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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Panchromatic Enhancement of Light-Harvesting Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Thermally Annealed Au@SiO2 Triangular Nanoprisms.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Plasmonic enhancement is an attractive method for improving the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Plasmonic materials with sharp features, such as triangular metal nanoparticles, show stronger plasmonic effects than their spherical analogues; however, these nanoparticles are also often thermally unstable. In this work, we investigated the thermal stability of Au@SiO2 triangular nanoprisms by annealing at different temperatures. Morphological changes were observed at temperatures greater than 250 °C, which resulted in a blue shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Annealing at 450 °C led to a further blue shift; however, this resulted in better overlap of the LSPR with the absorption spectrum of black dye. By introducing 0.05% (w/w) Au@SiO2 nanoprisms into DSSCs, we were able to achieve a panchromatic enhancement of the light-harvesting efficiency. This led to a 15% increase in the power conversion efficiency from 3.9 ± 0.6% to 4.4 ± 0.4%.
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Spectroscopic and photophysical study of the demetallation of a zinc porphyrin and the aggregation of its free base in a tetraalkylphosphonium ionic liquid.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Dissolving zinc tetraphenylporphyrin in the tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquid P4448Cl results in progressive demetallation of the solute and quantitative production of the free base porphyrin. Aggregation of the free base occurs in which the monomer and J aggregates are in fully reversible thermal equilibrium in the ionic liquid. The thermodynamic, kinetic and spectroscopic behaviour of this system is described based on absorption, emission and excited state lifetime measurements. Both the thermodynamics of the ground state aggregation and the kinetics of the excited state relaxation processes are unusual due to the particular role played by the ionic liquid solvent.
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Non-invasive monitoring of liver fibrosis.
Br. Med. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Assessing the formation and regression of fibrosis in chronic liver disease (CLD) is important. Current methods of assessment employed in clinical practice are inadequate. We present a review of the utility of non-invasive biomarkers of liver fibrosis.
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Association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and incident type 2 diabetes: a mendelian randomisation study.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Low circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), a marker of vitamin D status, are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We aimed to estimate the unconfounded, causal association between 25(OH)D concentration and risk of type 2 diabetes using a mendelian randomisation approach.
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HMG-coenzyme A reductase inhibition, type 2 diabetes, and bodyweight: evidence from genetic analysis and randomised trials.
Daniel I Swerdlow, David Preiss, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Michael V Holmes, Jorgen E L Engmann, Tina Shah, Reecha Sofat, Stefan Stender, Paul C D Johnson, Robert A Scott, Maarten Leusink, Niek Verweij, Stephen J Sharp, Yiran Guo, Claudia Giambartolomei, Christina Chung, Anne Peasey, Antoinette Amuzu, KaWah Li, Jutta Palmen, Philip Howard, Jackie A Cooper, Fotios Drenos, Yun R Li, Gordon Lowe, John Gallacher, Marlene C W Stewart, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Sarah G Buxbaum, Daphne L van der A, Nita G Forouhi, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Renate B Schnabel, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Růžena Kubinova, Miglė Bacevičienė, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Andrzej Pająk, Romanvan Topor-Madry, Urszula Stepaniak, Sofia Malyutina, Damiano Baldassarre, Bengt Sennblad, Elena Tremoli, Ulf de Faire, Fabrizio Veglia, Ian Ford, J Wouter Jukema, Rudi G J Westendorp, Gert Jan de Borst, Pim A de Jong, Ale Algra, Wilko Spiering, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Olaf H Klungel, Anthonius de Boer, Pieter A Doevendans, Charles B Eaton, Jennifer G Robinson, David Duggan, , John Kjekshus, John R Downs, Antonio M Gotto, Anthony C Keech, Roberto Marchioli, Gianni Tognoni, Peter S Sever, Neil R Poulter, David D Waters, Terje R Pedersen, Pierre Amarenco, Haruo Nakamura, John J V McMurray, James D Lewsey, Daniel I Chasman, Paul M Ridker, Aldo P Maggioni, Luigi Tavazzi, Kausik K Ray, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally Seshasai, JoAnn E Manson, Jackie F Price, Peter H Whincup, Richard W Morris, Debbie A Lawlor, George Davey Smith, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Pamela J Schreiner, Myriam Fornage, David S Siscovick, Mary Cushman, Meena Kumari, Nick J Wareham, W M Monique Verschuren, Susan Redline, Sanjay R Patel, John C Whittaker, Anders Hamsten, Joseph A Delaney, Caroline Dale, Tom R Gaunt, Andrew Wong, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, Sekar Kathiresan, Berta A Castillo, Pim van der Harst, Eric J Brunner, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen, Michael G Marmot, Ronald M Krauss, Michael Tsai, Josef Coresh, Ronald C Hoogeveen, Bruce M Psaty, Leslie A Lange, Hakon Hakonarson, Frank Dudbridge, Steve E Humphries, Philippa J Talmud, Mika Kivimäki, Nicholas J Timpson, Claudia Langenberg, Folkert W Asselbergs, Mikhail Voevoda, Martin Bobak, Hynek Pikhart, James G Wilson, Alex P Reiner, Brendan J Keating, Aroon D Hingorani, Naveed Sattar.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Statins increase the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess whether this increase in risk is a consequence of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the intended drug target.
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Caspase-9 mediates photoreceptor death after blunt ocular trauma.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Ocular trauma is common in civilian and military populations. Commotio retinae involves acute disruption of photoreceptor outer segments after blunt ocular trauma, with subsequent photoreceptor apoptosis causing permanent visual impairment. The mechanisms of photoreceptor death in commotio retinae have not previously been described, although caspase-dependent death is important in other nontraumatic retinal degenerations. We assessed the role of caspase-9 as a mediator of photoreceptor death in a rat model of ballistic ocular trauma causing commotio retinae.
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Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.
Andrew R Wood, Tonu Esko, Jian Yang, Sailaja Vedantam, Tune H Pers, Stefan Gustafsson, Audrey Y Chu, Karol Estrada, Jian'an Luan, Zoltan Kutalik, Najaf Amin, Martin L Buchkovich, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Felix R Day, Yanan Duan, Tove Fall, Rudolf Fehrmann, Teresa Ferreira, Anne U Jackson, Juha Karjalainen, Ken Sin Lo, Adam E Locke, Reedik Mägi, Evelin Mihailov, Eleonora Porcu, Joshua C Randall, André Scherag, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Harm-Jan Westra, Thomas W Winkler, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Jing Hua Zhao, Devin Absher, Eva Albrecht, Denise Anderson, Jeffrey Baron, Marian Beekman, Ayse Demirkan, Georg B Ehret, Bjarke Feenstra, Mary F Feitosa, Krista Fischer, Ross M Fraser, Anuj Goel, Jian Gong, Anne E Justice, Stavroula Kanoni, Marcus E Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Unhee Lim, Vaneet Lotay, Julian C Lui, Massimo Mangino, Irene Mateo Leach, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Michael A Nalls, Dale R Nyholt, Cameron D Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Sonali Pechlivanis, Inga Prokopenko, Janina S Ried, Stephan Ripke, Dmitry Shungin, Alena Stančáková, Rona J Strawbridge, Yun Ju Sung, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Stella Trompet, Sander W van der Laan, Jessica van Setten, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Zhaoming Wang, Loïc Yengo, Weihua Zhang, Uzma Afzal, Johan Arnlöv, Gillian M Arscott, Stefania Bandinelli, Amy Barrett, Claire Bellis, Amanda J Bennett, Christian Berne, Matthias Blüher, Jennifer L Bolton, Yvonne Böttcher, Heather A Boyd, Marcel Bruinenberg, Brendan M Buckley, Steven Buyske, Ida H Caspersen, Peter S Chines, Robert Clarke, Simone Claudi-Boehm, Matthew Cooper, E Warwick Daw, Pim A de Jong, Joris Deelen, Graciela Delgado, Josh C Denny, Rosalie Dhonukshe-Rutten, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Marcus Dörr, Niina Eklund, Elodie Eury, Lasse Folkersen, Melissa E Garcia, Frank Geller, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Alan S Go, Harald Grallert, Tanja B Grammer, Jürgen Gräßler, Henrik Grönberg, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Christopher J Groves, Jeffrey Haessler, Per Hall, Toomas Haller, Göran Hallmans, Anke Hannemann, Catharina A Hartman, Maija Hassinen, Caroline Hayward, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Quinta Helmer, Gibran Hemani, Anjali K Henders, Hans L Hillege, Mark A Hlatky, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Per Hoffmann, Oddgeir Holmen, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Thomas Illig, Aaron Isaacs, Alan L James, Janina Jeff, Berit Johansen, Asa Johansson, Jennifer Jolley, Thorhildur Juliusdottir, Juhani Junttila, Abel N Kho, Leena Kinnunen, Norman Klopp, Thomas Kocher, Wolfgang Kratzer, Peter Lichtner, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Stéphane Lobbens, Mattias Lorentzon, Yingchang Lu, Valeriya Lyssenko, Patrik K E Magnusson, Anubha Mahajan, Marc Maillard, Wendy L McArdle, Colin A McKenzie, Stela McLachlan, Paul J McLaren, Cristina Menni, Sigrun Merger, Lili Milani, Alireza Moayyeri, Keri L Monda, Mario A Morken, Gabriele Müller, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Arthur W Musk, Narisu Narisu, Matthias Nauck, Ilja M Nolte, Markus M Nöthen, Laticia Oozageer, Stefan Pilz, Nigel W Rayner, Frida Renstrom, Neil R Robertson, Lynda M Rose, Ronan Roussel, Serena Sanna, Hubert Scharnagl, Salome Scholtens, Fredrick R Schumacher, Heribert Schunkert, Robert A Scott, Joban Sehmi, Thomas Seufferlein, Jianxin Shi, Karri Silventoinen, Johannes H Smit, Albert Vernon Smith, Joanna Smolonska, Alice V Stanton, Kathleen Stirrups, David J Stott, Heather M Stringham, Johan Sundström, Morris A Swertz, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Bamidele O Tayo, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Jonathan P Tyrer, Suzanne van Dijk, Natasja M van Schoor, Nathalie van der Velde, Diana van Heemst, Floor V A van Oort, Sita H Vermeulen, Niek Verweij, Judith M Vonk, Lindsay L Waite, Melanie Waldenberger, Roman Wennauer, Lynne R Wilkens, Christina