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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prognosis and Conditional Disease-Free Survival Among Patients With Ovarian Cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Traditional disease-free survival (DFS) does not reflect changes in prognosis over time. Conditional DFS accounts for elapsed time since achieving remission and may provide more relevant prognostic information for patients and clinicians. This study aimed to estimate conditional DFS among patients with ovarian cancer and to evaluate the impact of patient characteristics.
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Resonances in Coupled ?K-?K Scattering from Quantum Chromodynamics.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Using a first-principles calculation within quantum chromodynamics, we are able to determine a pattern of strangeness=1 resonances that appear as complex singularities within coupled ?K-?K scattering amplitudes. We make use of numerical computation in the lattice discretized approach to the quantum field theory with light quark masses corresponding to m_{?}?400??MeV and at a single lattice spacing. The energy dependence of scattering amplitudes is extracted through their relationship to the discrete spectrum in a finite volume, which we map out in unprecedented detail.
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Loss of mitochondrial fission depletes axonal mitochondria in midbrain dopamine neurons.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to the selective degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the normal functions of mitochondrial dynamics in these neurons, especially in axons where degeneration begins, and this makes it difficult to understand the disease process. To study one aspect of mitochondrial dynamics-mitochondrial fission-in mouse DA neurons, we deleted the central fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Drp1 loss rapidly eliminates the DA terminals in the caudate-putamen and causes cell bodies in the midbrain to degenerate and lose ?-synuclein. Without Drp1, mitochondrial mass dramatically decreases, especially in axons, where the mitochondrial movement becomes uncoordinated. However, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subset of midbrain DA neurons characterized by small hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) is spared, despite near complete loss of their axonal mitochondria. Drp1 is thus critical for targeting mitochondria to the nerve terminal, and a disruption in mitochondrial fission can contribute to the preferential death of nigrostriatal DA neurons.
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Complement Pathway is Frequently Altered in Endometriosis and Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Purpose. Mechanisms of immune dysregulation associated with advanced tumors are relatively well understood. Much less is known about the role of immune effectors against cancer precursor lesions. Endometrioid and clear cell ovarian tumors partly derive from endometriosis, a commonly diagnosed chronic inflammatory disease. We performed here a comprehensive immune gene expression analysis of pelvic inflammation in endometriosis and endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC). Experimental design: RNA was extracted from 120 paraffin tissue blocks comprising of normal endometrium (n=32), benign endometriosis (n=30), atypical endometriosis (n=15) and EAOC (n=43). Serous tumors (n=15) were included as non-endometriosis associated controls. The immune microenvironment was profiled using Nanostring and the nCounter® GX Human Immunology Kit, comprising probes for a total of 511 immune genes. Results: One third of the endometriosis patients revealed a tumor-like inflammation profile, suggesting that cancer -like immune signatures may develop earlier, in patients classified as clinically benign. Gene expression analyses revealed the complement pathway as most prominently involved in both endometriosis and EAOC. Complement proteins are abundantly present in epithelial cells in both benign and malignant lesions. Mechanistic studies in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells from mice with conditional (Cre-loxP) mutations show intrinsic production of complement in epithelia and demonstrate an early link between Kras- and Pten-driven pathways and complement upregulation. Downregulation of complement in these cells interferes with cell proliferation. Conclusions: These findings reveal new characteristics of inflammation in precursor lesions and point to previously unknown roles of complement in endometriosis and EAOC.
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Catumaxomab for the Treatment of Malignant Ascites in Patients With Chemotherapy-Refractory Ovarian Cancer: A Phase II Study.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal catumaxomab in heavily pretreated patients with chemotherapy-refractory ovarian cancer and recurrent symptomatic malignant ascites.
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Efficient, complete deletion of synaptic proteins using CRISPR.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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One of the most powerful ways to test the function of a protein is to characterize the consequences of its deletion. In the past, this has involved inactivation of the gene by homologous recombination either in the germline or later through conditional deletion. RNA interference (RNAi) provides an alternative way to knock down proteins, but both of these approaches have their limitations. Recently, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has suggested another way to selectively inactivate genes. We have now tested this system in postmitotic neurons by targeting two well-characterized synaptic proteins, the obligatory GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor and the GluA2 subunit of the AMPA receptor. Expression of CRISPR/Cas9 in hippocampal slice cultures completely eliminated NMDA receptor and GluA2 function. CRISPR/Cas9 thus provides a powerful tool to study the function of synaptic proteins.
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Neoadjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy followed by extrafascial hysterectomy for locally advanced endometrial cancer clinically extending to the cervix or parametria.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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For locally-advanced uterine cancer clinically extending to the cervix, two treatment paradigms exist: surgical staging radical hysterectomy with tailored adjuvant therapy or neoadjuvant therapy followed by a less extensive simple hysterectomy. Currently, insufficient data exists to guide consensus guidelines and practical application of preoperative radiotherapy.
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Image-based three-dimensional conformal brachytherapy for medically inoperable endometrial carcinoma.
Brachytherapy
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Definitive radiotherapy is a viable option for medically inoperable patients with early stage endometrial cancer. We present our experience using image-based brachytherapy (BT).
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Effects of L-theanine on posttraumatic stress disorder induced changes in rat brain gene expression.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by the occurrence of a traumatic event that is beyond the normal range of human experience. The future of PTSD treatment may specifically target the molecular mechanisms of PTSD. In the US, approximately 20% of adults report taking herbal products to treat medical illnesses. L-theanine is the amino acid in green tea primarily responsible for relaxation effects. No studies have evaluated the potential therapeutic properties of herbal medications on gene expression in PTSD. We evaluated gene expression in PTSD-induced changes in the amygdala and hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were assigned to PTSD-stressed and nonstressed groups that received either saline, midazolam, L-theanine, or L-theanine + midazolam. Amygdala and hippocampus tissue samples were analyzed for changes in gene expression. One-way ANOVA was used to detect significant difference between groups in the amygdala and hippocampus. Of 88 genes examined, 17 had a large effect size greater than 0.138. Of these, 3 genes in the hippocampus and 5 genes in the amygdala were considered significant (P < 0.05) between the groups. RT-PCR analysis revealed significant changes between groups in several genes implicated in a variety of disorders ranging from PTSD, anxiety, mood disorders, and substance dependence.
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The role of adipose-derived stem cells in endometrial cancer proliferation.
Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. Suppl.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Obesity has been identified as a key risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer (EC), the most common gynecologic malignancy in the US. We hypothesized that adipose tissue from EC patients secretes higher levels of cancer-promoting factors than healthy adipose tissue and promotes tumor cell growth.
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Novel combination of mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1) and platinum agents produces synergistic pro-apoptotic effect in drug resistant tumor cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Overcoming platinum drug resistance represents a major clinical challenge in cancer treatment. We discovered a novel drug combination using cisplatin and a class of thioquinazolinone derivatives including mdivi-1 (mitochondrial division inhibitor-1), that induces synergistic apoptosis in platinum resistant tumor cells, including those from cisplatin-refractory endstage ovarian cancer patients. However, through study of the combination effect on Drp1 (the reported target of mdivi-1) knockout MEF cells and the functional analysis of mdivi-1 analogs, we revealed that the synergism between mdivi-1 and cisplatin is Drp1-independent. Mdivi-1 impairs DNA replication and its combination with cisplatin induces a synergistic increase of replication stress and DNA damage, causing a preferential upregulation of a BH3-only protein Noxa. Mdivi-1 also represses mitochondrial respiration independent of Drp1, and the combination of mdivi-1 and cisplatin triggers substantial mitochondrial uncoupling and swelling. Upregulation of Noxa and simultaneous mitochondrial swelling causes synergistic induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), proceeding robust mitochondrial apoptotic signaling independent of Bax/Bak. Thus, the novel mode of MOMP induction by the combination through the "dual-targeting" potential of mdivi-1 on DNA replication and mitochondrial respiration suggests a novel class of compounds for platinum-based combination option in the treatment of platinum as well as multidrug resistant tumors.
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Effect of canagliflozin on serum electrolytes in patients with type 2 diabetes in relation to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on serum electrolytes were evaluated using pooled data from studies of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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Validation of a Brief Opioid Compliance Checklist for Patients With Chronic Pain.
J Pain
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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There has been a need for a brief assessment tool to determine compliance with use of prescribed opioids for pain. The purpose of this study was to develop and begin the validation of a brief and simple compliance checklist (Opioid Compliance Checklist [OCC]) for chronic pain patients prescribed long-term opioid therapy. A review of the literature of opioid therapy agreements led to a 12-item OCC that was repeatedly administered to 157 patients who were taking opioids for chronic pain and followed for 6 months. Validation of the OCC was conducted by identifying those patients exhibiting aberrant drug-related behavior as determined by any of the following: positive urine toxicology screen, a positive score on the Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire interview or Current Opioid Misuse Measure, and/or ratings by staff on the Addiction Behavior Checklist. Of the original 12 items, 5 OCC items appeared to best predict subsequent aberrant behaviors based on multivariate logistic regression analyses (cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = .67). Although further testing is needed, these results suggest that the OCC is an easy-to-use, promising measure in monitoring opioid adherence among persons with chronic pain.
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Extended Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Boost for Lymph Node-Positive Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Regional Control and Recurrence Patterns in the Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Era.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for nodal staging in locally advanced cervical cancer; however the false negative rate for para-aortic disease are 20% to 25% in PET-positive pelvic nodal disease. Unless surgically staged, pelvis-only treatment may undertreat para-aortic disease. We have treated patients with PET-positive nodes with extended field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to address the para-aortic region prophylactically with concomitant boost to involved nodes. The purpose of this study was to assess regional control rates and recurrence patterns.
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Definitive salvage for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer: The impact of modern intensity-modulated-radiotherapy with image-based HDR brachytherapy and the interplay of the PORTEC 1 risk stratification.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Data for salvage radiotherapy for recurrent endometrial cancer are limited especially in the era of modern radiotherapy including IMRT and 3-dimensional image-based HDR brachytherapy. Theoretically, modern radiotherapy reduces the dose to critical organs-at-risk and maximizes dose to the target volume, possibly decreasing morbidity and increasing tumor control.
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A population of glomerular glutamatergic neurons controls sensory information transfer in the mouse olfactory bulb.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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In sensory systems, peripheral organs convey sensory inputs to relay networks where information is shaped by local microcircuits before being transmitted to cortical areas. In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity that are transmitted to output neurons in olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. How sensory information is transferred and shaped at this level remains still unclear. Here we employ mouse genetics, 2-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, to identify a novel population of glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT3+) in the glomerular layer of the adult mouse OB as well as several of their synaptic targets. Both peripheral and serotoninergic inputs control VGLUT3+ neurons firing. Furthermore, we show that VGLUT3+ neuron photostimulation in vivo strongly suppresses both spontaneous and odour-evoked firing of bulbar output neurons. In conclusion, we identify and characterize here a microcircuit controlling the transfer of sensory information at an early stage of the olfactory pathway.
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Hormone receptor expression patterns in the endometrium of asymptomatic morbidly obese women before and after bariatric surgery.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Obesity increases risk for endometrial neoplasia, but neither the pathophysiology nor the effects of weight loss on the risk are well established. We attempted to characterize the molecular profile of the endometrium of asymptomatic women with morbid obesity before and following bariatric surgery-induced weight loss.
