function. Physical function was a risk factor for DM in HIV-uninfected men and remained so after controlling for BMI, DM family history and race. Among HIV-infected men, physical function was an independent risk factor for DM using the less stringent diabetes definition. This study supports our previous findings that low physical function is an important risk factor for DM in the MACS cohort.
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The dual impact of HIV-1 infection and aging on naïve CD4 T-cells: additive and distinct patterns of impairment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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HIV-1-infected adults over the age of 50 years progress to AIDS more rapidly than adults in their twenties or thirties. In addition, HIV-1-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) present with clinical diseases, such as various cancers and liver disease, more commonly seen in older uninfected adults. These observations suggest that HIV-1 infection in older persons can have detrimental immunological effects that are not completely reversed by ART. As naïve T-cells are critically important in responses to neoantigens, we first analyzed two subsets (CD45RA(+)CD31(+) and CD45RA(+)CD31(-)) within the naïve CD4(+) T-cell compartment in young (20-32 years old) and older (39-58 years old), ART-naïve, HIV-1 seropositive individuals within 1-3 years of infection and in age-matched seronegative controls. HIV-1 infection in the young cohort was associated with lower absolute numbers of, and shorter telomere lengths within, both CD45RA(+)CD31(+)CD4(+) and CD45RA(+)CD31(-)CD4(+) T-cell subsets in comparison to age-matched seronegative controls, changes that resembled seronegative individuals who were decades older. Longitudinal analysis provided evidence of thymic emigration and reconstitution of CD45RA(+)CD31(+)CD4(+) T-cells two years post-ART, but minimal reconstitution of the CD45RA(+)CD31(-)CD4(+) subset, which could impair de novo immune responses. For both ART-naïve and ART-treated HIV-1-infected adults, a renewable pool of thymic emigrants is necessary to maintain CD4(+) T-cell homeostasis. Overall, these results offer a partial explanation both for the faster disease progression of older adults and the observation that viral responders to ART present with clinical diseases associated with older adults.
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PKA-induced receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) expression in vascular cells mediates osteoclastogenesis but not matrix calcification.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Vascular calcification is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality and is prevalent in patients with atherosclerosis and chronic renal disease. It resembles skeletal osteogenesis, and many bone cells as well as bone-related factors involved in both formation and resorption have been localized in calcified arteries. Previously, we showed that aortic medial cells undergo osteoblastic differentiation and matrix calcification both spontaneously and in response to PKA agonists. The PKA signaling pathway is also involved in regulating bone resorption in skeletal tissue by stimulating osteoblast-production of osteoclast regulating cytokines, including receptor-activator of nuclear ?B ligand (RANKL) and interleukins. Therefore, we investigated whether PKA activators regulate osteoclastogenesis in aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC). Treatment of murine SMC with the PKA agonist forskolin stimulated RANKL expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Forskolin also stimulated expression of interleukin-6 but not osteoprotegerin (OPG), an inhibitor of RANKL. Consistent with these results, osteoclastic differentiation was induced when monocytic preosteoclasts (RAW264.7) were cocultured with forskolin-treated aortic SMC. Oxidized phospholipids also slightly induced RANKL expression in T lymphocytes, another potential source of RANKL in the vasculature. Because previous studies have shown that RANKL treatment alone induces matrix calcification of valvular and vascular cells, we next examined whether RANKL mediates forskolin-induced matrix calcification by aortic SMC. RANKL inhibition with OPG had little or no effect on osteoblastic differentiation and matrix calcification of aortic SMC. These findings suggest that, as in skeletal tissues, PKA activation induces bone resorptive factors in the vasculature and that aortic SMC calcification specifically induced by PKA, is not mediated by RANKL.
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Sustained CD28 expression delays multiple features of replicative senescence in human CD8 T lymphocytes.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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CD28 costimulatory signal transduction in T lymphocytes is essential for optimal telomerase activity, stabilization of cytokine mRNAs, and glucose metabolism. During aging and chronic infection with HIV-1, there are increased proportions of CD8 T lymphocytes that lack CD28 expression and show additional features of replicative senescence. Moreover, the abundance of these cells correlates with decreased vaccine responsiveness, early mortality in the very old, and accelerated HIV disease progression. Here, we show that sustained expression of CD28, via gene transduction, retards the process of replicative senescence, as evidenced by enhanced telomerase activity, increased overall proliferative potential, and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, the transduced cultures eventually do reach senescence, which is associated with increased CTLA-4 gene expression and a loss of CD28 cell surface expression. These findings further elucidate the central role of CD28 in the replicative senescence program, and may ultimately lead to novel therapies for diseases associated with replicative senescence.