Willenborg, Tom Wilsgaard, Mary K Wojczynski, Andrew Wong, Alan F Wright, Qunyuan Zhang, Dominique Arveiler, Stephan J L Bakker, John Beilby, Richard N Bergman, Sven Bergmann, Reiner Biffar, John Blangero, Dorret I Boomsma, Stefan R Bornstein, Pascal Bovet, Paolo Brambilla, Morris J Brown, Harry Campbell, Mark J Caulfield, Aravinda Chakravarti, Rory Collins, Francis S Collins, Dana C Crawford, L Adrienne Cupples, John Danesh, Ulf de Faire, Hester M den Ruijter, Raimund Erbel, Jeanette Erdmann, Johan G Eriksson, Martin Farrall, Ele Ferrannini, Jean Ferrières, Ian Ford, Nita G Forouhi, Terrence Forrester, Ron T Gansevoort, Pablo V Gejman, Christian Gieger, Alain Golay, Omri Gottesman, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, David W Haas, Alistair S Hall, Tamara B Harris, Andrew T Hattersley, Andrew C Heath, Christian Hengstenberg, Andrew A Hicks, Lucia A Hindorff, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, G Kees Hovingh, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Elina Hyppönen, Kevin B Jacobs, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti M Jula, Jaakko Kaprio, John J P Kastelein, Manfred Kayser, Frank Kee, Sirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Jaspal S Kooner, Charles Kooperberg, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Aldi T Kraja, Meena Kumari, Johanna Kuusisto, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Loic Le Marchand, Terho Lehtimäki, Sara Lupoli, Pamela A F Madden, Satu Mannisto, Paolo Manunta, André Marette, Tara C Matise, Barbara McKnight, Thomas Meitinger, Frans L Moll, Grant W Montgomery, Andrew D Morris, Andrew P Morris, Jeffrey C Murray, Mari Nelis, Claes Ohlsson, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Ken K Ong, Willem H Ouwehand, Gerard Pasterkamp, Annette Peters, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Tuomo Rankinen, D C Rao, Treva K Rice, Marylyn Ritchie, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Jouko Saramies, Mark A Sarzynski, Peter E H Schwarz, Sylvain Sebert, Peter Sever, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Ronald P Stolk, Jean-Claude Tardif, Anke Tönjes, Angelo Tremblay, Elena Tremoli, Jarmo Virtamo, Marie-Claude Vohl, , Philippe Amouyel, Folkert W Asselbergs, Themistocles L Assimes, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Erwin P Bottinger, Claude Bouchard, Stéphane Cauchi, John C Chambers, Stephen J Chanock, Richard S Cooper, Paul I W de Bakker, George Dedoussis, Luigi Ferrucci, Paul W Franks, Philippe Froguel, Leif C Groop, Christopher A Haiman, Anders Hamsten, M Geoffrey Hayes, Jennie Hui, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, J Wouter Jukema, Robert C Kaplan, Mika Kivimäki, Diana Kuh, Markku Laakso, Yongmei Liu, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mads Melbye, Susanne Moebus, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Ben A Oostra, Colin N A Palmer, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Ulrike Peters, Joseph E Powell, Chris Power, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Eva Reinmaa, Paul M Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jerome I Rotter, Timo E Saaristo, Danish Saleheen, David Schlessinger, P Eline Slagboom, Harold Snieder, Tim D Spector, Konstantin Strauch, Michael Stumvoll, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Pim van der Harst, Henry Völzke, Mark Walker, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, H-Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Pieter Zanen, Panos Deloukas, Iris M Heid, Cecilia M Lindgren, Karen L Mohlke, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Inês Barroso, Caroline S Fox, Kari E North, David P Strachan, Jacques S Beckmann, Sonja I Berndt, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B Borecki, Mark I McCarthy, Andres Metspalu, Kari Stefansson, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Lude Franke, Cristen J Willer, Alkes L Price, Guillaume Lettre, Ruth J F Loos, Michael N Weedon, Erik Ingelsson, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Daniel I Chasman, Michael E Goddard, Peter M Visscher, Joel N Hirschhorn, Timothy M Frayling.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ?2,000, ?3,700 and ?9,500 SNPs explained ?21%, ?24% and ?29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/?-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
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A low-frequency variant in MAPK14 provides mechanistic evidence of a link with myeloperoxidase: a prognostic cardiovascular risk marker.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Genetics can be used to predict drug effects and generate hypotheses around alternative indications. To support Losmapimod, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor in development for acute coronary syndrome, we characterized gene variation in MAPK11/14 genes by exome sequencing and follow-up genotyping or imputation in participants well-phenotyped for cardiovascular and metabolic traits.
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First report of resistance to acetolactate-synthase-inhibiting herbicides in yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus): confirmation and characterization.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Yellow nutsedge is one of the most problematic sedges in Arkansas rice, requiring the frequent use of halosulfuron (sulfonylurea) for its control. In the summer of 2012, halosulfuron at 53 g ha(-1) (labeled field rate) failed to control yellow nutsedge. The level of resistance to halosulfuron was determined in the putative resistant biotype, and its cross-resistance to other acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors from four different herbicide families. ALS enzyme assays and analysis of the ALS gene were used to ascertain the resistance mechanism.
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The Effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Injection at Different Time Points on Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in a Rat Tail Model.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Prospective in vivo rat tail model of disc degeneration comparing the effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) injection over various time points and grades of degeneration.
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Analysis of Three-Dimensional Aerosol Deposition in Pharmacologically Relevant Terms: Beyond Black or White ROIs.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Abstract Background: This article presents a novel methodological approach to evaluate images of aerosol deposition taken with PET-CT cameras. Traditionally, Black-or-White (BW) Regions of Interest (ROIs) are created to cover Anatomical Regions (ARs) segmented from the high-resolution CT. Such ROIs do not usually consider blurring effects due to limited spatial resolution or breathing motion, and do not consider uncertainty in the AR position within the PET image. The new methodology presented here (Grayscale) addresses these issues, allows estimates of aerosol deposition within ARs, and expresses the deposition in terms of Tissue Dosing (in the lung periphery) and Inner Surface Concentration (in the larger airways). Methods: Imaging data included a PET deposition image acquired during breathing and two CT scans acquired during breath holds at different lung volumes. The lungs were segmented into anatomically consistent ARs to allow unbiased comparisons across subjects and across lobes. The Grayscale method involves defining Voxel Influence Matrices (VIMs) to consider how average activity within each AR influences the measured activity within each voxel. The BW and Grayscale methods were used to analyze aerosol deposition in 14 bronchoconstricted asthmatics. Results: Grayscale resulted in a closer description of the PET image than BW (p<0.0001) and exposed a seven-fold underestimation in measures of specific deposition. The Average Tissue Dosing was 2.11×10(-6) Total Lung Dose/mg. The average Inner Surface Concentration was 45×10(-6) Total Lung Dose/mm(2), with the left lower lobe having a lower ISC than lobes of the right lung (p<0.05). There was a strong lobar heterogeneity in these measures (COV=0.3). Conclusion: The Grayscale approach is an improvement over the BW approach and provides a closer description of the PET image. It can be used to characterize heterogeneous concentrations throughout the lung and may be important in translational research and in the evaluation of aerosol delivery systems.
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Genetic evidence for a normal-weight "metabolically obese" phenotype linking insulin resistance, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The mechanisms that predispose to hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals of normal weight are poorly understood. In contrast, in monogenic primary lipodystrophy-a reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue-it is clear that it is adipose dysfunction that causes severe insulin resistance (IR), hypertension, CAD, and T2D. We aimed to test the hypothesis that common alleles associated with IR also influence the wider clinical and biochemical profile of monogenic IR. We selected 19 common genetic variants associated with fasting insulin-based measures of IR. We used hierarchical clustering and results from genome-wide association studies of eight nondisease outcomes of monogenic IR to group these variants. We analyzed genetic risk scores against disease outcomes, including 12,171 T2D cases, 40,365 CAD cases, and 69,828 individuals with blood pressure measurements. Hierarchical clustering identified 11 variants associated with a metabolic profile consistent with a common, subtle form of lipodystrophy. A genetic risk score consisting of these 11 IR risk alleles was associated with higher triglycerides (? = 0.018; P = 4 × 10(-29)), lower HDL cholesterol (? = -0.020; P = 7 × 10(-37)), greater hepatic steatosis (? = 0.021; P = 3 × 10(-4)), higher alanine transaminase (? = 0.002; P = 3 × 10(-5)), lower sex-hormone-binding globulin (? = -0.010; P = 9 × 10(-13)), and lower adiponectin (? = -0.015; P = 2 × 10(-26)). The same risk alleles were associated with lower BMI (per-allele ? = -0.008; P = 7 × 10(-8)) and increased visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (? = -0.015; P = 6 × 10(-7)). Individuals carrying ?17 fasting insulin-raising alleles (5.5% population) were slimmer (0.30 kg/m(2)) but at increased risk of T2D (odds ratio [OR] 1.46; per-allele P = 5 × 10(-13)), CAD (OR 1.12; per-allele P = 1 × 10(-5)), and increased blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 1.21 mmHg [per-allele P = 2 × 10(-5)] and 0.67 mmHg [per-allele P = 2 × 10(-4)], respectively) compared with individuals carrying ?9 risk alleles (5.5% population). Our results provide genetic evidence for a link between the three diseases of the "metabolic syndrome" and point to reduced subcutaneous adiposity as a central mechanism.
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Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data.