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Plant synthetic biology: a new platform for industrial biotechnology.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Thirty years after the production of the first generation of genetically modified plants we are now set to move into a new era of recombinant crop technology through the application of synthetic biology to engineer new and complex input and output traits. The use of synthetic biology technologies will represent more than incremental additions of transgenes, but rather the directed design of completely new metabolic pathways, physiological traits, and developmental control strategies. The need to enhance our ability to improve crops through new engineering capability is now increasingly pressing as we turn to plants not just for food, but as a source of renewable feedstocks for industry. These accelerating and diversifying demands for new output traits coincide with a need to reduce inputs and improve agricultural sustainability. Faced with such challenges, existing technologies will need to be supplemented with new and far-more-directed approaches to turn valuable resources more efficiently into usable agricultural products. While these objectives are challenging enough, the use of synthetic biology in crop improvement will face public acceptance issues as a legacy of genetically modified technologies in many countries. Here we review some of the potential benefits of adopting synthetic biology approaches in improving plant input and output traits for their use as industrial chemical feedstocks, as linked to the rapidly developing biorefining industry. Several promising technologies and biotechnological targets are identified along with some of the key regulatory and societal challenges in the safe and acceptable introduction of such technology.
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Nursing research in the Gynecologic Oncology Group.
Semin Oncol Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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To review nursing science history within the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG); to discuss challenges of nursing science in the cooperative group (CG) using a current nurse-led protocol (GOG-0259) as an exemplar; and to propose recommendations to advance nursing science in the CG setting.
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Oxaliplatin salvage for recurrent ovarian cancer: a single institution's experience in patient populations with platinum resistant disease or a history of platinum hypersensitivity.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Hypersensitivity reactions can preclude platinum re-challenge for patients receiving second-line and higher carboplatin/cisplatin salvage therapy. The objective is to report our patient experience with oxaliplatin in recurrent or progressive epithelial ovarian (EOC), primary peritoneal (PPC) or fallopian tube cancer (FTC), including those with prior hypersensitivity reaction.
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Consortium analysis of gene and gene-folate interactions in purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathways with ovarian carcinoma risk.
Linda E Kelemen, Kathryn L Terry, Marc T Goodman, Penelope M Webb, Elisa V Bandera, Valerie McGuire, Mary Anne Rossing, Qinggang Wang, Ed Dicks, Jonathan P Tyrer, Honglin Song, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Joanna Plisiecka-Halasa, Agnieszka Timorek, Usha Menon, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Simon A Gayther, Susan J Ramus, Steven A Narod, Harvey A Risch, John R McLaughlin, Nadeem Siddiqui, Rosalind Glasspool, James Paul, Karen Carty, Jacek Gronwald, Jan Lubiński, Anna Jakubowska, Cezary Cybulski, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Leon F A G Massuger, Anne M Van Altena, Katja K H Aben, Sara H Olson, Irene Orlow, Daniel W Cramer, Douglas A Levine, Maria Bisogna, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey, Fiona Bruinsma, Susanne K Kjaer, Estrid Høgdall, Allan Jensen, Claus K Høgdall, Lene Lundvall, Svend-Aage Engelholm, Florian Heitz, Andreas du Bois, Philipp Harter, Ira Schwaab, Ralf Bützow, Heli Nevanlinna, Liisa M Pelttari, Arto Leminen, Pamela J Thompson, Galina Lurie, Lynne R Wilkens, Diether Lambrechts, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Sandrina Lambrechts, Ignace Vergote, Jonathan Beesley, , Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Alexander Hein, Arif B Ekici, Jennifer A Doherty, Anna H Wu, Celeste L Pearce, Malcolm C Pike, Daniel Stram, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Thilo Dörk, Matthias Dürst, Peter Hillemanns, Ingo B Runnebaum, Natalia Bogdanova, Natalia Antonenkova, Kunle Odunsi, Robert P Edwards, Joseph L Kelley, Francesmary Modugno, Roberta B Ness, Beth Y Karlan, Christine Walsh, Jenny Lester, Sandra Orsulic, Brooke L Fridley, Robert A Vierkant, Julie M Cunningham, Xifeng Wu, Karen Lu, Dong Liang, Michelle A T Hildebrandt, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Edwin S Iversen, Shelley S Tworoger, Elizabeth M Poole, Helga B Salvesen, Camilla Krakstad, Line Bjorge, Ingvild L Tangen, Tanja Pejovic, Yukie Bean, Melissa Kellar, Nicolas Wentzensen, Louise A Brinton, Jolanta Lissowska, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Ian G Campbell, Diana Eccles, Alice S Whittemore, Weiva Sieh, Joseph H Rothstein, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Catherine M Phelan, Kirsten B Moysich, Ellen L Goode, Joellen M Schildkraut, Andrew Berchuck, Paul D P Pharoah, Thomas A Sellers, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Linda S Cook, Nhu D Le.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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We reevaluated previously reported associations between variants in pathways of one-carbon (1-C) (folate) transfer genes and ovarian carcinoma (OC) risk, and in related pathways of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and assessed interactions with folate intake.
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Clinical insights from metagenomic analysis of sputum samples from patients with cystic fibrosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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As DNA sequencing becomes faster and cheaper, genomics-based approaches are being explored for their use in personalized diagnoses and treatments. Here, we provide a proof of principle for disease monitoring using personal metagenomic sequencing and traditional clinical microbiology by focusing on three adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF lung is a dynamic environment that hosts a complex ecosystem composed of bacteria, viruses, and fungi that can vary in space and time. Not surprisingly, the microbiome data from the induced sputum samples we collected revealed a significant amount of species diversity not seen in routine clinical laboratory cultures. The relative abundances of several species changed as clinical treatment was altered, enabling the identification of the climax and attack communities that were proposed in an earlier work. All patient microbiomes encoded a diversity of mechanisms to resist antibiotics, consistent with the characteristics of multidrug-resistant microbial communities that are commonly observed in CF patients. The metabolic potentials of these communities differed by the health status and recovery route of each patient. Thus, this pilot study provides an example of how metagenomic data might be used with clinical assessments for the development of treatments tailored to individual patients.
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An exploratory investigation of links between changes in adipokines and quality of life in individuals undergoing weight loss interventions: possible implications for cancer research.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Obesity has been linked to a wide spectrum of malignancies, with the strongest association demonstrated for endometrial cancer. Although the mechanisms are not yet entirely clear, a number of risk biomarkers have been proposed, including altered adipokines. Systemic levels of these adipose derived molecules have also been linked in prior research to self-reported quality of life (QOL). The study objective was to examine the hypothesis that adipokine changes during intentional weight loss may be associated with changes in QOL.
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Well-loved music robustly relieves pain: a randomized, controlled trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Music has pain-relieving effects, but its mechanisms remain unclear. We sought to verify previously studied analgesic components and further elucidate the underpinnings of music analgesia. Using a well-characterized conditioning-enhanced placebo model, we examined whether boosting expectations would enhance or interfere with analgesia from strongly preferred music. A two-session experiment was performed with 48 healthy, pain experiment-naïve participants. In a first cohort, 36 were randomized into 3 treatment groups, including music enhanced with positive expectancy, non-musical sound enhanced with positive expectancy, and no expectancy enhancement. A separate replication cohort of 12 participants received only expectancy-enhanced music following the main experiment to verify the results of expectancy-manipulation on music. Primary outcome measures included the change in subjective pain ratings to calibrated experimental noxious heat stimuli, as well as changes in treatment expectations. Without conditioning, expectations were strongly in favor of music compared to non-musical sound. While measured expectations were enhanced by conditioning, this failed to affect either music or sound analgesia significantly. Strongly preferred music on its own was as pain relieving as conditioning-enhanced strongly preferred music, and more analgesic than enhanced sound. Our results demonstrate the pain-relieving power of personal music even over enhanced expectations.
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MUC1 positive, Kras and Pten driven mouse gynecologic tumors replicate human tumors and vary in survival and nuclear grade based on anatomical location.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Activating mutations of Kras oncogene and deletions of Pten tumor suppressor gene play important roles in cancers of the female genital tract. We developed here new preclinical models for gynecologic cancers, using conditional (Cre-loxP) mice with floxed genetic alterations in Kras and Pten. The triple transgenic mice, briefly called MUC1KrasPten, express human MUC1 antigen as self and carry a silent oncogenic KrasG12D and Pten deletion mutation. Injection of Cre-encoding adenovirus (AdCre) in the ovarian bursa, oviduct or uterus activates the floxed mutations and initiates ovarian, oviductal, and endometrial cancer, respectively. Anatomical site-specific Cre-loxP recombination throughout the genital tract of MUC1KrasPten mice leads to MUC1 positive genital tract tumors, and the development of these tumors is influenced by the anatomical environment. Endometrioid histology was consistently displayed in all tumors of the murine genital tract (ovaries, oviducts, and uterus). Tumors showed increased expression of MUC1 glycoprotein and triggered de novo antibodies in tumor bearing hosts, mimicking the immunobiology seen in patients. In contrast to the ovarian and endometrial tumors, oviductal tumors showed higher nuclear grade. Survival for oviduct tumors was significantly lower than for endometrial tumors (p?=?0.0015), yet similar to survival for ovarian cancer. Oviducts seem to favor the development of high grade tumors, providing preclinical evidence in support of the postulated role of fallopian tubes as the originating site for high grade human ovarian tumors.
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Placental site trophoblastic tumor: Immunohistochemistry algorithm key to diagnosis and review of literature.
Gynecol Oncol Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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•Histologic morphology is frequently equivocal for PSTTs.•Histology combined with immunohistochemical staining was necessary to make the diagnosis.•PSTT confined to the uterus was successfully treated with surgery alone.
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Risk of Ovarian Cancer and the NF-?B Pathway: Genetic association with IL1A and TNFSF10.