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Bone density and hyperlipidemia: the T-lymphocyte connection.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Osteoporosis, which contributes to morbidity and mortality, often coexists with cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis. We have reported recently that in vitro exposure of human T-lymphocytes to oxidized lipids induced expression of a key osteoclastogenic cytokine, receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL). Our previous studies have shown that mice fed an atherogenic high-fat diet developed osteopenia and that bone marrow preosteoclasts from these hyperlipidemic mice have increased osteoclastic potential. To investigate the role of T-lymphocytes in the diet-induced bone loss, C57BL/6 mice were fed either chow or a high-fat diet, and bone parameters and T-lymphocyte activation were assessed at 6 and 11 months. Consistent with our previous findings, peripheral quantitative computed tomographic (pQCT) analysis showed that mice in the high-fat group had lower bone mineral content than mice in the chow group. Furthermore, histomorphometric analysis showed decreased structural parameters in the high-fat group. Coculture studies showed that bone marrow cells isolated from the high-fat group, which contained increased levels of activated memory T-lymphocytes compared with bone marrow cells from the chow mice, supported osteoclastic differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, RANKL expression was upregulated significantly in the T-lymphocytes isolated from the bone marrow of the high-fat group. Splenic T-lymphocytes isolated from the high-fat group also had increased expression of transcripts for the receptor for oxidized lipids (LOX-1) as well as for inflammatory and osteoclastogenic cytokines, including RANKL, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), IL-1?, and interferon ? (IFN-?). Together these findings suggest that T-lymphocytes play a key role in the osteoclastogenesis induced by a high-fat diet and may contribute to the bone loss associated with diet-induced osteopenia.
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Telomere/telomerase dynamics within the human immune system: effect of chronic infection and stress.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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Aging of the immune system is a major factor responsible for the increased severity of infections, reduced responses to vaccines, and higher cancer incidence in the elderly. A major category of stressors that contribute to the alterations within the T lymphocyte compartment is the family of herpes viruses. These viruses, usually acquired early in life, persist for many decades and drive certain T cells to the end stage of replicative senescence, which is characterized by a variety of phenotypic and functional changes, including altered cytokine profile, resistance to apoptosis, and shortened telomeres. Indeed, high proportions of senescent CD8 (cytotoxic) T lymphocytess are associated with latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the elderly, and are part of a cluster of immune biomarkers that are associated with early mortality. Similar cells accumulate at younger ages in persons chronically infected with HIV-1. In addition to persistent viral infection, psychological stress as well as oxidative stress can also contribute to the generation of senescent dysfunctional T lymphocytes. Strategies such as cell culture manipulation of replicative senescence, as well as lifestyle and stress reduction techniques are discussed in terms of possible approaches to enhance immune function in older persons. This review highlights the importance of using humans in studies on immunosenescence and telomere/telomerase dynamics, since model organisms employed in other facets of aging research are not subject to the particular factors that cause the striking age-related reconfiguration of the human immune system.
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Adenosine deaminase modulation of telomerase activity and replicative senescence in human CD8 T lymphocytes.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Increased proportions of CD8 T lymphocytes lacking expression of the CD28 costimulatory receptor have been documented during both aging and chronic infection with HIV-1, and their abundance correlates with numerous deleterious clinical outcomes. CD28-negative cells also arise in cell cultures of CD8(+)CD28(+) following multiple rounds of Ag-driven proliferation, reaching the end stage of replicative senescence. The present study investigates the role of a second T cell costimulatory receptor component, adenosine deaminase (ADA), on the process of replicative senescence. We had previously reported that CD28 signaling is required for optimal telomerase upregulation. In this study, we show that the CD8(+)CD28(+) T lymphocytes that are ADA(+) have significantly greater telomerase activity than those that do not express ADA and that ADA is progressively lost as cultures progress to senescence. Because ADA converts adenosine to inosine, cells lacking this enzyme might be subject to prolonged exposure to adenosine, which has immunosuppressive effects. Indeed, we show that chronic exposure of CD8 T lymphocytes to exogenous adenosine accelerates the process of replicative senescence, causing a reduction in overall proliferative potential, reduced telomerase activity, and blunted IL-2 gene transcription. The loss of CD28 expression was accelerated, in part due to adenosine-induced increases in constitutive caspase-3, known to act on the CD28 promoter. These findings provide the first evidence for a role of ADA in modulating the process of replicative senescence and suggest that strategies to enhance this enzyme may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for pathologies associated with increases in senescent CD8 T lymphocytes.