Michael V Holmes, Caroline E Dale, Luisa Zuccolo, Richard J Silverwood, Yiran Guo, Zheng Ye, David Prieto-Merino, Abbas Dehghan, Stella Trompet, Andrew Wong, Alana Cavadino, Dagmar Drogan, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Shanshan Li, Ajay Yesupriya, Maarten Leusink, Johan Sundström, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Hynek Pikhart, Daniel I Swerdlow, Andrie G Panayiotou, Svetlana A Borinskaya, Chris Finan, Sonia Shah, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Tina Shah, Jorgen Engmann, Lasse Folkersen, Per Eriksson, Fulvio Ricceri, Olle Melander, Carlotta Sacerdote, Dale M Gamble, Sruti Rayaprolu, Owen A Ross, Stela McLachlan, Olga Vikhireva, Ivonne Sluijs, Robert A Scott, Vera Adamkova, Leon Flicker, Frank M van Bockxmeer, Christine Power, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Tom Meade, Michael G Marmot, José M Ferro, Sofia Paulos-Pinheiro, Steve E Humphries, Philippa J Talmud, Irene Mateo Leach, Niek Verweij, Allan Linneberg, Tea Skaaby, Pieter A Doevendans, Maarten J Cramer, Pim van der Harst, Olaf H Klungel, Nicole F Dowling, Anna F Dominiczak, Meena Kumari, Andrew N Nicolaides, Cornelia Weikert, Heiner Boeing, Shah Ebrahim, Tom R Gaunt, Jackie F Price, Lars Lannfelt, Anne Peasey, Růžena Kubinova, Andrzej Pająk, Sofia Malyutina, Mikhail I Voevoda, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Paul E Norman, Graeme J Hankey, Manuela M Bergmann, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Jackie Cooper, Jutta Palmen, Wilko Spiering, Pim A de Jong, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, André G Uitterlinden, M Arfan Ikram, Ian Ford, Elina Hyppönen, Osvaldo P Almeida, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Anders Hamsten, Lise Lotte N Husemoen, Anne Tjønneland, Janne S Tolstrup, Eric Rimm, Joline W J Beulens, W M Monique Verschuren, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Marten H Hofker, S Goya Wannamethee, Peter H Whincup, Richard Morris, Astrid M Vicente, Hugh Watkins, Martin Farrall, J Wouter Jukema, James Meschia, L Adrienne Cupples, Stephen J Sharp, Myriam Fornage, Charles Kooperberg, Andrea Z LaCroix, James Y Dai, Matthew B Lanktree, David S Siscovick, Eric Jorgenson, Bonnie Spring, Josef Coresh, Yun R Li, Sarah G Buxbaum, Pamela J Schreiner, R Curtis Ellison, Michael Y Tsai, Sanjay R Patel, Susan Redline, Andrew D Johnson, Ron C Hoogeveen, Hakon Hakonarson, Jerome I Rotter, Eric Boerwinkle, Paul I W de Bakker, Mika Kivimäki, Folkert W Asselbergs, Naveed Sattar, Debbie A Lawlor, John Whittaker, George Davey Smith, Kenneth Mukamal, Bruce M Psaty, James G Wilson, Leslie A Lange, Ajna Hamidovic, Aroon D Hingorani, Børge G Nordestgaard, Martin Bobak, David A Leon, Claudia Langenberg, Tom M Palmer, Alex P Reiner, Brendan J Keating, Frank Dudbridge, Juan P Casas, .
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease.
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Novel approach identifies SNPs in SLC2A10 and KCNK9 with evidence for parent-of-origin effect on body mass index.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The phenotypic effect of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) depends on their parental origin. We present a novel approach to detect parent-of-origin effects (POEs) in genome-wide genotype data of unrelated individuals. The method exploits increased phenotypic variance in the heterozygous genotype group relative to the homozygous groups. We applied the method to >56,000 unrelated individuals to search for POEs influencing body mass index (BMI). Six lead SNPs were carried forward for replication in five family-based studies (of ?4,000 trios). Two SNPs replicated: the paternal rs2471083-C allele (located near the imprinted KCNK9 gene) and the paternal rs3091869-T allele (located near the SLC2A10 gene) increased BMI equally (beta?=?0.11 (SD), P<0.0027) compared to the respective maternal alleles. Real-time PCR experiments of lymphoblastoid cell lines from the CEPH families showed that expression of both genes was dependent on parental origin of the SNPs alleles (P<0.01). Our scheme opens new opportunities to exploit GWAS data of unrelated individuals to identify POEs and demonstrates that they play an important role in adult obesity.
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Common genetic variants highlight the role of insulin resistance and body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes, independent of obesity.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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We aimed to validate genetic variants as instruments for insulin resistance and secretion, to characterize their association with intermediate phenotypes, and to investigate their role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. We investigated the association of genetic scores with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp- and oral glucose tolerance test-based measures of insulin resistance and secretion and a range of metabolic measures in up to 18,565 individuals. We also studied their association with T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals in up to 8,124 incident T2D cases. The insulin resistance score was associated with lower insulin sensitivity measured by M/I value (? in SDs per allele [95% CI], -0.03 [-0.04, -0.01]; P = 0.004). This score was associated with lower BMI (-0.01 [-0.01, -0.0]; P = 0.02) and gluteofemoral fat mass (-0.03 [-0.05, -0.02; P = 1.4 × 10(-6)) and with higher alanine transaminase (0.02 [0.01, 0.03]; P = 0.002) and ?-glutamyl transferase (0.02 [0.01, 0.03]; P = 0.001). While the secretion score had a stronger association with T2D in leaner individuals (Pinteraction = 0.001), we saw no difference in the association of the insulin resistance score with T2D among BMI or waist strata (Pinteraction > 0.31). While insulin resistance is often considered secondary to obesity, the association of the insulin resistance score with lower BMI and adiposity and with incident T2D even among individuals of normal weight highlights the role of insulin resistance and ectopic fat distribution in T2D, independently of body size.
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Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity.
Daan W Loth, María Soler Artigas, Sina A Gharib, Louise V Wain, Nora Franceschini, Beate Koch, Tess D Pottinger, Albert Vernon Smith, Qing Duan, Chris Oldmeadow, Mi Kyeong Lee, David P Strachan, Alan L James, Jennifer E Huffman, Veronique Vitart, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Nicholas J Wareham, Jaakko Kaprio, Xin-Qun Wang, Holly Trochet, Mika Kähönen, Claudia Flexeder, Eva Albrecht, Lorna M Lopez, Kim de Jong, Bharat Thyagarajan, Alexessander Couto Alves, Stefan Enroth, Ernst Omenaas, Peter K Joshi, Tove Fall, Ana Viñuela, Lenore J Launer, Laura R Loehr, Myriam Fornage, Guo Li, Jemma B Wilk, Wenbo Tang, Ani Manichaikul, Lies Lahousse, Tamara B Harris, Kari E North, Alicja R Rudnicka, Jennie Hui, Xiangjun Gu, Thomas Lumley, Alan F Wright, Nicholas D Hastie, Susan Campbell, Rajesh Kumar, Isabelle Pin, Robert A Scott, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Ida Surakka, Yongmei Liu, Elizabeth G Holliday, Holger Schulz, Joachim Heinrich, Gail Davies, Judith M Vonk, Mary Wojczynski, Anneli Pouta, Asa Johansson, Sarah H Wild, Erik Ingelsson, Fernando Rivadeneira, Henry Völzke, Pirro G Hysi, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Alanna C Morrison, Jerome I Rotter, Wei Gao, Dirkje S Postma, Wendy B White, Stephen S Rich, Albert Hofman, Thor Aspelund, David Couper, Lewis J Smith, Bruce M Psaty, Kurt Lohman, Esteban G Burchard, André G Uitterlinden, Melissa Garcia, Bonnie R Joubert, Wendy L McArdle, A Bill Musk, Nadia Hansel, Susan R Heckbert, Lina Zgaga, Joyce B J van Meurs, Pau Navarro, Igor Rudan, Yeon-Mok Oh, Susan Redline, Deborah L Jarvis, Jing Hua Zhao, Taina Rantanen, George T O'Connor, Samuli Ripatti, Rodney J Scott, Stefan Karrasch, Harald Grallert, Nathan C Gaddis, John M Starr, Cisca Wijmenga, Ryan L Minster, David J Lederer, Juha Pekkanen, Ulf Gyllensten, Harry Campbell, Andrew P Morris, Sven Gläser, Christopher J Hammond, Kristin M Burkart, John Beilby, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Vilmundur Gudnason, Dana B Hancock, O Dale Williams, Ozren Polašek, Tatijana Zemunik, Ivana Kolčić, Marcy F Petrini, Matthias Wjst, Woo Jin Kim, David J Porteous, Generation Scotland, Blair H Smith, Anne Viljanen, Markku Heliövaara, John R Attia, Ian Sayers, Regina Hampel, Christian Gieger, Ian J Deary, H Marike Boezen, Anne Newman, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, James F Wilson, Lars Lind, Bruno H Stricker, Alexander Teumer, Timothy D Spector, Erik Melén, Marjolein J Peters, Leslie A Lange, R Graham Barr, Ken R Bracke, Fien M Verhamme, Joohon Sung, Pieter S Hiemstra, Patricia A Cassano, Akshay Sood, Caroline Hayward, Josée Dupuis, Ian P Hall, Guy G Brusselle, Martin D Tobin, Stephanie J London.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917 additional individuals of European ancestry. We found six new regions associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) with FVC in or near EFEMP1, BMP6, MIR129-2-HSD17B12, PRDM11, WWOX and KCNJ2. Two loci previously associated with spirometric measures (GSTCD and PTCH1) were related to FVC. Newly implicated regions were followed up in samples from African-American, Korean, Chinese and Hispanic individuals. We detected transcripts for all six newly implicated genes in human lung tissue. The new loci may inform mechanisms involved in lung development and the pathogenesis of restrictive lung disease.
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Novel loci affecting iron homeostasis and their effects in individuals at risk for hemochromatosis.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Variation in body iron is associated with or causes diseases, including anaemia and iron overload. Here, we analyse genetic association data on biochemical markers of iron status from 11 European-population studies, with replication in eight additional cohorts (total up to 48,972 subjects). We find 11 genome-wide-significant (P<5 × 10(-8)) loci, some including known iron-related genes (HFE, SLC40A1, TF, TFR2, TFRC, TMPRSS6) and others novel (ABO, ARNTL, FADS2, NAT2, TEX14). SNPs at ARNTL, TF, and TFR2 affect iron markers in HFE C282Y homozygotes at risk for hemochromatosis. There is substantial overlap between our iron loci and loci affecting erythrocyte and lipid phenotypes. These results will facilitate investigation of the roles of iron in disease.
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Gene-lifestyle interaction and type 2 diabetes: the EPIC interact case-cohort study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has progressed rapidly, but the interactions between common genetic variants and lifestyle risk factors have not been systematically investigated in studies with adequate statistical power. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the combined effects of genetic and lifestyle factors on risk of T2D in order to inform strategies for prevention.
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Medicare reimbursement attributable to catheter-associated urinary tract infection in the inpatient setting: a retrospective cohort analysis.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Most catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are considered preventable and thus a potential target for health care quality improvement and cost savings.
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Synthetic and biological studies of tubulin targeting c2-substituted 7-deazahypoxanthines derived from marine alkaloid rigidins.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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C2-aryl- and C2-alkyl-7-deazahypoxanthines as analogues of marine alkaloid rigidins were prepared utilizing novel synthetic methods developed for the construction of the pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine ring system. The new compounds exhibited sub-micromolar to nanomolar antiproliferative potencies against a panel of cell lines including in vitro models for drug-resistant tumors, such as glioblastoma, melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer. A selected representative C2-methyl-7-deazahypoxanthine was found to inhibit microtubule dynamics in cancer cells, lending evidence for tubulin targeting as a mode of action for these compounds in cancer cells. The results of the docking studies utilizing the colchicine site on ?-tubulin were consistent with the observed structure-activity relationship data, including an important finding that derivatization at C2 with linear alkyl groups leads to the retention of activity, thus permitting the attachment of a biotin-containing linker for the subsequent proteomics assays. Because many microtubule-targeting compounds are successfully used to fight cancer in the clinic, the reported antitubulin rigidin analogues have significant potential as new anticancer agents.