Bridget Charbonneau, Matthew S Block, William R Bamlet, Robert A Vierkant, Kimberly R Kalli, Zachary Fogarty, David N Rider, Thomas A Sellers, Shelley S Tworoger, Elizabeth Poole, Harvey A Risch, Helga B Salvesen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Laura Baglietto, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Britton Trabert, Nicolas Wentzensen, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, , Alice S Whittemore, Weiva Sieh, Jenny Chang-Claude, Elisa V Bandera, Irene Orlow, Kathryn Terry, Marc T Goodman, Pamela J Thompson, Linda S Cook, Mary Anne Rossing, Roberta B Ness, Steven A Narod, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Karen Lu, Ralf Bützow, Thilo Dörk, Tanja Pejovic, Ian Campbell, Nhu D Le, Clareann H Bunker, Natalia Bogdanova, Ingo B Runnebaum, Diana Eccles, James Paul, Anna H Wu, Simon A Gayther, Estrid Hogdall, Florian Heitz, Stanley B Kaye, Beth Y Karlan, Hoda Anton-Culver, Jacek Gronwald, Claus K Hogdall, Diether Lambrechts, Peter A Fasching, Usha Menon, Joellen Schildkraut, Celeste Leigh Pearce, Douglas A Levine, Susanne Krüger Kjaer, Daniel Cramer, James M Flanagan, Catherine M Phelan, Robert Brown, Leon F A G Massuger, Honglin Song, Jennifer A Doherty, Camilla Krakstad, Dong Liang, Kunle Odunsi, Andrew Berchuck, Allan Jensen, Jan Lubiński, Heli Nevanlinna, Yukie T Bean, Galina Lurie, Argyrios Ziogas, Christine Walsh, Evelyn Despierre, Louise Brinton, Alexander Hein, Anja Rudolph, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Sara H Olson, Philipp Harter, Jonathan Tyrer, Allison F Vitonis, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Katja K Aben, Malcolm C Pike, Susan J Ramus, Elisabeth Wik, Cezary Cybulski, Jie Lin, Lara Sucheston, Robert Edwards, Valerie McGuire, Jenny Lester, Andreas du Bois, Lene Lundvall, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Lukasz M Szafron, Sandrina Lambrechts, Hannah Yang, Matthias W Beckmann, Liisa M Pelttari, Anne M Van Altena, David Van Den Berg, Mari K Halle, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Ira Schwaab, Urmila Chandran, Janusz Menkiszak, Arif B Ekici, Lynne R Wilkens, Arto Leminen, Francesmary Modugno, Grace Friel, Joseph H Rothstein, Ignace Vergote, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Michelle A T Hildebrandt, Piotr Sobiczewski, Linda E Kelemen, Paul D P Pharoah, Kirsten Moysich, Keith L Knutson, Julie M Cunningham, Brooke L Fridley, Ellen L Goode.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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A missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the immune modulatory gene IL1A has been associated with ovarian cancer risk (rs17561), but the functional implications of this polymorphism are undefined. IL-1? is regulated by and activated by NF-?B, a transcription factor family that induces transcription of IL1A along with other pro-inflammatory genes and is an important modifier in carcinogenesis. We therefore tagged SNPs in over 200 genes in the NF-?B pathway for a total of 2,282 SNPs (including rs17561) for genotype analysis of 15,604 cases of ovarian cancer in patients of European descent, including 6,179 of high grade serous (HGS), 2,100 endometrioid, 1,591 mucinous, 1,034 clear cell and 1,016 low grade serous (LGS), including 23,235 control cases spanning 40 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). In this large population, we confirmed the association between rs17561 and clear cell ovarian cancer (OR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.76-0.93; p=0.00075), which remained intact even after excluding participants in the prior study (OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95; p=0.006). Considering a multiple-testing-corrected significance threshold of p< 2.5x10-5, only one other variant, the TNFSF10 SNP rs6785617, was associated significantly with a risk of ovarian cancer (low malignant potential (LMP) tumors OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.79-0.91; p=0.00002). Our results extend the evidence that borderline tumors may have a distinct genetic etiology. Further investigation of how these SNPs might modify ovarian cancer associations with other inflammation related risk factors is warranted.
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Long-term efficacy and safety of canagliflozin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with diet and exercise: findings from the 52-week CANTATA-M study.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Abstract Objective: Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The long-term efficacy and safety of canagliflozin monotherapy were evaluated over 52 weeks in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with diet and exercise. Research design and methods: This randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 study included a placebo-controlled, 26-week core period (canagliflozin 100 or 300?mg vs placebo) and an active-controlled, 26-week extension (blinded switch of placebo-treated patients to sitagliptin 100?mg [placebo/sitagliptin]). Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01081834. Main outcome measures: Efficacy endpoints assessed at 52 weeks included changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and systolic blood pressure (BP); and percentage changes in body weight and fasting plasma lipids. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. Efficacy data are reported for canagliflozin 100 and 300?mg (placebo/sitagliptin group was used to maintain the double-blind and to serve as a control group for safety purposes; not as an efficacy comparator); safety data are reported for canagliflozin 100 and 300?mg and placebo/sitagliptin. Results: Efficacy analyses included 451 patients who were randomized and dosed, entered the extension, and did not receive rescue therapy during the core period. Safety analyses included 584 patients who were randomized and dosed. At Week 52, canagliflozin 100 and 300?mg provided dose-related decreases from baseline in HbA1c of -0.81% and -1.11%. Canagliflozin 100 and 300?mg decreased FPG (-1.5 and -2.2?mmol/L [-27.4 and -39.1?mg/dL]), body weight (-3.3% and -4.4%), and systolic BP (-1.4 and -3.9?mmHg); decreased triglycerides and increased HDL-C and LDL-C were also seen. Over 52 weeks, overall AE rates were 67.2%, 66.0%, and 64.1% with canagliflozin 100 and 300?mg and placebo/sitagliptin; rates of serious AEs and AE-related discontinuations were low across groups. Compared with placebo/sitagliptin, canagliflozin was associated with higher rates of genital mycotic infections and AEs related to osmotic diuresis; these led to few discontinuations. Rates of volume depletion AEs and documented hypoglycemia were low across groups. Conclusions: Canagliflozin monotherapy provided sustained improvement in glycemic control and body weight reduction, and was generally well tolerated in patients with T2DM over 52 weeks.
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The function of ?-synuclein.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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Human genetics has indicated a causal role for the protein ?-synuclein in the pathogenesis of familial Parkinsons disease (PD), and the aggregation of synuclein in essentially all patients with PD suggests a central role for this protein in the sporadic disorder. Indeed, the accumulation of misfolded ?-synuclein now defines multiple forms of neural degeneration. Like many of the proteins that accumulate in other neurodegenerative disorders, however, the normal function of synuclein remains poorly understood. In this article, we review the role of synuclein at the nerve terminal and in membrane remodeling. We also consider the prion-like propagation of misfolded synuclein as a mechanism for the spread of degeneration through the neuraxis.
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Individual Variation in Sleep Quality and Duration Is Related to Cerebral Mu Opioid Receptor Binding Potential during Tonic Laboratory Pain in Healthy Subjects.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Although poor sleep is a consequence of pain, sleep disturbance reciprocally induces hyperalgesia and exacerbates clinical pain. Conceptual models of chronic pain implicate dysfunctional supraspinal pain processing mechanisms, mediated in part by endogenous opioid peptides. Our preliminary work indicates that sleep disruption impairs psychophysical measures of descending pain modulation, but few studies have investigated whether insufficient sleep may be associated with alterations in endogenous opioid systems. This preliminary, exploratory investigation sought to examine the relationship between sleep and functioning of the cerebral mu opioid system during the experience of pain in healthy participants.
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Widespread dysregulation of peptide hormone release in mice lacking adaptor protein AP-3.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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The regulated secretion of peptide hormones, neural peptides and many growth factors depends on their sorting into large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) capable of regulated exocytosis. LDCVs form at the trans-Golgi network, but the mechanisms that sort proteins to this regulated secretory pathway and the cytosolic machinery that produces LDCVs remain poorly understood. Recently, we used an RNAi screen to identify a role for heterotetrameric adaptor protein AP-3 in regulated secretion and in particular, LDCV formation. Indeed, mocha mice lacking AP-3 have a severe neurological and behavioral phenotype, but this has been attributed to a role for AP-3 in the endolysosomal rather than biosynthetic pathway. We therefore used mocha mice to determine whether loss of AP-3 also dysregulates peptide release in vivo. We find that adrenal chromaffin cells from mocha animals show increased constitutive exocytosis of both soluble cargo and LDCV membrane proteins, reducing the response to stimulation. We also observe increased basal release of both insulin and glucagon from pancreatic islet cells of mocha mice, suggesting a global disturbance in the release of peptide hormones. AP-3 exists as both ubiquitous and neuronal isoforms, but the analysis of mice lacking each of these isoforms individually and together shows that loss of both is required to reproduce the effect of the mocha mutation on the regulated pathway. In addition, we show that loss of the related adaptor protein AP-1 has a similar effect on regulated secretion but exacerbates the effect of AP-3 RNAi, suggesting distinct roles for the two adaptors in the regulated secretory pathway.
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Increased Sensitivity to Physical Activity Among Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis: Relation to Pain Outcomes, Psychological Factors and Responses to Quantitative Sensory Testing.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Recent findings suggest that certain individuals with musculoskeletal pain conditions have increased Sensitivity to Physical Activity (SPA) and respond to activities of stable intensity with increasingly severe pain. This study aimed to determine the degree to which individuals with knee OA show heightened SPA in response to a standardized walking task and whether SAP cross-sectionally predicts psychological factors, responses to Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) and different OA-related outcomes. 107 adults with chronic knee osteoarthritis completed self-report measures of pain, function and psychological factors, underwent QST and performed a 6-minute walk test. Participants rated their discomfort levels throughout the walking task; an index of SPA was created by subtracting first ratings from peak ratings. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that levels of discomfort significantly increased throughout the walking task. A series of hierarchical regression analyses determined that after controlling for significant covariates, psychological factors and measures of mechanical pain sensitivity, individual variance in SPA predicted self-report pain and function and performance on the walking task. Analyses also revealed that both pain catastrophizing and the temporal summation of mechanical pain were significant predictors of SPA and that SPA mediated the relationship between catastrophizing and self-reported pain and physical function. The discussion addresses the potential processes contributing to SPA and the role it may play in predicting responses to different interventions for musculoskeletal pain conditions.
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Self-Assembly of VPS41 Promotes Sorting Required for Biogenesis of the Regulated Secretory Pathway.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The regulated release of polypeptides has a central role in physiology, behavior, and development, but the mechanisms responsible for production of the large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) capable of regulated release have remained poorly understood. Recent work has implicated cytosolic adaptor protein AP-3 in the recruitment of LDCV membrane proteins that confer regulated release. However, AP-3 in mammals has been considered to function in the endolysosomal pathway and in the biosynthetic pathway only in yeast. We now find that the mammalian homolog of yeast VPS41, a member of the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex that delivers biosynthetic cargo to the endocytic pathway in yeast, promotes LDCV formation through a common mechanism with AP-3, indicating a conserved role for these proteins in the biosynthetic pathway. VPS41 also self-assembles into a lattice, suggesting that it acts as a coat protein for AP-3 in formation of the regulated secretory pathway.
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The association between negative affect and prescription opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: the mediating role of opioid craving.
J Pain
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Over the past decade, considerable research has accumulated showing that chronic pain patients experiencing high levels of negative affect (NA) are at increased risk for prescription opioid misuse. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the factors that underlie the association between NA and prescription opioid misuse among patients with chronic pain. In this study, 82 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain being prescribed opioid medication completed the Current Opioid Misuse Measure, a well-validated self-report questionnaire designed to assess prescription opioid misuse. Patients were also asked to complete self-report measures of pain intensity, NA, and opioid craving. A bootstrapped multiple mediation analysis was used to examine the mediating role of patients pain intensity and opioid craving in the association between NA and prescription opioid misuse. Consistent with previous research, we found a significant association between NA and prescription opioid misuse. Interestingly, results revealed that opioid craving, but not pain intensity, mediated the association between NA and opioid misuse. The Discussion addresses the potential psychological and neurobiological factors that might contribute to the interrelationships among NA, opioid craving, and prescription opioid misuse in patients with pain. The clinical implications of our findings are also discussed.