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Oxidized lipids enhance RANKL production by T lymphocytes: implications for lipid-induced bone loss.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Osteoporosis is a systemic disease that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Whereas osteoclasts and osteoblasts are the main regulators of bone homeostasis, recent studies underscore a key role for the immune system, particularly via activation-induced T lymphocyte production of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL). Well-documented as a mediator of T lymphocyte/dendritic cell interactions, RANKL also stimulates the maturation and activation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Given that lipid oxidation products mediate inflammatory and metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, and since oxidized lipids affect several T lymphocyte functions, we hypothesized that RANKL production might also be subject to modulation by oxidized lipids. Here, we show that short term exposure of both unstimulated and activated human T lymphocytes to minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), but not native LDL, significantly enhances RANKL production and promotes expression of the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). The effect, which is also observed with 8-iso-Prostaglandin E2, an inflammatory isoprostane produced by lipid peroxidation, is mediated via the NFkappaB pathway, and involves increased RANKL mRNA expression. The link between oxidized lipids and T lymphocytes is further reinforced by analysis of hyperlipidemic mice, in which bone loss is associated with increased RANKL mRNA in T lymphocytes and elevated RANKL serum levels. Our results suggest a novel pathway by which T lymphocytes contribute to bone changes, namely, via oxidized lipid enhancement of RANKL production. These findings may help elucidate clinical associations between cardiovascular disease and decreased bone mass, and may also lead to new immune-based approaches to osteoporosis.
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Immunosenescence: what does it mean to health outcomes in older adults?
Curr. Opin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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The most profound consequences of immune senescence with respect to human health are the increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and decreased vaccine efficacy. Changes in both innate and adaptive immune function converge in the reduced response to vaccination and protection against infection and related diseases. The decline in thymic output of naïve T cells diminishes responses to novel antigens, such as West Nile Virus, while clonal expansions leading to defects in the T cell repertoire are associated with blunted responses of memory T cells to conserved epitopes of the influenza virus. Recent studies on how immunologic mechanisms of protection change during aging have led to novel strategies for improving vaccine responsiveness and outcomes of infectious diseases in older adults.
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Modulation of T lymphocyte replicative senescence via TNF-{alpha} inhibition: role of caspase-3.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2009
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Expanded populations of CD8(+) T lymphocytes lacking CD28 expression are associated with a variety of deleterious clinical outcomes, including early mortality in the elderly, more rapid progression to AIDS, cardiovascular disease, and enhanced tumor cell growth. In cell culture, irreversible loss of CD28 expression correlates with increased production of TNF-alpha as CD8(+) T cells are driven to the nonproliferative end stage of replicative senescence by multiple rounds of Ag-driven cell division. Interestingly, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, inhibition or neutralization of TNF-alpha reduces the proportion of T cells lacking CD28 in the disease joints, consistent with studies showing a direct involvement of this cytokine in CD28 gene transcription. Here, we show that modulation of TNF-alpha levels in long-term cultures of human CD8(+) T lymphocytes, by chronic exposure either to a neutralizing Ab or to an inhibitor of the TNF-alpha receptor-1, increases proliferative potential, delays loss of CD28 expression, retards cytokine profile changes, and enhances telomerase activity. We also show that constitutive caspase-3, one of the downstream effectors of TNF-alphaR1 binding, increases in parallel with the loss of CD28 in long-term cultures, but this effect is blunted in the presence of the TNF-alpha inhibitors. Consistent with the in vitro culture data, CD8(+)CD28(-) T lymphocytes tested immediately ex vivo also show significantly higher levels of caspase-3 compared with their CD28(+) counterparts. These findings help elucidate the complex nature of CD28 gene regulation, and may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches for diseases associated with increased proportions of CD28(-) T lymphocytes.
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Kleemeier Award Lecture 2008--the canary in the coal mine: telomeres and human healthspan.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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Telomeres, the repeated series of DNA sequences that cap the ends of linear chromosomes, become shorter during cell division and oxidative stress. Shortened telomeres have been documented in a wide variety of pathologies associated with aging and are also predictive of early mortality in the very old. However, telomere shortening--like the canary in the coal mine--is not the cause of the deleterious effects, but rather, the harbinger of increased health risk. Using immune responses to infection as a model system to further analyze the link between telomeres and age-related disease, we have demonstrated that the end-stage T cell with shortened telomeres is reduced in antiviral immune function and secretes large amounts of so-called proinflammatory factors. Our research has documented that maintaining high levels of the telomere-extending enzyme, telomerase, by either genetic manipulation or exposure of T cells to chemical telomerase activators, not only retards telomere loss but also restores a more youthful functional profile to the T cells. These observations suggest possible novel telomerase-based therapeutic approaches to enhancing healthspan in the elderly population.