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Gene-age interactions in blood pressure regulation: a large-scale investigation with the CHARGE, Global BPgen, and ICBP Consortia.
Jeannette Simino, Gang Shi, Joshua C Bis, Daniel I Chasman, Georg B Ehret, Xiangjun Gu, Xiuqing Guo, Shih-Jen Hwang, Eric Sijbrands, Albert V Smith, Germaine C Verwoert, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Gemma Cadby, Peng Chen, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tanguy Corre, Rudolf A de Boer, Anuj Goel, Toby Johnson, Chiea-Chuen Khor, , Carla Lluis-Ganella, Jian'an Luan, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Ilja M Nolte, Xueling Sim, Siim Sõber, Peter J van der Most, Niek Verweij, Jing Hua Zhao, Najaf Amin, Eric Boerwinkle, Claude Bouchard, Abbas Dehghan, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Roberto Elosua, Oscar H Franco, Christian Gieger, Tamara B Harris, Serge Hercberg, Albert Hofman, Alan L James, Andrew D Johnson, Mika Kähönen, Kay-Tee Khaw, Zoltan Kutalik, Martin G Larson, Lenore J Launer, Guo Li, Jianjun Liu, Kiang Liu, Alanna C Morrison, Gerjan Navis, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, George J Papanicolau, Brenda W Penninx, Bruce M Psaty, Leslie J Raffel, Olli T Raitakari, Kenneth Rice, Fernando Rivadeneira, Lynda M Rose, Serena Sanna, Robert A Scott, David S Siscovick, Ronald P Stolk, André G Uitterlinden, Dhananjay Vaidya, Melanie M van der Klauw, Ramachandran S Vasan, Eranga Nishanthie Vithana, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Hugh Watkins, Terri L Young, Tin Aung, Murielle Bochud, Martin Farrall, Catharina A Hartman, Maris Laan, Edward G Lakatta, Terho Lehtimäki, Ruth J F Loos, Gavin Lucas, Pierre Meneton, Lyle J Palmer, Rainer Rettig, Harold Snieder, E Shyong Tai, Yik-Ying Teo, Pim van der Harst, Nicholas J Wareham, Cisca Wijmenga, Tien Yin Wong, Myriam Fornage, Vilmundur Gudnason, Daniel Levy, Walter Palmas, Paul M Ridker, Jerome I Rotter, Cornelia M van Duijn, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Aravinda Chakravarti, Dabeeru C Rao.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Although age-dependent effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported, they have not been systematically investigated in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We leveraged the infrastructure of three well-established consortia (CHARGE, GBPgen, and ICBP) and a nonstandard approach (age stratification and metaregression) to conduct a genome-wide search of common variants with age-dependent effects on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), and pulse (PP) pressure. In a two-staged design using 99,241 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 20 genome-wide significant (p ? 5 × 10(-8)) loci by using joint tests of the SNP main effect and SNP-age interaction. Nine of the significant loci demonstrated nominal evidence of age-dependent effects on BP by tests of the interactions alone. Index SNPs in the EHBP1L1 (DBP and MAP), CASZ1 (SBP and MAP), and GOSR2 (PP) loci exhibited the largest age interactions, with opposite directions of effect in the young versus the old. The changes in the genetic effects over time were small but nonnegligible (up to 1.58 mm Hg over 60 years). The EHBP1L1 locus was discovered through gene-age interactions only in whites but had DBP main effects replicated (p = 8.3 × 10(-4)) in 8,682 Asians from Singapore, indicating potential interethnic heterogeneity. A secondary analysis revealed 22 loci with evidence of age-specific effects (e.g., only in 20 to 29-year-olds). Age can be used to select samples with larger genetic effect sizes and more homogenous phenotypes, which may increase statistical power. Age-dependent effects identified through novel statistical approaches can provide insight into the biology and temporal regulation underlying BP associations.
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Rab proteins implicated in lipid storage and mobilization.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Abnormal intracellular accumulation or transport of lipids contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of human diseases. In the liver, excess accumulation of triacylglycerol (TG) leads to fatty liver disease encompassing steatosis, steatohepatitis and fibrosis. This places individuals at risk of developing cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatic decompensation and also contributes to the emergence of insulin resistance and dyslipidemias affecting many other organs. Excessive accumulation of TG in adipose tissue contributes to insulin resistance as well as to the release of cytokines attracting leucocytes leading to a pro-inflammatory state. Pathological accumulation of cholesteryl ester (CE) in macrophages in the arterial wall is the progenitor of atherosclerotic plaques and heart disease. Overconsumption of dietary fat, cholesterol and carbohydrates explains why these diseases are on the increase yet offers few clues for how to prevent or treat individuals. Dietary regimes have proven futile and barring surgery, no realistic alternatives are at hand as effective drugs are few and not without side effects. Overweight and obesity-related diseases are no longer restricted to the developed world and as such, constitute a global problem. Development of new drugs and treatment strategies are a priority yet requires as a first step, elucidation of the molecular pathophysiology underlying each associated disease state. The lipid droplet (LD), an up to now overlooked intracellular organelle, appears at the heart of each pathophysiology linking key regulatory and metabolic processes as well as constituting the site of storage of both TGs and CEs. As the molecular machinery and mechanisms of LDs of each cell type are being elucidated, regulatory proteins used to control various cellular processes are emerging. Of these and the subject of this review, small GTPases belonging to the Rab protein family appear as important molecular switches used in the regulation of the intracellular trafficking and storage of lipids.
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Ecomorphology and phylogenetic risk: Implications for habitat reconstruction using fossil bovids.
J. Hum. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Reconstructions of paleohabitats are necessary aids in understanding hominin evolution. The morphology of species from relevant sites, understood in terms of functional relationships to habitat (termed ecomorphology), offers a direct link to habitat. Bovids are a speciose radiation that includes many habitat specialists and are abundant in the fossil record. Thus, bovids are extremely common in ecomorphological analyses. However, bovid phylogeny and habitat preference are related, which raises the possibility that analyses linking habitat with morphology are not 'taxon free' but 'taxon-dependent.' Here we analyze eight relative dimensions and one shape index of the metatarsal for a sample of 72 bovid species and one antilocaprid. The selected variables have been previously shown to have strong associations with habitat and to have functional explanations for these associations. Phylogenetic generalized least squares analyses of these variables, including habitat and size, resulted in estimates for the parameter lambda (used to model phylogenetic signal) varying from zero to one. Thus, while phylogeny, morphology, and habitat all march together among the bovids, the odds that phylogeny confounds ecomorphological analyses may vary depending on particular morphological characteristics. While large values of lambda do not necessarily indicate that habitat differences are unimportant drivers of morphology, we consider the low value of lambda for relative metatarsal width suggestive that conclusions about habitat built on observations of this particular morphology carry with them less 'phylogenetic risk.' We suggest that the way forward for ecomorphology is grounded in functionally relevant observations and careful consideration of phylogeny designed to bracket probable habitat preferences appropriately. Separate consideration of different morphological variables may help to determine the level of 'phylogenetic risk' attached to conclusions linking habitat and morphology.
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Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.
, Anubha Mahajan, Min Jin Go, Weihua Zhang, Jennifer E Below, Kyle J Gaulton, Teresa Ferreira, Momoko Horikoshi, Andrew D Johnson, Maggie C Y Ng, Inga Prokopenko, Danish Saleheen, Xu Wang, Eleftheria Zeggini, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Linda S Adair, Peter Almgren, Mustafa Atalay, Tin Aung, Damiano Baldassarre, Beverley Balkau, Yuqian Bao, Anthony H Barnett, Inês Barroso, Abdul Basit, Latonya F Been, John Beilby, Graeme I Bell, Rafn Benediktsson, Richard N Bergman, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L Bonnycastle, Noel Burtt, Qiuyin Cai, Harry Campbell, Jason Carey, Stéphane Cauchi, Mark Caulfield, Juliana C N Chan, Li-Ching Chang, Tien-Jyun Chang, Yi-Cheng Chang, Guillaume Charpentier, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Han Chen, Yuan-Tsong Chen, Kee-Seng Chia, Manickam Chidambaram, Peter S Chines, Nam H Cho, Young Min Cho, Lee-Ming Chuang, Francis S Collins, Marylin C Cornelis, David J Couper, Andrew T Crenshaw, Rob M Van Dam, John Danesh, Debashish Das, Ulf de Faire, George Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Antigone S Dimas, Christian Dina, Alex S Doney, Peter J Donnelly, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Cornelia van Duijn, Josée Dupuis, Sarah Edkins, Paul Elliott, Valur Emilsson, Raimund Erbel, Johan G Eriksson, Jorge Escobedo, Tonu Esko, Elodie Eury, Jose C Florez, Pierre Fontanillas, Nita G Forouhi, Tom Forsén, Caroline Fox, Ross M Fraser, Timothy M Frayling, Philippe Froguel, Philippe Frossard, Yutang Gao, Karl Gertow, Christian Gieger, Bruna Gigante, Harald Grallert, George B Grant, Leif C Grrop, Chrisropher J Groves, Elin Grundberg, Candace Guiducci, Anders Hamsten, Bok-Ghee Han, Kazuo Hara, Neelam Hassanali, Andrew T Hattersley, Caroline Hayward, Asa K Hedman, Christian Herder, Albert Hofman, Oddgeir L Holmen, Kees Hovingh, Astradur B Hreidarsson, Cheng Hu, Frank B Hu, Jennie Hui, Steve E Humphries, Sarah E Hunt, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Zafar I Hydrie, Hiroshi Ikegami, Thomas Illig, Erik Ingelsson, Muhammed Islam, Bo Isomaa, Anne U Jackson, Tazeen Jafar, Alan James, Weiping Jia, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Anna Jonsson, Jeremy B M Jowett, Takashi Kadowaki, Hyun Min Kang, Stavroula Kanoni, Wen Hong L Kao, Sekar Kathiresan, Norihiro Kato, Prasad Katulanda, Kirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Ann M Kelly, Hassan Khan, Kay-Tee Khaw, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Hyung-Lae Kim, Sangsoo Kim, Young Jin Kim, Leena Kinnunen, Norman Klopp, Augustine Kong, Eeva Korpi-Hyövälti, Sudhir Kowlessur, Peter Kraft, Jasmina Kravic, Malene M Kristensen, S Krithika, Ashish Kumar, Jesus Kumate, Johanna Kuusisto, Soo Heon Kwak, Markku Laakso, Vasiliki Lagou, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Cordelia Langford, Robert Lawrence, Karin Leander, Jen-Mai Lee, Nanette R Lee, Man Li, Xinzhong Li, Yun Li, Junbin Liang, Samuel Liju, Wei-Yen Lim, Lars Lind, Cecilia M Lindgren, Eero Lindholm, Ching-Ti Liu, Jian Jun Liu, Stéphane Lobbens, Jirong Long, Ruth J F Loos, Wei Lu, Jian'an Luan, Valeriya Lyssenko, Ronald C W Ma, Shiro Maeda, Reedik Mägi, Satu Mannisto, David R Matthews, James B Meigs, Olle Melander, Andres Metspalu, Julia Meyer, Ghazala Mirza, Evelin Mihailov, Susanne Moebus, Viswanathan Mohan, Karen L Mohlke, Andrew D Morris, Thomas W Mühleisen, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Bill Musk, Jiro Nakamura, Eitaro Nakashima, Pau Navarro, Peng-Keat Ng, Alexandra C Nica, Peter M Nilsson, Inger Njølstad, Markus M Nöthen, Keizo Ohnaka, Twee