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Biomarker-based ovarian carcinoma typing: a histologic investigation in the ovarian tumor tissue analysis consortium.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Ovarian carcinoma is composed of five major histologic types, which associate with outcome and predict therapeutic response. Our aim was to evaluate histologic type assessments across the centers participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis (OTTA) consortium using an immunohistochemical (IHC) prediction model.
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Genome-wide association study of subtype-specific epithelial ovarian cancer risk alleles using pooled DNA.
Madalene A Earp, Linda E Kelemen, Anthony M Magliocco, Kenneth D Swenerton, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, , Yi Lu, Alexander Hein, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Peter A Fasching, Diether Lambrechts, Evelyn Despierre, Ignace Vergote, Sandrina Lambrechts, Jennifer A Doherty, Mary Anne Rossing, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Grace Friel, Kirsten B Moysich, Kunle Odunsi, Lara Sucheston-Campbell, Galina Lurie, Marc T Goodman, Michael E Carney, Pamela J Thompson, Ingo B Runnebaum, Matthias Dürst, Peter Hillemanns, Thilo Dörk, Natalia Antonenkova, Natalia Bogdanova, Arto Leminen, Heli Nevanlinna, Liisa M Pelttari, Ralf Bützow, Clareann H Bunker, Francesmary Modugno, Robert P Edwards, Roberta B Ness, Andreas du Bois, Florian Heitz, Ira Schwaab, Philipp Harter, Beth Y Karlan, Christine Walsh, Jenny Lester, Allan Jensen, Susanne K Kjær, Claus K Høgdall, Estrid Høgdall, Lene Lundvall, Thomas A Sellers, Brooke L Fridley, Ellen L Goode, Julie M Cunningham, Robert A Vierkant, Graham G Giles, Laura Baglietto, Gianluca Severi, Melissa C Southey, Dong Liang, Xifeng Wu, Karen Lu, Michelle A T Hildebrandt, Douglas A Levine, Maria Bisogna, Joellen M Schildkraut, Edwin S Iversen, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Andrew Berchuck, Daniel W Cramer, Kathryn L Terry, Elizabeth M Poole, Shelley S Tworoger, Elisa V Bandera, Urmila Chandran, Irene Orlow, Sara H Olson, Elisabeth Wik, Helga B Salvesen, Line Bjorge, Mari K Halle, Anne M Van Altena, Katja K H Aben, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Leon F A G Massuger, Tanja Pejovic, Yukie T Bean, Cezary Cybulski, Jacek Gronwald, Jan Lubiński, Nicolas Wentzensen, Louise A Brinton, Jolanta Lissowska, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Ed Dicks, Joe Dennis, Douglas F Easton, Honglin Song, Jonathan P Tyrer, Paul D P Pharoah, Diana Eccles, Ian G Campbell, Alice S Whittemore, Valerie McGuire, Weiva Sieh, Joseph H Rothstein, James M Flanagan, James Paul, Robert Brown, Catherine M Phelan, Harvey A Risch, John R McLaughlin, Steven A Narod, Argyrios Ziogas, Hoda Anton-Culver, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Usha Menon, Simon A Gayther, Susan J Ramus, Anna H Wu, Celeste L Pearce, Malcolm C Pike, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Iwona K Rzepecka, Lukasz M Szafron, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Linda S Cook, Nhu D Le, Angela Brooks-Wilson.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS [56 variants for mucinous, 55 for endometrioid and clear cell, 53 for low-malignant potential (LMP) serous, and 24 for invasive serous EOC], selected using pre-defined criteria. Genotypes from 13,188 cases and 23,164 controls of European descent were used to perform unconditional logistic regression under the log-additive genetic model; odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals are reported. Nine variants tagging six loci were associated with subtype-specific EOC risk at P < 0.05, and had an OR that agreed in direction of effect with the GWAS results. Several of these variants are in or near genes with a biological rationale for conferring EOC risk, including ZFP36L1 and RAD51B for mucinous EOC (rs17106154, OR = 1.17, P = 0.029, n = 1,483 cases), GRB10 for endometrioid and clear cell EOC (rs2190503, P = 0.014, n = 2,903 cases), and C22orf26/BPIL2 for LMP serous EOC (rs9609538, OR = 0.86, P = 0.0043, n = 892 cases). In analyses that included the 75 GWAS samples, the association between rs9609538 (OR = 0.84, P = 0.0007) and LMP serous EOC risk remained statistically significant at P < 0.0012 adjusted for multiple testing. Replication in additional samples will be important to verify these results for the less-common EOC subtypes.
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New fluorescent substrate enables quantitative and high-throughput examination of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2).
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is an essential component of the monoaminergic neurotransmission system in the brain as it transports monoamine neurotransmitters from the neuronal cytosol into the synaptic vesicles and thus contributes to modulation of neurotransmitter release. Considering the continuing interest in VMAT2 as a drug target, as well as a target for the design of imaging probes, we have developed a fluorescent substrate well suited for the study of VMAT2 in cell culture. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent probe, FFN206, as an excellent VMAT2 substrate capable of detecting VMAT2 activity in intact cells using fluorescence microscopy, with subcellular localization to VMAT2-expressing acidic compartments without apparent labeling of other organelles. VMAT2 activity can also be measured via microplate reader. The apparent Km of FFN206 at VMAT2 was found to be 1.16 ± 0.10 ?M, similar to that of dopamine. We further report the development and validation of a cell-based fluorescence assay amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS) using VMAT2-transfected HEK cells (Z-factor of 0.7-0.8), enabling rapid identification of VMAT2 inhibitors and measurement of their inhibition constants over a broad range of affinities. FFN206 thus represents a new tool for optical examination of VMAT2 function in cell culture.
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Multiple dileucine-like motifs direct VGLUT1 trafficking.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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The vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) package glutamate into synaptic vesicles, and the two principal isoforms VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 have been suggested to influence the properties of release. To understand how a VGLUT isoform might influence transmitter release, we have studied their trafficking and previously identified a dileucine-like endocytic motif in the C terminus of VGLUT1. Disruption of this motif impairs the activity-dependent recycling of VGLUT1, but does not eliminate its endocytosis. We now report the identification of two additional dileucine-like motifs in the N terminus of VGLUT1 that are not well conserved in the other isoforms. In the absence of all three motifs, rat VGLUT1 shows limited accumulation at synaptic sites and no longer responds to stimulation. In addition, shRNA-mediated knockdown of clathrin adaptor proteins AP-1 and AP-2 shows that the C-terminal motif acts largely via AP-2, whereas the N-terminal motifs use AP-1. Without the C-terminal motif, knockdown of AP-1 reduces the proportion of VGLUT1 that responds to stimulation. VGLUT1 thus contains multiple sorting signals that engage distinct trafficking mechanisms. In contrast to VGLUT1, the trafficking of VGLUT2 depends almost entirely on the conserved C-terminal dileucine-like motif: without this motif, a substantial fraction of VGLUT2 redistributes to the plasma membrane and the transporters synaptic localization is disrupted. Consistent with these differences in trafficking signals, wild-type VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 differ in their response to stimulation.
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Induction and stability of human Th17 cells require endogenous NOS2 and cGMP-dependent NO signaling.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous mediator of inflammation and immunity, involved in the pathogenesis and control of infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer. We observed that the expression of nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2/iNOS) positively correlates with Th17 responses in patients with ovarian cancer (OvCa). Although high concentrations of exogenous NO indiscriminately suppress the proliferation and differentiation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, the physiological NO concentrations produced by patients’ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) support the development of ROR?t(Rorc)+IL-23R?IL-17? Th17 cells. Moreover, the development of Th17 cells from naive-, memory-, or tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T cells, driven by IL-1?/IL-6/IL-23/NO-producing MDSCs or by recombinant cytokines (IL-1?/IL-6/IL-23), is associated with the induction of endogenous NOS2 and NO production, and critically depends on NOS2 activity and the canonical cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)–cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) pathway of NO signaling within CD4? T cells. Inhibition of NOS2 or cGMP–cGK signaling abolishes the de novo induction of Th17 cells and selectively suppresses IL-17 production by established Th17 cells isolated from OvCa patients. Our data indicate that, apart from its previously recognized role as an effector mediator of Th17-associated inflammation, NO is also critically required for the induction and stability of human Th17 responses, providing new targets to manipulate Th17 responses in cancer, autoimmunity, and inflammatory diseases.
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Laminar and columnar development of barrel cortex relies on thalamocortical neurotransmission.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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A dynamic interplay between intrinsic regional molecular cues and extrinsic factors from the thalamus shape multiple features of early cortical development. It remains uncertain and controversial, however, whether the initial formation of cortical columns depends on neuronal activity, and there is little evidence that cortical lamination or neuronal differentiation is influenced by extrinsic activity. We examined the role of thalamic-derived factors in cortical development by selectively eliminating glutamatergic synaptic transmission from thalamocortical neurons in mice and found that eliminating thalamocortical neurotransmission prevented the formation of "barrel" columns in somatosensory cortex. Interestingly, based on cytoarchitectonic criteria and genetic markers, blocking thalamocortical neurotransmission also perturbed the development of superficial cortical lamina and the morphologic development of neurons. These experiments demonstrate that barrels and aspects of the layer-dependent pattern of cortical cytoarchitecture, gene expression, and neuronal differentiation depend on thalamocortical neurotransmission, extending the apparent influence of extrinsic, presumably activity-dependent factors, on cortical development.
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IL-18-primed helper NK cells collaborate with dendritic cells to promote recruitment of effector CD8+ T cells to the tumor microenvironment.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Chemokine-driven interactions of immune cells are essential for effective antitumor immunity. Human natural killer (NK) cells can be primed by the interleukin (IL)-1-related proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 for unique helper activity, which promotes dendritic cell (DC) activation and DC-mediated induction of type-1 immune responses against cancer. Here, we show that such IL-18-primed "helper" NK cells produce high levels of the immature DC (iDC)-attracting chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 upon exposure to tumor cells or the additional inflammatory signals IFN-?, IL-15, IL-12, or IL-2. These "helper" NK cells potently attract iDCs in a CCR5-dependent mechanism and induce high DC production of CXCR3 and CCR5 ligands (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5), facilitating the subsequent recruitment of type-1 effector CD8(+) T (Teff) cells. Using cells isolated from the malignant ascites of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, we show that "helper" NK cell-inducing factors can be used to enhance local production of Teff cell-recruiting chemokines. Our findings reveal the unique chemokine expression profile of "helper" NK cells and highlight the potential for using two-signal-activated NK cells to promote homing of type-1 immune effectors to the human tumor environment.
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Patient-reported outcomes following flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer in a demonstration screening programme in the UK.
J Med Screen
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening for colorectal cancer will be introduced into the National Cancer Screening Programmes in England in 2013. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) from trial participants indicate high acceptability and no adverse physical or psychological consequences, but this may not generalize to routine screening in the community. This study examined PROMs in a community-based FS screening programme.
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A prospective study evaluating the clinical relevance of a chemoresponse assay for treatment of patients with persistent or recurrent ovarian cancer.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Use of in vitro chemoresponse assays for informing effective treatment selection is a compelling clinical question and a topic of debate among oncologists. A prospective study was conducted evaluating the use of a chemoresponse assay in recurrent ovarian cancer patients.