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Vaccination in the elderly: an immunological perspective.
Trends Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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Successful vaccination of the elderly against important infectious pathogens that cause high morbidity and mortality represents a growing public health priority. Building on the theme of aging and immunosenescence, we review mechanisms of human immunosenescence and the immune response to currently licensed vaccines. We discuss the difficulties in identifying the risk factors that, in addition to aging, cause immunosenescence and address the relative paucity of vaccine studies in the elderly. We conclude that vaccine responses are blunted in the elderly compared with that of healthy young adults. However, it is also clear that our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immunosenescence is limited and much remains to be learned to improve the effectiveness of next generation vaccines.
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Premature aging of T cells is associated with faster HIV-1 disease progression.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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To determine if untreated HIV-1 infection and progression is associated with premature aging of memory CD8 and CD4 T cells and naive CD4 T cells.
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HIV and aging: state of knowledge and areas of critical need for research. A report to the NIH Office of AIDS Research by the HIV and Aging Working Group.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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HIV risk behaviors, susceptibility to HIV acquisition, progression of disease after infection, and response to antiretroviral therapy all vary by age. In those living with HIV, current effective treatment has increased the median life expectancy to >70 years of age. Biologic, medical, individual, social, and societal issues change as one ages with HIV infection, but there has been only a small amount of research in this field. Therefore, the Office of AIDS Research of the National Institutes of Health commissioned a working group to develop an outline of the current state of knowledge and areas of critical need for research in HIV and Aging; the working groups findings and recommendations are summarized in this report. Key overarching themes identified by the group included the following: multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and the need to emphasize maintenance of function; the complexity of assessing HIV versus treatment effects versus aging versus concurrent disease; the inter-related mechanisms of immune senescence, inflammation, and hypercoagulability; the utility of multivariable indices for predicting outcomes; a need to emphasize human studies to account for complexity; and a required focus on issues of community support, caregivers, and systems infrastructure. Critical resources are needed to enact this research agenda and include expanded review panel expertise in aging, functional measures, and multimorbidity, and facilitated use and continued funding to allow long-term follow-up of cohorts aging with HIV.
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Regionally-specific microglial activation in young mice over-expressing human wildtype alpha-synuclein.
Exp. Neurol.
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Parkinsons disease (PD) is characterized by widespread alpha-synuclein pathology and neuronal loss, primarily of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Inflammation has been implicated in PD, and alpha-synuclein can initiate microglial activation; however, the kinetics and distribution of inflammatory responses to alpha-synuclein overexpression in vivo are not well understood. We have examined the regional and temporal pattern of microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mice over-expressing wild-type human alpha-synuclein driven by the Thy1-promoter (Thy1-aSyn mice). An increased number of activated microglia, and increased levels of TNF-? mRNA and protein were first detected in the striatum (1 month of age) and later in the substantia nigra (5-6 months), but not the cerebral cortex or cerebellum; in contrast, IL-1? and TGF-? remained unchanged in the striatum and substantia nigra at all ages examined. Microglial activation persisted up to 14 months of age in these regions and only minimal increases were observed in other regions at this later age. Increased concentrations of serum TNF-? were observed at 5-6 months, but not at 1 month of age. The expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, TLR 4 and TLR 8, which are possible mediators of microglial activation, was increased at 5-6 months in the substantia nigra but not in the cerebral cortex, and TLR 2 was increased in the substantia nigra at 14 months of age. With the exception of a slight increase in the striatum of 14 month old Thy1-aSyn mice, MHCII staining was not detected in the regions and ages examined. Similarly, peripheral CD4 and CD8-postive T cells were increased in the blood but only at 22 months of age, suggesting later involvement of the adaptive immune response. These data indicate that, despite the presence of high levels of alpha-synuclein in other brain regions, alpha-synuclein overexpression caused a selective early inflammatory response in regions containing the axon terminals and cell bodies of the nigrostriatal pathway. Our results suggest that specific factors, possibly involving a regionally and temporally selective increase in TLRs, mediate alpha-synuclein-induced inflammatory responses in the SN, and may play a role in the selective vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in PD.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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