Hee Ong, Katharine R Owen, Colin N A Palmer, James S Pankow, Kyong Soo Park, Melissa Parkin, Sonali Pechlivanis, Nancy L Pedersen, Leena Peltonen, John R B Perry, Annette Peters, Janini M Pinidiyapathirage, Carl G Platou, Simon Potter, Jackie F Price, Lu Qi, Venkatesan Radha, Loukianos Rallidis, Asif Rasheed, Wolfgang Rathman, Rainer Rauramaa, Soumya Raychaudhuri, N William Rayner, Simon D Rees, Emil Rehnberg, Samuli Ripatti, Neil Robertson, Michael Roden, Elizabeth J Rossin, Igor Rudan, Denis Rybin, Timo E Saaristo, Veikko Salomaa, Juha Saltevo, Maria Samuel, Dharambir K Sanghera, Jouko Saramies, James Scott, Laura J Scott, Robert A Scott, Ayellet V Segrè, Joban Sehmi, Bengt Sennblad, Nabi Shah, Sonia Shah, A Samad Shera, Xiao Ou Shu, Alan R Shuldiner, Gunnar Sigurđsson, Eric Sijbrands, Angela Silveira, Xueling Sim, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Kerrin S Small, Wing Yee So, Alena Stančáková, Kari Stefansson, Gerald Steinbach, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Kathleen Stirrups, Rona J Strawbridge, Heather M Stringham, Qi Sun, Chen Suo, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Wan Ting Tay, Tanya M Teslovich, Barbara Thorand, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Emmi Tikkanen, Joseph Trakalo, Elena Tremoli, Mieke D Trip, Fuu Jen Tsai, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André G Uitterlinden, Adán Valladares-Salgado, Sailaja Vedantam, Fabrizio Veglia, Benjamin F Voight, Congrong Wang, Nicholas J Wareham, Roman Wennauer, Ananda R Wickremasinghe, Tom Wilsgaard, James F Wilson, Steven Wiltshire, Wendy Winckler, Tien Yin Wong, Andrew R Wood, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Ying Wu, Ken Yamamoto, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Mingyu Yang, Loïc Yengo, Mitsuhiro Yokota, Robin Young, Delilah Zabaneh, Fan Zhang, Rong Zhang, Wei Zheng, Paul Z Zimmet, David Altshuler, Donald W Bowden, Yoon Shin Cho, Nancy J Cox, Miguel Cruz, Craig L Hanis, Jaspal Kooner, Jong-Young Lee, Mark Seielstad, Yik Ying Teo, Michael Boehnke, Esteban J Parra, Jonh C Chambers, E Shyong Tai, Mark I McCarthy, Andrew P Morris.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
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Effects of supervised exercise program on metabolic function in overweight adolescents.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Inactivity is a primary factor related to childhood obesity, yet aerobic exercise has been shown to prevent weight gain and improve fitness in adolescents. Moreover, children become less active during their summer break from school. This study compared the effects of 4 and 8 weeks of supervised summer activity versus an unsupervised summer break on metabolic function and fitness in adolescents.
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Reported toxicity in 1486 liquid detergent capsule exposures to the UK National Poisons Information Service 2009-2012, including their ophthalmic and CNS effects.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Context. Data on the ophthalmic and central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects of liquid detergent capsules (liquid laundry pods) are limited. Objective. To ascertain the reported toxicity of liquid detergent capsules, particularly their ophthalmic and CNS adverse effects, in a large case series. Methods. Between 1 May 2009 and 30 July 2012 the UK National Poisons Information Service collected prospectively 1509 telephone enquiries (involving 1486 exposures) relating to liquid detergent capsules. Results. The majority of patients (95.6%) were children aged less than 5. Exposure to these products occurred mainly as a result of ingestion alone (n = 1215; 81.8%), with eye contact alone (n = 110; 7.4%), and skin contact alone (n = 20; 1.3%) being less common; multiple routes of exposure were involved in 141 (9.5%) cases. Following ocular exposure (n = 212), features suggesting conjunctivitis (n = 145; 68.4%) and corneal ulceration (n = 6; 2.8%) developed. The most common features reported following ingestion alone were nausea and vomiting (n = 721; 59.3%), followed by coughing (n = 53; 4.4%), drowsiness/CNS depression (n = 49; 42 of these were children were aged 2 years or less) and foaming at the mouth (n = 47; 3.9%). A rash occurred in 22 patients where ingestion was considered to be the route of exposure. Twenty patients were exposed via the dermal route alone and developed erythema (n = 9), rash (n = 6) and burn (n = 3). Conclusions. Ocular exposure to liquid detergent capsules may lead to conjunctivitis and corneal ulceration; detergent ingestion may result in central nervous system (CNS)depression. Greater consumer awareness is required to reduce injury from liquid detergent capsules, particularly that involving the eye.
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Exploiting mTOR signaling: a novel translatable treatment strategy for traumatic optic neuropathy?
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and a failure of axon regeneration contribute to the profound visual loss experienced by patients after traumatic optic neuropathy (TON), for which there are no effective treatments. Experimental manipulations of cellular signaling pathways in animal models have demonstrated that neuronal survival and axon regeneration in the mature central nervous system (CNS) are possible, and increased understanding of the molecular basis of prosurvival and regenerative signals has led to the identification of candidate targets for novel therapeutic strategies. The axogenic pathway is activated sequentially, after growth factor/receptor binding, through phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and the downstream serine/threonine kinase Akt. Akt is a nodal point for the regulation of growth cone dynamics by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3?) and axon protein synthesis/RGC survival by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The mTOR signaling pathway has a pivotal role in numerous cellular processes. It is active during development, but downregulated in the mature CNS and further suppressed by axonal injury, and experimental upregulation of mTOR signaling promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve crush injury. However, several translational challenges remain, including understanding the regulatory mechanisms of axotomy-induced mTOR and GSK3? signaling, and the disparity between the RGC survival and axon regenerative effects. In this review, we explore the molecular basis of RGC regenerative failure and assess the potential for manipulations of mTOR signaling as a novel translatable treatment for TON.
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Plasmonic Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells in the Red-to-near-Infrared Region using Triangular Core-Shell Ag@SiO2 Nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Recently, plasmonic metal nanoparticles have been shown to be very effective in increasing the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Most commonly, spherical nanoparticles composed of silver or gold are used for this application; however, the localized surface plasmon resonances of these isotropic particles have maxima in the 400-550 nm range, limiting any plasmonic enhancements to wavelengths below 600 nm. Herein, we demonstrate that the incorporation of anisotropic, triangular silver nanoprisms in the photoanode of DSSCs can dramatically increase the LHE in the red and near-infrared regions. Core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanoprisms were synthesized and incorporated in various quantities into the titania pastes used to prepare the photoanodes. This optimization led to an overall 32 ± 17% increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of cells made using 0.05% (w/w) of the Ag@SiO2 composite. Measurements of the incident photon-to-current efficiency provided further evidence that this increase is a result of improved light harvesting in the red and near-infrared regions. The effect of shell thickness on nanoparticle stability was also investigated, and it was found that thick (30 nm) silica shells provide the best protection against corrosion by the triiodide-containing electrolyte, while still enabling large improvements in PCE to be realized.
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AMG 145, A Monoclonal Antibody Against PCSK9, Facilitates Achievement of NCEP-ATP III LDL-C Goals Among High Risk Patients: An Analysis From the LAPLACE-TIMI 57 Trial.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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To define the ability of AMG 145, a monoclonal antibody directed against PCSK9, to enable subjects at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events to achieve NCEP-ATP III LDL-C and other lipid parameter goals.
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AMG145, a monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9, significantly reduces lipoprotein(a) in hypercholesterolemic patients receiving statin therapy: an analysis from the LDL-C Assessment with Proprotein Convertase Subtilisi
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there are few available therapies to lower Lp(a). We sought to evaluate the impact of AMG145, a monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9), on Lp(a).
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Mendelian randomization studies do not support a causal role for reduced circulating adiponectin levels in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic variants at the ADIPOQ gene as instruments to calculate a regression slope between adiponectin levels and metabolic traits (up to 31,000 individuals) and a combination of instrumental variables and summary statistics-based genetic risk scores to test the associations with gold-standard measures of insulin sensitivity (2,969 individuals) and type 2 diabetes (15,960 case subjects and 64,731 control subjects). In conventional regression analyses, a 1-SD decrease in adiponectin levels was correlated with a 0.31-SD (95% CI 0.26-0.35) increase in fasting insulin, a 0.34-SD (0.30-0.38) decrease in insulin sensitivity, and a type 2 diabetes odds ratio (OR) of 1.75 (1.47-2.13). The instrumental variable analysis revealed no evidence of a causal association between genetically lower circulating adiponectin and higher fasting insulin (0.02 SD; 95% CI -0.07 to 0.11; N = 29,771), nominal evidence of a causal relationship with lower insulin sensitivity (-0.20 SD; 95% CI -0.38 to -0.02; N = 1,860), and no evidence of a relationship with type 2 diabetes (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.75-1.19; N = 2,777 case subjects and 13,011 control subjects). Using the ADIPOQ summary statistics genetic risk scores, we found no evidence of an association between adiponectin-lowering alleles and insulin sensitivity (effect per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: -0.03 SD; 95% CI -0.07 to 0.01; N = 2,969) or type 2 diabetes (OR per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: 0.99; 95% CI 0.95-1.04; 15,960 case subjects vs. 64,731 control subjects). These results do not provide any consistent evidence that interventions aimed at increasing adiponectin levels will improve insulin sensitivity or risk of type 2 diabetes.
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Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity: combined analysis of 111,421 individuals of European ancestry.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2), sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction ?=?0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n?=?39,810, Pinteraction ?=?0.014 vs. n?=?71,611, Pinteraction ?=?0.275 for Europeans). In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction ?=?0.003) and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction ?=?0.025) variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.