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Genomic taxonomy of the genus prochlorococcus.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The genus Prochlorococcus is globally abundant and dominates the total phytoplankton biomass and production in the oligotrophic ocean. The single species, Prochlorococcus marinus, comprises six named ecotypes. Our aim was to analyze the taxonomic structure of the genus Prochlorococcus. We analyzed the complete genomes of 13 cultured P. marinus type and reference strains by means of several genomic taxonomy tools (i.e., multilocus sequence analysis, amino acid identity, Karlin genomic signature, and genome to genome distance). In addition, we estimated the diversity of Prochlorococcus species in over 100 marine metagenomes from all the major oceanic provinces. According to our careful taxonomic analysis, the 13 strains corresponded, in fact, to ten different Prochlorococcus species. This analysis establishes a new taxonomic framework for the genus Prochlorococcus. Further, the analysis of the metagenomic data suggests that, in total, there may only be 35 Prochlorococcus species in the worlds oceans. We propose that the dearth of species observed in this study is driven by high selective pressures that limit diversification in the global ocean.
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Web-Based Symptom Management for Women With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of the WRITE Symptoms Intervention.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Little research has focused on symptom management among women with ovarian cancer. Written Representational Intervention To Ease Symptoms (WRITE Symptoms) is an educational intervention delivered through asynchronous web-based message boards between a study participant and a nurse.
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Protective responses induced by herbicide safeners in wheat.
Environ. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Safeners are agrochemicals which enhance tolerance to herbicides in cereals including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by elevating the expression of xenobiotic detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione transferases (GSTs). When wheat plants were spray-treated with three safener chemistries, namely cloquintocet mexyl, mefenpyr diethyl and fenchlorazole ethyl, an apparently identical subset of GSTs derived from the tau, phi and lambda classes accumulated in the foliage. Treatment with the closely related mefenpyr diethyl and fenchlorazole ethyl enhanced seedling shoot growth, but this effect was not determined with the chemically unrelated cloquintocet mexyl. Focussing on cloquintocet mexyl, treatments were found to only give a transient induction of GSTs, with the period of elevation being dose dependent. Examining the role of safener metabolism in controlling these responses, it was determined that cloquintocet mexyl was rapidly hydrolysed to the respective carboxylic acid. Studies with cloquintocet showed that the acid was equally effective at inducing GSTs as the ester and appeared to be the active safener. Studies on the tissue induction of GSTs showed that whilst phi and tau class enzymes were induced in all tissues, the induction of the lambda enzymes was restricted to the meristems. To test the potential protective effects of cloquintocet mexyl in wheat on chemicals other than herbicides, seeds were pre-soaked in safeners prior to sowing on soil containing oil and a range of heavy metals. Whilst untreated seeds were unable to germinate on the contaminated soil, safener treatments resulted in seedlings briefly growing before succumbing to the pollutants. Our results show that safeners exert a range of protective and growth promoting activities in wheat that extend beyond enhancing tolerance to herbicides.
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Key role for a glutathione transferase in multiple-herbicide resistance in grass weeds.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Multiple-herbicide resistance (MHR) in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides) and annual rye-grass (Lolium rigidum) is a global problem leading to a loss of chemical weed control in cereal crops. Although poorly understood, in common with multiple-drug resistance (MDR) in tumors, MHR is associated with an enhanced ability to detoxify xenobiotics. In humans, MDR is linked to the overexpression of a pi class glutathione transferase (GSTP1), which has both detoxification and signaling functions in promoting drug resistance. In both annual rye-grass and black-grass, MHR was also associated with the increased expression of an evolutionarily distinct plant phi (F) GSTF1 that had a restricted ability to detoxify herbicides. When the black-grass A. myosuroides (Am) AmGSTF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, the transgenic plants acquired resistance to multiple herbicides and showed similar changes in their secondary, xenobiotic, and antioxidant metabolism to those determined in MHR weeds. Transcriptome array experiments showed that these changes in biochemistry were not due to changes in gene expression. Rather, AmGSTF1 exerted a direct regulatory control on metabolism that led to an accumulation of protective flavonoids. Further evidence for a key role for this protein in MHR was obtained by showing that the GSTP1- and MDR-inhibiting pharmacophore 4-chloro-7-nitro-benzoxadiazole was also active toward AmGSTF1 and helped restore herbicide control in MHR black-grass. These studies demonstrate a central role for specific GSTFs in MHR in weeds that has parallels with similar roles for unrelated GSTs in MDR in humans and shows their potential as targets for chemical intervention in resistant weed management.
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Epigenetic analysis leads to identification of HNF1B as a subtype-specific susceptibility gene for ovarian cancer.
Hui Shen, Brooke L Fridley, Honglin Song, Kate Lawrenson, Julie M Cunningham, Susan J Ramus, Mine S Cicek, Jonathan Tyrer, Douglas Stram, Melissa C Larson, Martin Köbel, , Argyrios Ziogas, Wei Zheng, Hannah P Yang, Anna H Wu, Eva L Wozniak, Yin Ling Woo, Boris Winterhoff, Elisabeth Wik, Alice S Whittemore, Nicolas Wentzensen, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Allison F Vitonis, Daniel Vincent, Robert A Vierkant, Ignace Vergote, David Van Den Berg, Anne M Van Altena, Shelley S Tworoger, Pamela J Thompson, Daniel C Tessier, Kathryn L Terry, Soo-Hwang Teo, Claire Templeman, Daniel O Stram, Melissa C Southey, Weiva Sieh, Nadeem Siddiqui, Yurii B Shvetsov, Xiao-Ou Shu, Viji Shridhar, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Gianluca Severi, Ira Schwaab, Helga B Salvesen, Iwona K Rzepecka, Ingo B Runnebaum, Mary Anne Rossing, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Harvey A Risch, Stefan P Renner, Elizabeth M Poole, Malcolm C Pike, Catherine M Phelan, Liisa M Pelttari, Tanja Pejovic, James Paul, Irene Orlow, Siti Zawiah Omar, Sara H Olson, Kunle Odunsi, Stefan Nickels, Heli Nevanlinna, Roberta B Ness, Steven A Narod, Toru Nakanishi, Kirsten B Moysich, Alvaro N A Monteiro, Joanna Moes-Sosnowska, Francesmary Modugno, Usha Menon, John R McLaughlin, Valerie McGuire, Keitaro Matsuo, Noor Azmi Mat Adenan, Leon F A G Massuger, Galina Lurie, Lene Lundvall, Jan Lubiński, Jolanta Lissowska, Douglas A Levine, Arto Leminen, Alice W Lee, Nhu D Le, Sandrina Lambrechts, Diether Lambrechts, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Camilla Krakstad, Gottfried E Konecny, Susanne Krüger Kjaer, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Linda E Kelemen, Gary L Keeney, Beth Y Karlan, Rod Karevan, Kimberly R Kalli, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Bu-Tian Ji, Allan Jensen, Anna Jakubowska, Edwin Iversen, Satoyo Hosono, Claus K Høgdall, Estrid Høgdall, Maureen Hoatlin, Peter Hillemanns, Florian Heitz, Rebecca Hein, Philipp Harter, Mari K Halle, Per Hall, Jacek Gronwald, Martin Gore, Marc T Goodman, Graham G Giles, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, James M Flanagan, Peter A Fasching, Arif B Ekici, Robert Edwards, Diana Eccles, Douglas F Easton, Matthias Dürst, Andreas du Bois, Thilo Dörk, Jennifer A Doherty, Evelyn Despierre, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Cezary Cybulski, Daniel W Cramer, Linda S Cook, Xiaoqing Chen, Bridget Charbonneau, Jenny Chang-Claude, Ian Campbell, Ralf Bützow, Clareann H Bunker, Doerthe Brueggmann, Robert Brown, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Louise A Brinton, Natalia Bogdanova, Matthew S Block, Elizabeth Benjamin, Jonathan Beesley, Matthias W Beckmann, Elisa V Bandera, Laura Baglietto, Francois Bacot, Sebastian M Armasu, Natalia Antonenkova, Hoda Anton-Culver, Katja K Aben, Dong Liang, Xifeng Wu, Karen Lu, Michelle A T Hildebrandt, Joellen M Schildkraut, Thomas A Sellers, David Huntsman, Andrew Berchuck, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Simon A Gayther, Paul D P Pharoah, Peter W Laird, Ellen L Goode, Celeste Leigh Pearce.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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HNF1B is overexpressed in clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer, and we observed epigenetic silencing in serous epithelial ovarian cancer, leading us to hypothesize that variation in this gene differentially associates with epithelial ovarian cancer risk according to histological subtype. Here we comprehensively map variation in HNF1B with respect to epithelial ovarian cancer risk and analyse DNA methylation and expression profiles across histological subtypes. Different single-nucleotide polymorphisms associate with invasive serous (rs7405776 odds ratio (OR)=1.13, P=3.1 × 10(-10)) and clear cell (rs11651755 OR=0.77, P=1.6 × 10(-8)) epithelial ovarian cancer. Risk alleles for the serous subtype associate with higher HNF1B-promoter methylation in these tumours. Unmethylated, expressed HNF1B, primarily present in clear cell tumours, coincides with a CpG island methylator phenotype affecting numerous other promoters throughout the genome. Different variants in HNF1B associate with risk of serous and clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer; DNA methylation and expression patterns are also notably distinct between these subtypes. These findings underscore distinct mechanisms driving different epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes.
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Identification and molecular characterization of a new ovarian cancer susceptibility locus at 17q21.31.
Jennifer Permuth-Wey, Kate Lawrenson, Howard C Shen, Aneliya Velkova, Jonathan P Tyrer, Zhihua Chen, Hui-Yi Lin, Y Ann Chen, Ya-Yu Tsai, Xiaotao Qu, Susan J Ramus, Rod Karevan, Janet Lee, Nathan Lee, Melissa C Larson, Katja K Aben, Hoda Anton-Culver, Natalia Antonenkova, Antonis C Antoniou, Sebastian M Armasu, , Francois Bacot, Laura Baglietto, Elisa V Bandera, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Matthias W Beckmann, Michael J Birrer, Greg Bloom, Natalia Bogdanova, Louise A Brinton, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Robert Brown, Ralf Bützow, Qiuyin Cai, Ian Campbell, Jenny Chang-Claude, Stephen Chanock, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Jin Q Cheng, Mine S Cicek, Gerhard A Coetzee, Linda S Cook, Fergus J Couch, Daniel W Cramer, Julie M Cunningham, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Evelyn Despierre, Jennifer A Doherty, Thilo Dörk, Andreas du Bois, Matthias Dürst, Douglas F Easton, Diana Eccles, Robert Edwards, Arif B Ekici, Peter A Fasching, David A Fenstermacher, James M Flanagan, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Graham G Giles, Rosalind M Glasspool, Jesus Gonzalez-Bosquet, Marc T Goodman, Martin Gore, Bohdan Górski, Jacek Gronwald, Per Hall, Mari K Halle, Philipp Harter, Florian Heitz, Peter Hillemanns, Maureen Hoatlin, Claus K Høgdall, Estrid Høgdall, Satoyo Hosono, Anna Jakubowska, Allan Jensen, Heather Jim, Kimberly R Kalli, Beth Y Karlan, Stanley B Kaye, Linda E Kelemen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Fumitaka Kikkawa, Gottfried E Konecny, Camilla Krakstad, Susanne Krüger Kjaer, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Diether Lambrechts, Sandrina Lambrechts, Johnathan M Lancaster, Nhu D Le, Arto Leminen, Douglas A Levine, Dong Liang, Boon Kiong Lim, Jie Lin, Jolanta Lissowska, Karen H Lu, Jan Lubiński, Galina Lurie, Leon F A G Massuger, Keitaro Matsuo, Valerie McGuire, John R McLaughlin, Usha Menon, Francesmary Modugno, Kirsten B Moysich, Toru Nakanishi, Steven A Narod, Lotte Nedergaard, Roberta B Ness, Heli Nevanlinna, Stefan Nickels, Houtan Noushmehr, Kunle Odunsi, Sara H Olson, Irene Orlow, James Paul, Celeste L Pearce, Tanja Pejovic, Liisa M Pelttari, Malcolm C Pike, Elizabeth M Poole, Paola Raska, Stefan P Renner, Harvey A Risch, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Mary Anne Rossing, Anja Rudolph, Ingo B Runnebaum, Iwona K Rzepecka, Helga B Salvesen, Ira Schwaab, Gianluca Severi, Viji Shridhar, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yurii B Shvetsov, Weiva Sieh, Honglin Song, Melissa C Southey, Beata Spiewankiewicz, Daniel Stram, Rebecca Sutphen, Soo-Hwang Teo, Kathryn L Terry, Daniel C Tessier, Pamela J Thompson, Shelley S Tworoger, Anne M Van Altena, Ignace Vergote, Robert A Vierkant, Daniel Vincent, Allison F Vitonis, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Nicolas Wentzensen, Alice S Whittemore, Elisabeth Wik, Lynne R Wilkens, Boris Winterhoff, Yin Ling Woo, Anna H Wu, Yong-Bing Xiang, Hannah P Yang, Wei Zheng, Argyrios Ziogas, Famida Zulkifli, Catherine M Phelan, Edwin Iversen, Joellen M Schildkraut, Andrew Berchuck, Brooke L Fridley, Ellen L Goode, Paul D P Pharoah, Alvaro N A Monteiro, Thomas A Sellers, Simon A Gayther.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a heritable component that remains to be fully characterized. Most identified common susceptibility variants lie in non-protein-coding sequences. We hypothesized that variants in the 3 untranslated region at putative microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites represent functional targets that influence EOC susceptibility. Here, we evaluate the association between 767 miRNA-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (miRSNPs) and EOC risk in 18,174 EOC cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies genotyped through the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study. We identify several miRSNPs associated with invasive serous EOC risk (odds ratio=1.12, P=10(-8)) mapping to an inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31. Additional genotyping of non-miRSNPs at 17q21.31 reveals stronger signals outside the inversion (P=10(-10)). Variation at 17q21.31 is associated with neurological diseases, and our collaboration is the first to report an association with EOC susceptibility. An integrated molecular analysis in this region provides evidence for ARHGAP27 and PLEKHM1 as candidate EOC susceptibility genes.
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Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 21 case-control studies.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology.
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Pain and analgesia: the value of salience circuits.
Prog. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Evaluating external and internal stimuli is critical to survival. Potentially tissue-damaging conditions generate sensory experiences that the organism must respond to in an appropriate, adaptive manner (e.g., withdrawal from the noxious stimulus, if possible, or seeking relief from pain and discomfort). The importance we assign to a signal generated by a noxious state, its salience, reflects our belief as to how likely the underlying situation is to impact our chance of survival. Importantly, it has been hypothesized that aberrant functioning of the brain circuits which assign salience values to stimuli may contribute to chronic pain. We describe examples of this phenomenon, including feeling pain in the absence of a painful stimulus, reporting minimal pain in the setting of major trauma, having an analgesic response in the absence of an active treatment, or reporting no pain relief after administration of a potent analgesic medication, which may provide critical insights into the role that salience circuits play in contributing to numerous conditions characterized by persistent pain. Collectively, a refined understanding of abnormal activity or connectivity of elements within the salience network may allow us to more effectively target interventions to relevant components of this network in patients with chronic pain.
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Multiple independent variants at the TERT locus are associated with telomere length and risks of breast and ovarian cancer.
Stig E Bojesen, Karen A Pooley, Sharon E Johnatty, Jonathan Beesley, Kyriaki Michailidou, Jonathan P Tyrer, Stacey L Edwards, Hilda A Pickett, Howard C Shen, Chanel E Smart, Kristine M Hillman, Phuong L Mai, Kate Lawrenson, Michael D Stutz, Yi Lu, Rod Karevan, Nicholas Woods, Rebecca L Johnston, Juliet D French, Xiaoqing Chen, Maren Weischer, Sune F Nielsen, Melanie J Maranian, Maya Ghoussaini, Shahana Ahmed, Caroline Baynes, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Lesley McGuffog, Daniel Barrowdale, Andrew Lee, Sue Healey, Michael Lush, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Françis Bacot, , Ignace Vergote, Sandrina Lambrechts, Evelyn Despierre, Harvey A Risch, Anna González-Neira, Mary Anne Rossing, Guillermo Pita, Jennifer A Doherty, Nuria Alvarez, Melissa C Larson, Brooke L Fridley, Nils Schoof, Jenny Chang-Claude, Mine S Cicek, Julian Peto, Kimberly R Kalli, Annegien Broeks, Sebastian M Armasu, Marjanka K Schmidt, Linde M Braaf, Boris Winterhoff, Heli Nevanlinna, Gottfried E Konecny, Diether Lambrechts, Lisa Rogmann, Pascal Guénel, Attila Teoman, Roger L Milne, Joaquín J García, Angela Cox, Vijayalakshmi Shridhar, Barbara Burwinkel, Frederik Marme, Rebecca Hein, Elinor J Sawyer, Christopher A Haiman, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Irene L Andrulis, Kirsten B Moysich, John L Hopper, Kunle Odunsi, Annika Lindblom, Graham G Giles, Hermann Brenner, Jacques Simard, Galina Lurie, Peter A Fasching, Michael E Carney, Paolo Radice, Lynne R Wilkens, Anthony Swerdlow, Marc T Goodman, Hiltrud Brauch, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Peter Hillemanns, Robert Winqvist, Matthias Dürst, Peter Devilee, Ingo Runnebaum, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Arto Mannermaa, Ralf Bützow, Natalia V Bogdanova, Thilo Dörk, Liisa M Pelttari, Wei Zheng, Arto Leminen, Hoda Anton-Culver, Clareann H Bunker, Vessela Kristensen, Roberta B Ness, Kenneth Muir, Robert Edwards, Alfons Meindl, Florian Heitz, Keitaro Matsuo, Andreas du Bois, Anna H Wu, Philipp Harter, Soo-Hwang Teo, Ira Schwaab, Xiao-Ou Shu, William Blot, Satoyo Hosono, Daehee Kang, Toru Nakanishi, Mikael Hartman, Yasushi Yatabe, Ute Hamann, Beth Y Karlan, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Susanne Krüger Kjaer, Valerie Gaborieau, Allan Jensen, Diana Eccles, Estrid Høgdall, Chen-Yang Shen, Judith Brown, Yin Ling Woo, Mitul Shah, Mat Adenan Noor Azmi, Robert Luben, Siti Zawiah Omar, Kamila Czene, Robert A Vierkant, Børge G Nordestgaard, Henrik Flyger, Celine Vachon, Janet E Olson, Xianshu Wang, Douglas A Levine, Anja Rudolph, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Edwin Iversen, Stefan Nickels, Joellen M Schildkraut, Isabel dos Santos Silva, Daniel W Cramer, Lorna Gibson, Kathryn L Terry, Olivia Fletcher, Allison F Vitonis, C Ellen van der Schoot, Elizabeth M Poole, Frans B L Hogervorst, Shelley S Tworoger, Jianjun Liu, Elisa V Bandera, Jingmei Li, Sara H Olson, Keith Humphreys, Irene Orlow, Carl Blomqvist, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Kristiina Aittomäki, Helga B Salvesen, Taru A Muranen, Elisabeth Wik, Barbara Brouwers, Camilla Krakstad, Els Wauters, Mari K Halle, Hans Wildiers, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Claire Mulot, Katja K Aben, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Anne Mvan Altena, Thérèse Truong, Leon F A G Massuger, Javier Benitez, Tanja Pejovic, Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, Maureen Hoatlin, M Pilar Zamora, Linda S Cook, Sabapathy P Balasubramanian, Linda E Kelemen, Andreas Schneeweiss, Nhu D Le, Christof Sohn, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Cezary Cybulski, Brian E Henderson, Janusz Menkiszak, Fredrick Schumacher, Nicolas Wentzensen, Loic Le Marchand, Hannah P Yang, Anna Marie Mulligan, Gord Glendon, Svend Aage Engelholm, Julia A Knight, Claus K Høgdall, Carmel Apicella, Martin Gore, Helen Tsimiklis, Honglin Song, Melissa C Southey, Agnes Jager, Ans M Wvan den Ouweland, Robert Brown, John W M Martens, James M Flanagan, Mieke Kriege, James Paul, Sara Margolin, Nadeem Siddiqui, Gianluca Severi, Alice S Whittemore, Laura Baglietto, Valerie McGuire, Christa Stegmaier, Weiva Sieh, Heiko Muller, Volker Arndt, France Labrèche, Yu-Tang Gao, Mark S Goldberg, Gong Yang, Martine Dumont, John R McLaughlin, Arndt Hartmann, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Catherine M Phelan, Michael P Lux, Jenny Permuth-Wey, Bernard Peissel, Thomas A Sellers, Filomena Ficarazzi, Monica Barile, Argyrios Ziogas, Alan Ashworth, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Michael Jones, Susan J Ramus, Nick Orr, Usha Menon, Celeste L Pearce, Thomas Brüning, Malcolm C Pike, Yon-Dschun Ko, Jolanta Lissowska, Jonine Figueroa, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Stephen J Chanock, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Iwona K Rzepecka, Katri Pylkäs, Mariusz Bidzinski, Saila Kauppila, Antoinette Hollestelle, Caroline Seynaeve, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Katarzyna Durda, Katarzyna Jaworska, Jaana M Hartikainen, Veli-Matti Kosma, Vesa Kataja, Natalia N Antonenkova, Jirong Long, Martha Shrubsole, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Artitaya Lophatananon, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Nina Ditsch, Peter Lichtner, Rita K Schmutzler, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Kazuo