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Cone photoreceptor neuroprotection conferred by CNTF in a novel in vivo model of battlefield retinal laser injury.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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To develop a reproducible laboratory model to simulate a battlefield foveal laser injury and to test potential neuroprotective effects of a single injection treatment that might be administered in a military setting.
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A model international partnership for community-based research on vaccine-preventable diseases: the Kamphaeng Phet-AFRIMS Virology Research Unit (KAVRU).
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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This paper describes an international collaboration to carry out studies that contributed to the understanding of pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of several diseases of public health importance for Thailand and the United States. In Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, febrile syndromes, including encephalitis, hepatitis, hemorrhagic fever, and influenza-like illnesses, occurred commonly and were clinically diagnosed, but the etiology was rarely confirmed. Since 1982, the Kamphaeng Phet Provincial Hospital, the Thai Ministry of Public Health, and the US Army Component of the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, along with vaccine manufacturers and universities, have collaborated on studies that evaluated and capitalized on improved diagnostic capabilities for infections caused by Japanese encephalitis, hepatitis A, dengue, and influenza viruses. The collaboration clarified clinical and epidemiological features of these infections and, in large clinical trials, demonstrated that vaccines against Japanese encephalitis and hepatitis A viruses were over 90% efficacious, supporting licensure of both vaccines. With the introduction of Japanese encephalitis vaccines in Thailands Expanded Program on Immunization, reported encephalitis rates dropped substantially. Similarly, in the US, particularly in the military populations, rates of hepatitis A disease have dropped with the use of hepatitis A vaccine. Studies of the pathogenesis of dengue infections have increased understanding of the role of cellular immunity in responding to these infections, and epidemiological studies have prepared the province for studies of dengue vaccines. Approximately 80 publications resulted from this collaboration. Studies conducted in Kamphaeng Phet provided experience that contributed to clinical trials of hepatitis E and HIV vaccines, conducted elsewhere. To provide a base for continuing studies, The Kamphaeng Phet-AFRIMS Virology Research Unit (KAVRU) was established. This paper reviews the origins of the collaboration and the scientific observations made between 1982 and 2012.
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Seroprevalence of Streptococcal Inhibitor of Complement (SIC) suggests association of streptococcal infection with chronic kidney disease.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an etiological agent for the immune mediated sequela post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). In some populations PSGN is recognized as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It was found that a significantly greater proportion of subjects with past history of PSGN than without the history exhibited seroreactions to streptococcal antigens called streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) and to distantly related SIC (DRS). These antigens are expressed by major PSGN-associated GAS types. We therefore predicted that in populations such as India, which is endemic for streptococcal diseases and which has high prevalence of CKD and ESRD, greater proportions of CKD and ESRD patients exhibit seroreaction to SIC and DRS than healthy controls.
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Phylogenetic comparative methods complement discriminant function analysis in ecomorphology.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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In ecomorphology, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) has been used as evidence for the presence of functional links between morphometric variables and ecological categories. Here we conduct simulations of characters containing phylogenetic signal to explore the performance of DFA under a variety of conditions. Characters were simulated using a phylogeny of extant antelope species from known habitats. Characters were modeled with no biomechanical relationship to the habitat category; the only sources of variation were body mass, phylogenetic signal, or random "noise." DFA on the discriminability of habitat categories was performed using subsets of the simulated characters, and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares (PGLS) was performed for each character. Analyses were repeated with randomized habitat assignments. When simulated characters lacked phylogenetic signal and/or habitat assignments were random, <5.6% of DFAs and <8.26% of PGLS analyses were significant. When characters contained phylogenetic signal and actual habitats were used, 33.27 to 45.07% of DFAs and <13.09% of PGLS analyses were significant. False Discovery Rate (FDR) corrections for multiple PGLS analyses reduced the rate of significance to <4.64%. In all cases using actual habitats and characters with phylogenetic signal, correct classification rates of DFAs exceeded random chance. In simulations involving phylogenetic signal in both predictor variables and predicted categories, PGLS with FDR was rarely significant, while DFA often was. In short, DFA offered no indication that differences between categories might be explained by phylogenetic signal, while PGLS did. As such, PGLS provides a valuable tool for testing the functional hypotheses at the heart of ecomorphology. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Genomics of elite sporting performance: what little we know and necessary advances.
Br J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Numerous reports of genetic associations with performance-related phenotypes have been published over the past three decades but there has been limited progress in discovering and characterising the genetic contribution to elite/world-class performance, mainly owing to few coordinated research efforts involving major funding initiatives/consortia and the use primarily of the candidate gene analysis approach. It is timely that exercise genomics research has moved into a new era utilising well-phenotyped, large cohorts and genome-wide technologies--approaches that have begun to elucidate the genetic basis of other complex traits/diseases. This review summarises the most recent and significant findings from sports genetics and explores future trends and possibilities.
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Role of total artificial heart in the management of heart transplant rejection and retransplantation: case report and review.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Cardiac allograft rejection and failure may require mechanical circulatory support as bridge-to-retransplantation. Prognosis in this patient group is poor and implantable ventricular assist devices have had limited success due to organ failure associated with the high dose immunosuppression required to treat ongoing rejection. We present a case from our institution and the world-wide experience utilizing the SynCardia CardioWest Total Artificial Heart (TAH-t; SynCardia Systems, Inc., Tucson, AZ, USA) for replacement of the failing graft, recovery of patient and end-organ failure with ultimate bridge to retransplantation. We present our experience and review of world-wide experience for use of TAH-t in this type patient.
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Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders.
Marcel den Hoed, Mark Eijgelsheim, Tonu Esko, Bianca J J M Brundel, David S Peal, David M Evans, Ilja M Nolte, Ayellet V Segrè, Hilma Holm, Robert E Handsaker, Harm-Jan Westra, Toby Johnson, Aaron Isaacs, Jian Yang, Alicia Lundby, Jing Hua Zhao, Young Jin Kim, Min Jin Go, Peter Almgren, Murielle Bochud, Gabrielle Boucher, Marilyn C Cornelis, Daniel Gudbjartsson, David Hadley, Pim van der Harst, Caroline Hayward, Martin den Heijer, Wilmar Igl, Anne U Jackson, Zoltan Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, John P Kemp, Kati Kristiansson, Claes Ladenvall, Mattias Lorentzon, May E Montasser, Omer T Njajou, Paul F O'Reilly, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Beate St Pourcain, Tuomo Rankinen, Perttu Salo, Toshiko Tanaka, Nicholas J Timpson, Veronique Vitart, Lindsay Waite, William Wheeler, Weihua Zhang, Harmen H M Draisma, Mary F Feitosa, Kathleen F Kerr, Penelope A Lind, Evelin Mihailov, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Ci Song, Michael N Weedon, Weijia Xie, Loïc Yengo, Devin Absher, Christine M Albert, Alvaro Alonso, Dan E Arking, Paul I W de Bakker, Beverley Balkau, Cristina Barlassina, Paola Benaglio, Joshua C Bis, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Søren Brage, Stephen J Chanock, Peter S Chines, Mina Chung, Dawood Darbar, Christian Dina, Marcus Dörr, Paul Elliott, Stephan B Felix, Krista Fischer, Christian Fuchsberger, Eco J C de Geus, Philippe Goyette, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Aki S Havulinna, Susan R Heckbert, Andrew A Hicks, Albert Hofman, Suzanne Holewijn, Femke Hoogstra-Berends, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Majken K Jensen, Asa Johansson, Juhani Junttila, Stefan Kääb, Bart Kanon, Shamika Ketkar, Kay-Tee Khaw, Joshua W Knowles, Angrad S Kooner, Jan A Kors, Meena Kumari, Lili Milani, Päivi Laiho, Edward G Lakatta, Claudia Langenberg, Maarten Leusink, Yongmei Liu, Robert N Luben, Kathryn L Lunetta, Stacey N Lynch, Marcello R P Markus, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Irene Mateo Leach, Wendy L McArdle, Steven A McCarroll, Sarah E Medland, Kathryn A Miller, Grant W Montgomery, Alanna C Morrison, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Pau Navarro, Mari Nelis, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Christopher J O'Donnell, Ken K Ong, Anne B Newman, Annette Peters, Ozren Polašek, Anneli Pouta, Peter P Pramstaller, Bruce M Psaty, Dabeeru C Rao, Susan M Ring, Elizabeth J Rossin, Diana Rudan, Serena Sanna, Robert A Scott, Jaban S Sehmi, Stephen Sharp, Jordan T Shin, Andrew B Singleton, Albert V Smith, Nicole Soranzo, Tim D Spector, Chip Stewart, Heather M Stringham, Kirill V Tarasov, André G Uitterlinden, Liesbeth Vandenput, Shih-Jen Hwang, John B Whitfield, Cisca Wijmenga, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Andrew Wong, Quenna Wong, Yalda Jamshidi, Paavo Zitting, Jolanda M A Boer, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Cornelia M van Duijn, Ulf Ekelund, Nita G Forouhi, Philippe Froguel, Aroon Hingorani, Erik Ingelsson, Mika Kivimäki, Richard A Kronmal, Diana Kuh, Lars Lind, Nicholas G Martin, Ben A Oostra, Nancy L Pedersen, Thomas Quertermous, Jerome I Rotter, Yvonne T van der Schouw, W M Monique Verschuren, Mark Walker, Demetrius Albanes, David O Arnar, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefania Bandinelli, Michael Boehnke, Rudolf A de Boer, Claude Bouchard, W L Mark Caulfield, John C Chambers, Gary Curhan, Daniele Cusi, Johan Eriksson, Luigi Ferrucci, Wiek H van Gilst, Nicola Glorioso, Jacqueline de Graaf, Leif Groop, Ulf Gyllensten, Wen-Chi Hsueh, Frank B Hu, Heikki V Huikuri, David J Hunter, Carlos Iribarren, Bo Isomaa, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Antti Jula, Mika Kähönen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Melanie M van der Klauw, Jaspal S Kooner, Peter Kraft, Licia Iacoviello, Terho Lehtimäki, Marja-Liisa L Lokki, Braxton D Mitchell, Gerjan Navis, Markku S Nieminen, Claes Ohlsson, Neil R Poulter, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Eric B Rimm, John D Rioux, Federica Rizzi, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Peter S Sever, Denis C Shields, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Alice V Stanton, Ronald P Stolk, David P Strachan, Jean-Claude Tardif, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Jaako Tuomilehto, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Jarmo Virtamo, Jorma Viikari, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Elisabeth Widén, Yoon Shin Cho, Jesper V Olsen, Peter M Visscher, Cristen Willer, Lude Franke, , Jeanette Erdmann, John R Thompson, Arne Pfeufer, Nona Sotoodehnia, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Patrick T Ellinor, Bruno H Ch Stricker, Andres Metspalu, Markus Perola, Jacques S Beckmann, George Davey Smith, Kari Stefansson, Nicholas J Wareham, Patricia B Munroe, Ody C M Sibon, David J Milan, Harold Snieder, Nilesh J Samani, Ruth J F Loos.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate-increasing and heart rate-decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.
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Regulation of iron metabolism by Pyrococcus furiosus.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Iron is an essential element for the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and many of its iron-containing enzymes have been characterized. How iron assimilation is regulated, however, is unknown. The genome sequence contains genes encoding two putative iron-responsive transcription factors, DtxR and Fur. Global transcriptional profiles of the dtxR deletion mutant (?DTXR) and the parent strain under iron-sufficient and iron-limited conditions indicated that DtxR represses the expression of the genes encoding two putative iron transporters, Ftr1 and FeoAB, under iron-sufficient conditions. Under iron limitation, DtxR represses expression of the gene encoding the iron-containing enzyme aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a putative ABC-type transporter. Analysis of the dtxR gene sequence indicated an incorrectly predicted translation start site, and the corrected full-length DtxR protein, in contrast to the truncated version, specifically bound to the promoters of ftr1 and feoAB, confirming its role as a transcription regulator. Expression of the gene encoding Ftr1 was dramatically upregulated by iron limitation, but no phenotype was observed for the ?FTR1 deletion mutant under iron-limited conditions. The intracellular iron concentrations of ?FTR1 and the parent strain were similar, suggesting that under the conditions tested, Ftr1 is not an essential iron transporter despite its response to iron. In contrast to DtxR, the Fur protein appears not to be a functional regulator in P. furiosus, since it did not bind to the promoters of any of the iron-regulated genes and the deletion mutant (?FUR) revealed no transcriptional responses to iron availability. DtxR is therefore the key iron-responsive transcriptional regulator in P. furiosus.
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Redispersion of transition metal nanoparticle catalysts in tetraalkylphosphonium ionic liquids.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Despite the fact that particle sintering is one of the most common events leading to the deactivation of metal nanoparticle (NP) catalysts, there is a paucity of studies investigating potential routes for the regeneration of smaller, catalytically active nanoparticles from larger particles formed after repeated catalytic cycles. Here, we reveal a simple yet elegant technique for the redispersion of sintered NPs in tetraalkylphosphonium halide ionic liquids (ILs). The procedure described can use environmentally benign oxidants, be carried out at mild temperatures, and is shown to be applicable to a large number of catalytically important transition metals. TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy reveal that this methodology can indeed regenerate smaller NPs from sintered systems. A sample catalytic reaction reveals that the redispersed NPs are as catalytically active as they were prior to sintering.
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Population-genomic variation within RNA viruses of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, inferred from deep sequencing.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Deep sequencing of viruses isolated from infected hosts is an efficient way to measure population-genetic variation and can reveal patterns of dispersal and natural selection. In this study, we mined existing Illumina sequence reads to investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within two RNA viruses of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera), deformed wing virus (DWV) and Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV). All viral RNA was extracted from North American samples of honey bees or, in one case, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor.
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A pilot study of intraocular use of intensive anti-inflammatory; triamcinolone acetonide to prevent proliferative vitreoretinopathy in eyes undergoing vitreoretinal surgery for open globe trauma; the Adjuncts in Ocular Trauma (AOT) Trial: study protocol f
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Eyes sustaining open globe trauma (OGT) is a group at high risk of severe visual impairment. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the commonest cause of retinal redetachment in these eyes and is reported to occur in up to 45% of cases. Intensive anti-inflammatory agents have been shown to be effective at modifying experimental PVR and to be well tolerated clinically.The Adjuncts in Ocular Trauma (AOT) Trial was designed to investigate the benefits of using intensive anti-inflammatory agents (intravitreal and sub-Tenons triamcinolone, oral flurbiprofen and guttae prednisolone 1.0%) perioperatively in patients undergoing vitrectomy surgery following open globe trauma.
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Physiological and molecular basis of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicide resistance in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli).
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Barnyardgrass biotypes from Arkansas (AR1 and AR2) and Mississippi (MS1) have evolved cross-resistance to imazamox, imazethapyr, and penoxsulam. Additionally, AR1 and MS1 have evolved cross-resistance to bispyribac-sodium. Studies were conducted to determine if resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in these biotypes is target-site or non-target-site based. Sequencing and analysis of a 1701 base pair ALS coding sequence revealed Ala??? to Val and Ala??? to Thr substitutions in AR1 and AR2, respectively. The imazamox concentrations required for 50% inhibition of ALS enzyme activity in vitro of AR1 and AR2 were 2.0 and 5.8 times, respectively, greater than the susceptible biotype. Absorption of ¹?C-bispyribac-sodium, -imazamox, and -penoxsulam was similar in all biotypes. ¹?C-Penoxsulam translocation out of the treated leaf (?2%) was similar among all biotypes. ¹?C-Bispyribac-treated AR1 and MS1 translocated 31- 43% less radioactivity to aboveground tissue below the treated leaf compared to the susceptible biotype. ¹?C-Imazamox-treated AR1 plants translocated 39% less radioactivity above the treated leaf and aboveground tissue below the treated leaf, and MS1 translocated 54 and 18% less radioactivity to aboveground tissue above and below the treated leaf, respectively, compared to the susceptible biotype. Phosphorimaging results further corroborated the above results. This study shows that altered target site is a mechanism of resistance to imazamox in AR2 and probably in AR1. Additionally, reduced translocation, which may be a result of metabolism, could contribute to imazamox and bispyribac-sodium resistance in AR1 and MS1.
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Visual outcomes after blunt ocular trauma.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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To describe the prognosis and retinal location in patients presenting with acute traumatic maculopathy and extramacular retinal injuries.
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UNC79 and UNC80, Putative Auxiliary Subunits of the NARROW ABDOMEN Ion Channel, Are Indispensable for Robust Circadian Locomotor Rhythms in Drosophila.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a network of circadian pacemaker neurons drives daily rhythms in rest and activity. The ion channel NARROW ABDOMEN (NA), orthologous to the mammalian sodium leak channel NALCN, functions downstream of the molecular circadian clock in pacemaker neurons to promote behavioral rhythmicity. To better understand the function and regulation of the NA channel, we have characterized two putative auxiliary channel subunits in Drosophila, unc79 (aka dunc79) and unc80 (aka CG18437). We have generated novel unc79 and unc80 mutations that represent strong or complete loss-of-function alleles. These mutants display severe defects in circadian locomotor rhythmicity that are indistinguishable from na mutant phenotypes. Tissue-specific RNA interference and rescue analyses indicate that UNC79 and UNC80 likely function within pacemaker neurons, with similar anatomical requirements to NA. We observe an interdependent, post-transcriptional regulatory relationship among the three gene products, as loss of na, unc79, or unc80 gene function leads to decreased expression of all three proteins, with minimal effect on transcript levels. Yet despite this relationship, we find that the requirement for unc79 and unc80 in circadian rhythmicity cannot be bypassed by increasing NA protein expression, nor can these putative auxiliary subunits substitute for each other. These data indicate functional requirements for UNC79 and UNC80 beyond promoting channel subunit expression. Immunoprecipitation experiments also confirm that UNC79 and UNC80 form a complex with NA in the Drosophila brain. Taken together, these data suggest that Drosophila NA, UNC79, and UNC80 function together in circadian clock neurons to promote rhythmic behavior.
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Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and a general immunity is achieved by larvae as they age, the basis of which has not been identified. To quickly identify a pool of candidate genes responsive to P. larvae infection, we sequenced transcripts from larvae inoculated with P. larvae at 12 hours post-emergence and incubated for 72 hours, and compared expression levels to a control cohort. We identified 75 genes with significantly higher expression and six genes with significantly lower expression. In addition to several antimicrobial peptides, two genes encoding peritrophic-matrix domains were also up-regulated. Extracellular matrix proteins, proteases/protease inhibitors, and members of the Osiris gene family were prevalent among differentially regulated genes. However, analysis of Drosophila homologs of differentially expressed genes revealed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with developmental asynchrony as a likely confounder of our results. We therefore used qPCR to measure the consistency of gene expression changes for a subset of differentially expressed genes. A replicate experiment sampled at both 48 and 72 hours post infection allowed further discrimination of genes likely to be involved in host response. The consistently responsive genes in our test set included a hymenopteran-specific protein tyrosine kinase, a hymenopteran specific serine endopeptidase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP9Q1), and a homolog of trynity, a zona pellucida domain protein. Of the known honey bee antimicrobial peptides, apidaecin was responsive at both time-points studied whereas hymenoptaecin was more consistent in its level of change between biological replicates and had the greatest increase in expression by RNA-seq analysis.
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Validation of bone surface modification models for inferring fossil hominin and carnivore feeding interactions, with reapplication to FLK 22, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.
J. Hum. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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Resolving the issue of how Early Stone Age hominins acquired large mammal carcasses requires information on their feeding interactions with large carnivores. This ecological information and its behavioral and evolutionary implications are revealed most directly from the tooth, cut, and percussion marks on bone surfaces generated by hominin and carnivore feeding activities. This paper employs a bootstrap method, a form of random resampling with replacement, to refine published neotaphonomic models that use the assemblage-wide proportions of long bones bearing feeding traces to infer the sequences in which Plio-Pleistocene hominins and carnivores accessed flesh, marrow, and/or grease from carcasses. Results validate the sensitivity of the models for inferring hominin feeding ecology, which have been questioned on grounds shown here to be unfounded. The bootstrapped feeding trace models are applied to the late Pliocene larger mammal fossil assemblage from FLK 22 (Zinjanthropus site), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. High frequencies of tooth and percussion marking on long bone midshaft fragments from FLK 22 are most consistent with those feeding trace models that simulate hominin scavenging from carcasses defleshed by carnivores, while cut mark data indicate that hominins more often had access to upper forelimb flesh than upper hind limb flesh. Together, the bone surface modification data indicate that hominins typically gained secondary access to partially defleshed carnivore kills, but they also allow for the possibility of some carcasses being processed only by carnivores and only by hominins.