Tajima, Chiu-Chen Tseng, Daniel O Stram, David Van Den Berg, Cheng Har Yip, M Kamran Ikram, Yew-Ching Teh, Hui Cai, Wei Lu, Lisa B Signorello, Qiuyin Cai, Dong-Young Noh, Keun-Young Yoo, Hui Miao, Philip Tsau-Choong Iau, Yik Ying Teo, James McKay, Charles Shapiro, Foluso Ademuyiwa, George Fountzilas, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Ming-Feng Hou, Catherine S Healey, Craig Luccarini, Susan Peock, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Paolo Peterlongo, Timothy R Rebbeck, Marion Piedmonte, Christian F Singer, Eitan Friedman, Mads Thomassen, Kenneth Offit, Thomas V O Hansen, Susan L Neuhausen, Csilla I Szabo, Ignacio Blanco, Judy Garber, Steven A Narod, Jeffrey N Weitzel, Marco Montagna, Edith Olah, Andrew K Godwin, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, David E Goldgar, Trinidad Caldés, Evgeny N Imyanitov, Laima Tihomirova, Banu K Arun, Ian Campbell, Arjen R Mensenkamp, Christi J van Asperen, Kees E P van Roozendaal, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, J Margriet Collée, Jan C Oosterwijk, Maartje J Hooning, Matti A Rookus, Rob B van der Luijt, Theo A Mvan Os, D Gareth Evans, Debra Frost, Elena Fineberg, Julian Barwell, Lisa Walker, M John Kennedy, Radka Platte, Rosemarie Davidson, Steve D Ellis, Trevor Cole, Brigitte Bressac-de Paillerets, Bruno Buecher, Francesca Damiola, Laurence Faivre, Marc Frénay, Olga M Sinilnikova, Olivier Caron, Sophie Giraud, Sylvie Mazoyer, Valérie Bonadona, Virginie Caux-Moncoutier, Aleksandra Toloczko-Grabarek, Jacek Gronwald, Tomasz Byrski, Amanda B Spurdle, Bernardo Bonanni, Daniela Zaffaroni, Giuseppe Giannini, Loris Bernard, Riccardo Dolcetti, Siranoush Manoukian, Norbert Arnold, Christoph Engel, Helmut Deissler, Kerstin Rhiem, Dieter Niederacher, Hansjoerg Plendl, Christian Sutter, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Ake Borg, Beatrice Melin, Johanna Rantala, Maria Soller, Katherine L Nathanson, Susan M Domchek, Gustavo C Rodriguez, Ritu Salani, Daphne Gschwantler Kaulich, Muy-Kheng Tea, Shani Shimon Paluch, Yael Laitman, Anne-Bine Skytte, Torben A Kruse, Uffe Birk Jensen, Mark Robson, Anne-Marie Gerdes, Bent Ejlertsen, Lenka Foretova, Sharon A Savage, Jenny Lester, Penny Soucy, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Curtis Olswold, Julie M Cunningham, Susan Slager, Vernon S Pankratz, Ed Dicks, Sunil R Lakhani, Fergus J Couch, Per Hall, Alvaro N A Monteiro, Simon A Gayther, Paul D P Pharoah, Roger R Reddel, Ellen L Goode, Mark H Greene, Douglas F Easton, Andrew Berchuck, Antonis C Antoniou, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Alison M Dunning.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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TERT-locus SNPs and leukocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the Illumina custom genotyping array iCOGs, we analyzed ?480 SNPs at the TERT locus in breast (n = 103,991), ovarian (n = 39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (n = 11,705) cancer cases and controls. Leukocyte telomere measurements were also available for 53,724 participants. Most associations cluster into three independent peaks. The minor allele at the peak 1 SNP rs2736108 associates with longer telomeres (P = 5.8 × 10(-7)), lower risks for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (P = 1.0 × 10(-8)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.1 × 10(-5)) breast cancers and altered promoter assay signal. The minor allele at the peak 2 SNP rs7705526 associates with longer telomeres (P = 2.3 × 10(-14)), higher risk of low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer (P = 1.3 × 10(-15)) and greater promoter activity. The minor alleles at the peak 3 SNPs rs10069690 and rs2242652 increase ER-negative (P = 1.2 × 10(-12)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.6 × 10(-14)) breast and invasive ovarian (P = 1.3 × 10(-11)) cancer risks but not via altered telomere length. The cancer risk alleles of rs2242652 and rs10069690, respectively, increase silencing and generate a truncated TERT splice variant.
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GWAS meta-analysis and replication identifies three new susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer.
Paul D P Pharoah, Ya-Yu Tsai, Susan J Ramus, Catherine M Phelan, Ellen L Goode, Kate Lawrenson, Melissa Buckley, Brooke L Fridley, Jonathan P Tyrer, Howard Shen, Rachel Weber, Rod Karevan, Melissa C Larson, Honglin Song, Daniel C Tessier, Francois Bacot, Daniel Vincent, Julie M Cunningham, Joe Dennis, Ed Dicks, , Katja K Aben, Hoda Anton-Culver, Natalia Antonenkova, Sebastian M Armasu, Laura Baglietto, Elisa V Bandera, Matthias W Beckmann, Michael J Birrer, Greg Bloom, Natalia Bogdanova, James D Brenton, Louise A Brinton, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Robert Brown, Ralf Bützow, Ian Campbell, Michael E Carney, Renato S Carvalho, Jenny Chang-Claude, Y Anne Chen, Zhihua Chen, Wong-Ho Chow, Mine S Cicek, Gerhard Coetzee, Linda S Cook, Daniel W Cramer, Cezary Cybulski, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Evelyn Despierre, Jennifer A Doherty, Thilo Dörk, Andreas du Bois, Matthias Dürst, Diana Eccles, Robert Edwards, Arif B Ekici, Peter A Fasching, David Fenstermacher, James Flanagan, Yu-Tang Gao, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Graham Giles, Anxhela Gjyshi, Martin Gore, Jacek Gronwald, Qi Guo, Mari K Halle, Philipp Harter, Alexander Hein, Florian Heitz, Peter Hillemanns, Maureen Hoatlin, Estrid Høgdall, Claus K Høgdall, Satoyo Hosono, Anna Jakubowska, Allan Jensen, Kimberly R Kalli, Beth Y Karlan, Linda E Kelemen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Susanne Krüger Kjaer, Gottfried E Konecny, Camilla Krakstad, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Diether Lambrechts, Sandrina Lambrechts, Nhu D Le, Nathan Lee, Janet Lee, Arto Leminen, Boon Kiong Lim, Jolanta Lissowska, Jan Lubiński, Lene Lundvall, Galina Lurie, Leon F A G Massuger, Keitaro Matsuo, Valerie McGuire, John R McLaughlin, Usha Menon, Francesmary Modugno, Kirsten B Moysich, Toru Nakanishi, Steven A Narod, Roberta B Ness, Heli Nevanlinna, Stefan Nickels, Houtan Noushmehr, Kunle Odunsi, Sara Olson, Irene Orlow, James Paul, Tanja Pejovic, Liisa M Pelttari, Jenny Permuth-Wey, Malcolm C Pike, Elizabeth M Poole, Xiaotao Qu, Harvey A Risch, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Mary Anne Rossing, Anja Rudolph, Ingo Runnebaum, Iwona K Rzepecka, Helga B Salvesen, Ira Schwaab, Gianluca Severi, Hui Shen, Vijayalakshmi Shridhar, Xiao-Ou Shu, Weiva Sieh, Melissa C Southey, Paul Spellman, Kazuo Tajima, Soo-Hwang Teo, Kathryn L Terry, Pamela J Thompson, Agnieszka Timorek, Shelley S Tworoger, Anne M Van Altena, David Van Den Berg, Ignace Vergote, Robert A Vierkant, Allison F Vitonis, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Nicolas Wentzensen, Alice S Whittemore, Elisabeth Wik, Boris Winterhoff, Yin Ling Woo, Anna H Wu, Hannah P Yang, Wei Zheng, Argyrios Ziogas, Famida Zulkifli, Marc T Goodman, Per Hall, Douglas F Easton, Celeste L Pearce, Andrew Berchuck, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Edwin Iversen, Alvaro N A Monteiro, Simon A Gayther, Joellen M Schildkraut, Thomas A Sellers.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), with another two suggestive loci reaching near genome-wide significance. We pooled data from a GWAS conducted in North America with another GWAS from the UK. We selected the top 24,551 SNPs for inclusion on the iCOGS custom genotyping array. We performed follow-up genotyping in 18,174 individuals with EOC (cases) and 26,134 controls from 43 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We validated the two loci at 3q25 and 17q21 that were previously found to have associations close to genome-wide significance and identified three loci newly associated with risk: two loci associated with all EOC subtypes at 8q21 (rs11782652, P = 5.5 × 10(-9)) and 10p12 (rs1243180, P = 1.8 × 10(-8)) and another locus specific to the serous subtype at 17q12 (rs757210, P = 8.1 × 10(-10)). An integrated molecular analysis of genes and regulatory regions at these loci provided evidence for functional mechanisms underlying susceptibility and implicated CHMP4C in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.
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Plasma microRNAs as novel biomarkers for endometriosis and endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Endometriosis, a largely benign, chronic inflammatory disease, is an independent risk factor for endometrioid and clear cell epithelial ovarian tumors. We aimed to identify plasma miRNAs that can be used to differentiate patients with endometriosis and ovarian cancer from healthy individuals.
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Mechanistic model of Rothia mucilaginosa adaptation toward persistence in the CF lung, based on a genome reconstructed from metagenomic data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The impaired mucociliary clearance in individuals with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) enables opportunistic pathogens to colonize CF lungs. Here we show that Rothia mucilaginosa is a common CF opportunist that was present in 83% of our patient cohort, almost as prevalent as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (89%). Sequencing of lung microbial metagenomes identified unique R. mucilaginosa strains in each patient, presumably due to evolution within the lung. The de novo assembly of a near-complete R. mucilaginosa (CF1E) genome illuminated a number of potential physiological adaptations to the CF lung, including antibiotic resistance, utilization of extracellular lactate, and modification of the type I restriction-modification system. Metabolic characteristics predicted from the metagenomes suggested R. mucilaginosa have adapted to live within the microaerophilic surface of the mucus layer in CF lungs. The results also highlight the remarkable evolutionary and ecological similarities of many CF pathogens; further examination of these similarities has the potential to guide patient care and treatment.
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Identification and removal of ribosomal RNA sequences from metatranscriptomes.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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Here, we present riboPicker, a robust framework for the rapid, automated identification and removal of ribosomal RNA sequences from metatranscriptomic datasets. The results can be exported for subsequent analysis, and the databases used for the web-based version are updated on a regular basis. riboPicker categorizes rRNA-like sequences and provides graphical visualizations and tabular outputs of ribosomal coverage, alignment results and taxonomic classifications.
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Neurotransmitter corelease: mechanism and physiological role.
Annu. Rev. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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Neurotransmitter identity is a defining feature of all neurons because it constrains the type of information they convey, but many neurons release multiple transmitters. Although the physiological role for corelease has remained poorly understood, the vesicular uptake of one transmitter can regulate filling with the other by influencing expression of the H(+) electrochemical driving force. In addition, the sorting of vesicular neurotransmitter transporters and other synaptic vesicle proteins into different vesicle pools suggests the potential for distinct modes of release. Corelease thus serves multiple roles in synaptic transmission.
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PGE(2)-induced CXCL12 production and CXCR4 expression controls the accumulation of human MDSCs in ovarian cancer environment.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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Signals mediated by CXCL12 (SDF1) and its receptor CXCR4 are centrally involved in cancer progression, both directly by activating cancer cells and indirectly by inducing angiogenesis plus recruiting T regulatory and plasmacytoid dendritic immune cells. Here, we show that in ascites isolated from ovarian cancer patients, both CXCL12 and CXCR4 are controlled by the tumor-associated inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), which attracts myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) into the ascites microenvironment. In this setting, PGE(2) was essential both for expression of functional CXCR4 in cancer-associated MDSCs and for production of its ligand CXCL12. Frequencies of CD11b(+)CD14(+)CD33(+)CXCR4(+) MDSCs closely correlated with CXCL12 and PGE(2) levels in patient ascites. MDSCs migrated toward ovarian cancer ascites in a CXCR4-dependent manner that required COX2 activity and autocrine PGE(2) production. Inhibition of COX2 or the PGE(2) receptors EP2/EP4 in MDSCs suppressed expression of CXCR4 and MDSC responsiveness to CXCL12 or ovarian cancer ascites. Similarly, COX2 inhibition also blocked CXCL12 production in the ovarian cancer environment and its ability to attract MDSCs. Together, our findings elucidate a central role for PGE(2) in MDSC accumulation triggered by the CXCL12-CXCR4 pathway, providing a powerful rationale to target PGE(2) signaling in ovarian cancer therapy.
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Positive feedback between PGE2 and COX2 redirects the differentiation of human dendritic cells toward stable myeloid-derived suppressor cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) show opposing roles in the immune system. In the present study, we report that the establishment of a positive feedback loop between prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), the key regulator of PGE(2) synthesis, represents the determining factor in redirecting the development of CD1a(+) DCs to CD14(+)CD33(+)CD34(+) monocytic MDSCs. Exogenous PGE(2) and such diverse COX2 activators as lipopolysaccharide, IL-1?, and IFN? all induce monocyte expression of COX2, blocking their differentiation into CD1a(+) DCs and inducing endogenous PGE(2), IDO1, IL-4R?, NOS2, and IL-10, typical MDSC-associated suppressive factors. The addition of PGE(2) to GM-CSF/IL-4-supplemented monocyte cultures is sufficient to induce the MDSC phenotype and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-suppressive function. In accordance with the key role of PGE(2) in the physiologic induction of human MDSCs, the frequencies of CD11b(+)CD33(+) MDSCs in ovarian cancer are closely correlated with local PGE(2) production, whereas the cancer-promoted induction of MDSCs is strictly COX2 dependent. The disruption of COX2-PGE(2) feedback using COX2 inhibitors or EP2 and EP4 antagonists suppresses the production of MDSC-associated suppressive factors and the CTL-inhibitory function of fully developed MDSCs from cancer patients. The central role of COX2-PGE(2) feedback in the induction and persistence of MDSCs highlights the potential for its manipulation to enhance or suppress immune responses in cancer, autoimmunity, or transplantation.
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Conserved cysteine residues in the mammalian lamin A tail are essential for cellular responses to ROS generation.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Pre-lamin A and progerin have been implicated in normal aging, and the pathogenesis of age-related degenerative diseases is termed laminopathies. Here, we show that mature lamin A has an essential role in cellular fitness and that oxidative damage to lamin A is involved in cellular senescence. Primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) aged replicatively or by pro-oxidants acquire a range of dysmorphic nuclear shapes. We observed that conserved cysteine residues in the lamin A tail domain become hyperoxidized in senescent fibroblasts, which inhibits the formation of lamin A inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds. Both in the absence of lamin A and in the presence of a lamin A cysteine-to-alanine mutant, which eliminates these cysteine residues (522, 588, and 591), mild oxidative stress induced nuclear disorganization and led to premature senescence as a result of decreased tolerance to ROS stimulators. Human dermal fibroblasts lacking lamin A or expressing the lamin A cysteine-to-alanine mutant displayed a gene expression profile of ROS-responsive genes characteristic of chronic ROS stimulation. Our findings suggest that the conserved C-terminal cysteine residues are essential for lamin A function and that loss or oxidative damage to these cysteine residues promotes cellular senescence.
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Mutations in the gene PRRT2 cause paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25) of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. PRRT2 encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture, and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 levels, leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.
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Radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer: laparoscopy versus laparotomy.
JSLS
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2011
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Gynecologic oncologists have recently begun using laparoscopic techniques to treat early stage cervical cancer. We evaluated a single institutions experience of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and staging compared with laparotomy.
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Salivary cortisol and soluble tumor necrosis factor-? receptor II responses to multiple experimental modalities of acute pain.
Psychophysiology
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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The present study compared cortisol and soluble tumor necrosis factor-? receptor II (sTNF?RII) responses provoked by cold pressor, hot water, ischemic, and neutral water (i.e., room temperature) modalities. Oral fluid samples were collected before, immediately after, and during recovery to assess physiological responses. From baseline, the cold pressor, but not hot water or ischemic modalities, produced a significant time-dependent elevation in cortisol, whereas cortisol significantly decreased for the neutral water task. When compared to baseline, the cold pressor, hot water, and ischemic modalities were associated with decreased sTNF?RII responses over time. The sTNF?RII response to neutral water initially decreased but returned to approximate baseline levels. Pain ratings were positively associated with cortisol increase from baseline and the overall cortisol response was negatively associated with the overall sTNF?RII response.
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Posttraumatic growth in women one year after diagnosis for gynecologic cancer or benign conditions.
J Psychosoc Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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The authors sought to examine levels and predictors of posttraumatic growth over one year after surgery in women diagnosed with gynecologic cancer or benign conditions necessitating surgical intervention. Women with advanced-stage cancer (n = 16), early-stage cancer (n = 18), benign gynecologic disease (n = 21), and no disease (n = 14; postannual pelvic exam) completed questionnaires (Perceived Threat, PTSD Checklist [PCL]) 1 week prior to surgery and completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) 16 months postsurgery. The four groups scores varied significantly on the PTGI. The three disease groups reported higher levels of posttraumatic growth than the no disease group. Higher PCL score presurgery and greater disease severity were positively related to posttraumatic growth, and higher income level was negatively related to posttraumatic growth. Women with gynecologic cancer, regardless of stage, and women with benign gynecologic conditions experience posttraumatic growth.
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Genetic targeting and physiological features of VGLUT3+ amacrine cells.
Vis. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Amacrine cells constitute a diverse class of interneurons that contribute to visual signal processing in the inner retina, but surprisingly, little is known about the physiology of most amacrine cell subtypes. Here, we have taken advantage of the sparse expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) in the mammalian retina to target the expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to a unique population of amacrine cells using a new transgenic mouse line. Electrophysiological recordings made from YFP-positive (VGLUT3+) amacrine cells provide the first functional data regarding the active membrane properties and synaptic connections of this recently identified cell type. We found that VGLUT3+ amacrine cells receive direct synaptic input from bipolar cells via both N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and non-NMDARs. Voltage-gated sodium channels amplified these excitatory inputs but repetitive spiking was never observed. VGLUT3+ amacrine cells responded transiently to both light increments (ON response) and decrements (OFF response); ON responses consisted exclusively of inhibitory inputs, while OFF responses comprised both excitatory and inhibitory components, although the inhibitory conductance was larger in amplitude and longer in time course. The physiological properties and anatomical features of the VGLUT3+ amacrine cells suggest that this bistratified interneuron may play a role in disinhibitory signaling and/or crossover inhibition between parallel pathways in the retina.
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Roles for glutathione transferases in antioxidant recycling.
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Uniquely among the plant glutathione transferases, two classes possess a catalytic cysteine capable of performing glutathione-dependent reductions. These are the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) and the lambda-class glutathione transferases (GSTLs). Using immobilized GSTLs probed with crude plant extracts we have identified flavonols as high affinity ligands and subsequently demonstrated a novel glutathione-dependent role for these enzymes in recycling oxidized quercetin. By comparing the activities of DHARs and GSTLs we now propose a unified catalytic mechanism that suggests oxidized anthocyanidins and tocopherols may be alternative polyphenolic substrates of GSTLs.
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Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters type 1 and 2 in sensory and autonomic neurons innervating the mouse colorectum.
J. Comp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2011
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Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been extensively studied in various neuronal systems, but their expression in visceral sensory and autonomic neurons remains to be analyzed in detail. Here we studied VGLUTs type 1 and 2 (VGLUT(1) and VGLUT(2) , respectively) in neurons innervating the mouse colorectum. Lumbosacral and thoracolumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG), lumbar sympathetic chain (LSC), and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons innervating the colorectum of BALB/C mice were retrogradely traced with Fast Blue, dissected, and processed for immunohistochemistry. Tissue from additional naïve mice was included. Previously characterized antibodies against VGLUT(1) , VGLUT(2) , and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were used. Riboprobe in situ hybridization, using probes against VGLUT(1) and VGLUT(2) , was also performed. Most colorectal DRG neurons expressed VGLUT(2) and often colocalized with CGRP. A smaller percentage of neurons expressed VGLUT(1) . VGLUT(2) -immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the MPG were rare. Abundant VGLUT(2) -IR nerves were detected in all layers of the colorectum; VGLUT(1) -IR nerves were sparse. A subpopulation of myenteric plexus neurons expressed VGLUT2 protein and mRNA, but VGLUT1 mRNA was undetectable. In conclusion, we show 1) that most colorectal DRG neurons express VGLUT(2) , and to a lesser extent, VGLUT(1) ; 2) abundance of VGLUT2-IR fibers innervating colorectum; and 3) a subpopulation of myenteric plexus neurons expressing VGLUT(2). Altogether, our data suggests a role for VGLUT(2) in colorectal glutamatergic neurotransmission, potentially influencing colorectal sensitivity and motility.
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Xenobiotic responsiveness of Arabidopsis thaliana to a chemical series derived from a herbicide safener.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Plants respond to synthetic chemicals by eliciting a xenobiotic response (XR) that enhances the expression of detoxifying enzymes such as glutathione transferases (GSTs). In agrochemistry, the ability of safeners to induce an XR is used to increase herbicide detoxification in cereal crops. Based on the responsiveness of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to the rice safener fenclorim (4,6-dichloro-2-phenylpyrimidine), a series of related derivatives was prepared and tested for the ability to induce GSTs in cell suspension cultures. The XR in Arabidopsis could be divided into rapid and slow types depending on subtle variations in the reactivity (electrophilicity) and chemical structure of the derivatives. In a comparative microarray study, Arabidopsis cultures were treated with closely related compounds that elicited rapid (fenclorim) and slow (4-chloro-6-methyl-2-phenylpyrimidine) XRs. Both chemicals induced major changes in gene expression, including a coordinated suppression in cell wall biosynthesis and an up-regulation in detoxification pathways, whereas only fenclorim selectively induced sulfur and phenolic metabolism. These transcriptome studies suggested several linkages between the XR and oxidative and oxylipin signaling. Confirming links with abiotic stress signaling, suppression of glutathione content enhanced GST induction by fenclorim, whereas fatty acid desaturase mutants, which were unable to synthesize oxylipins, showed an attenuated XR. Examining the significance of these studies to agrochemistry, only those fenclorim derivatives that elicited a rapid XR proved effective in increasing herbicide tolerance (safening) in rice.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.