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Highly stable noble-metal nanoparticles in tetraalkylphosphonium ionic liquids for in situ catalysis.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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Gold and palladium nanoparticles were prepared by lithium borohydride reduction of the metal salt precursors in tetraalkylphosphonium halide ionic liquids in the absence of any organic solvents or external nanoparticle stabilizers. These colloidal suspensions remained stable and showed no nanoparticle agglomeration over many months. A combination of electrostatic interactions between the coordinatively unsaturated metal nanoparticle surface and the ionic-liquid anions, bolstered by steric protection offered by the bulky alkylated phosphonium cations, is likely to be the reason behind such stabilization. The halide anion strongly absorbs to the nanoparticle surface, leading to exceptional nanoparticle stability in halide ionic liquids; other tetraalkylphosphonium ionic liquids with non-coordinating anions, such as tosylate and hexafluorophosphate, show considerably lower affinities towards the stabilization of nanoparticles. Palladium nanoparticles stabilized in the tetraalkylphosphonium halide ionic liquid were stable, efficient, and recyclable catalysts for a variety of hydrogenation reactions at ambient pressures with sustained activity. Aerial oxidation of the metal nanoparticles occurred over time and was readily reversed by re-reduction of oxidized metal salts.
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Electro-acupuncture therapy in a patient with a total artificial heart.
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Interaction between the electrical system of implanted cardiovascular devices and electrical stimulation of acupuncture points (electro-acupuncture) can be life-threatening. As a result, there is reluctance to use this modality in patients who have been implanted with any cardiac device. A patient with a total artificial heart was successfully treated with electro-acupuncture for inflammatory arthritis without any adverse events. This case illustrates the safety of electro-acupuncture in patients with a total artificial heart.
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Reversible branch retinal artery occlusion following intravenous cisplatin chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma.
Int Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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Cisplatin (CDDP) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used to treat solid tumours. We present a case of reversible CDDP-associated branch retinal artery occlusion.
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Deletion strains reveal metabolic roles for key elemental sulfur-responsive proteins in Pyrococcus furiosus.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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Transcriptional and enzymatic analyses of Pyrococcus furiosus previously indicated that three proteins play key roles in the metabolism of elemental sulfur (S(0)): a membrane-bound oxidoreductase complex (MBX), a cytoplasmic coenzyme A-dependent NADPH sulfur oxidoreductase (NSR), and sulfur-induced protein A (SipA). Deletion strains, referred to as MBX1, NSR1, and SIP1, respectively, have now been constructed by homologous recombination utilizing the uracil auxotrophic COM1 parent strain (?pyrF). The growth of all three mutants on maltose was comparable without S(0), but in its presence, the growth of MBX1 was greatly impaired while the growth of NSR1 and SIP1 was largely unaffected. In the presence of S(0), MBX1 produced little, if any, sulfide but much more acetate (per unit of protein) than the parent strain, demonstrating that MBX plays a critical role in S(0) reduction and energy conservation. In contrast, comparable amounts of sulfide and acetate were produced by NSR1 and the parent strain, indicating that NSR is not essential for energy conservation during S(0) reduction. Differences in transcriptional responses to S(0) in NSR1 suggest that two sulfide dehydrogenase isoenzymes provide a compensatory NADPH-dependent S(0) reduction system. Genes controlled by the S(0)-responsive regulator SurR were not as highly regulated in MBX1 and NSR1. SIP1 produced the same amount of acetate but more sulfide than the parent strain. That SipA is not essential for growth on S(0) indicates that it is not required for detoxification of metal sulfides, as previously suggested. A model is proposed for S(0) reduction by P. furiosus with roles for MBX and NSR in bioenergetics and for SipA in iron-sulfur metabolism.
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Dipeptide-based models of nickel superoxide dismutase: solvent effects highlight a critical role to Ni-S bonding and active site stabilization.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Nickel superoxide dismutase (Ni-SOD) catalyzes the disproportionation of the superoxide radical to O(2) and H(2)O(2) utilizing the Ni(III/II) redox couple. The Ni center in Ni-SOD resides in an unusual coordination environment that is distinct from other SODs. In the reduced state (Ni-SOD(red)), Ni(II) is ligated to a primary amine-N from His1, anionic carboxamido-N/thiolato-S from Cys2, and a second thiolato-S from Cys6 to complete a NiN(2)S(2) square-planar coordination motif. Utilizing the dipeptide N(2)S(2-) ligand, H(2)N-Gly-l-Cys-OMe (GC-OMeH(2)), an accurate model of the structural and electronic contributions provided by His1 and Cys2 in Ni-SOD(red), we constructed the dinuclear sulfur-bridged metallosynthon, [Ni(2)(GC-OMe)(2)] (1). From 1 we prepared the following monomeric Ni(II)-N(2)S(2) complexes: K[Ni(GC-OMe)(SC(6)H(4)-p-Cl)] (2), K[Ni(GC-OMe)(S(t)Bu)] (3), K[Ni(GC-OMe)(SC(6)H(4)-p-OMe)] (4), and K[Ni(GC-OMe)(SNAc)] (5). The design strategy in utilizing GC-OMe(2-) is analogous to one which we reported before (see Inorg. Chem. 2009, 48, 5620 and Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49, 7080) where Ni-SOD(red) active site mimics can be assembled at will with electronically variant RS(-) ligands. Discussed herein is our initial account pertaining to the aqueous behavior of isolable, small-molecule Ni-SOD model complexes (non-maquette based). Spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-vis, ESI-MS, XAS) and electrochemical (CV) measurements suggest that 2-5 successfully simulate many of the electronic features of Ni-SOD(red). Furthermore, the aqueous studies reveal a dynamic behavior with regard to RS(-) lability and bridging interactions, suggesting a stabilizing role brought about by the protein architecture.
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Nondermatologists use of predictive terms for a potentially malignant lesion.
South. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Skin cancer is frequently suspected by nondermatologists. Many dermatology practices currently do not triage referrals from nondermatologists. Little is known how nondermatologists describe lesions of concern when making referrals.
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Measurement of plasma amino acids by Ultraperformance® Liquid Chromatography.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Since the early 1960s, quantitative amino acid analysis (AAA) has traditionally been performed using ion-exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrin derivatization. This established technology has many advantages, including relatively low cost of operation and ease of use. However, analysis times of 120+ min and high maintenance requirements make this technology unsuitable for the modern clinical laboratories with a requirement for rapid turnaround times. The work described here is a summary of our experiences with a new approach to full profile analysis of physiological amino acids.
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Special article: Future directions in malignant hyperthermia research and patient care.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a complex pharmacogenetic disorder of muscle metabolism. To more closely examine the complexities of MH and other related muscle disorders, the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States (MHAUS) recently sponsored a scientific conference at which an interdisciplinary group of experts gathered to share new information and ideas. In this Special Article, we highlight key concepts and theories presented at the conference along with exciting new trends and challenges in MH research and patient care.
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Controlled growth and catalytic activity of gold monolayer protected clusters in presence of borohydride salts.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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In the presence of large excesses of borohydride salts, gold monolayer protected-clusters can be grown to larger sizes simply by controlling the amount of reducing agent added to smaller clusters. In addition, gold monolayer clusters can be used as catalysts for reduction reactions by sodium borohydride; results suggest such catalysts have sterically constrained active sites.
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Dental microwear texture analysis of hominins recovered by the Olduvai Landscape Paleoanthropology Project, 1995-2007.
J. Hum. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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Dental microwear analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for the reconstruction of aspects of diet in early hominins. That said, sample sizes for some groups are small, decreasing our confidence that results are representative of a given taxon and making it difficult to assess within-species variation. Here we present microwear texture data for several new specimens of Homo habilis and Paranthropus boisei from Olduvai Gorge, bringing sample sizes for these species in line with those published for most other early hominins. These data are added to those published to date, and microwear textures of the enlarged sample of H. habilis (n = 10) and P. boisei (n = 9) are compared with one another and with those of other early hominins. New results confirm that P. boisei does not have microwear patterns expected of a hard-object specialist. Further, the separate texture complexity analyses of early Homo species suggest that Homo erectus ate a broader range of foods, at least in terms of hardness, than did H. habilis, P. boisei, or the "gracile" australopiths studied. Finally, differences in scale of maximum complexity and perhaps textural fill volume between H. habilis and H. erectus are noted, suggesting further possible differences between these species in diet.
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Learning from the past: young Indigenous peoples accounts of blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections as resilience narratives.
Cult Health Sex
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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The Indigenous Resilience Project is an Australian community-based participatory research project using qualitative methods to explore young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples views of blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections (BBV/STI) affecting their communities. In this paper we present an analysis of narratives from young people who had a previous BBV/STI diagnosis to explore how they actively negotiate the experience of BBV/STI infection to construct a classic resilience narrative. We examine two overarching themes: first, the context of infection and diagnosis, including ignorance of STI/BBV prior to infection/diagnosis and, second, turning points and transformations in the form of insights, behaviours, roles and agency. Responding to critical writing on resilience theory, we argue that providing situated accounts of adversity from the perspectives of young Indigenous people prioritises their subjective understandings and challenges normative definitions of resilience.
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Physical activity attenuates the influence of FTO variants on obesity risk: a meta-analysis of 218,166 adults and 19,268 children.
Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Lu Qi, Soren Brage, Stephen J Sharp, Emily Sonestedt, Ellen Demerath, Tariq Ahmad, Samia Mora, Marika Kaakinen, Camilla Helene Sandholt, Christina Holzapfel, Christine S Autenrieth, Elina Hyppönen, Stéphane Cauchi, Meian He, Zoltan Kutalik, Meena Kumari, Alena Stančáková, Karina Meidtner, Beverley Balkau, Jonathan T Tan, Massimo Mangino, Nicholas J Timpson, Yiqing Song, M Carola Zillikens, Kathleen A Jablonski, Melissa E Garcia, Stefan Johansson, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Ying Wu, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Esther Zimmermann, Natalia V Rivera, Toshiko Tanaka, Heather M Stringham, Günther Silbernagel, Stavroula Kanoni, Mary F Feitosa, Soren Snitker, Jonatan R Ruiz, Jeffery Metter, Maria Teresa Martinez Larrad, Mustafa Atalay, Maarit Hakanen, Najaf Amin, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Anders Grøntved, Göran Hallmans, John-Olov Jansson, Johanna Kuusisto, Mika Kähönen, Pamela L Lutsey, John J Nolan, Luigi Palla, Oluf Pedersen, Louis Pérusse, Frida Renstrom, Robert A Scott, Dmitry Shungin, Ulla Sovio, Tuija H Tammelin, Tapani Rönnemaa, Timo A Lakka, Matti Uusitupa, Manuel Serrano Rios, Luigi Ferrucci, Claude Bouchard, Aline Meirhaeghe, Mao Fu, Mark Walker, Ingrid B Borecki, George V Dedoussis, Andreas Fritsche, Claes Ohlsson, Michael Boehnke, Stefania Bandinelli, Cornelia M van Duijn, Shah Ebrahim, Debbie A Lawlor, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Karen L Mohlke, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli Raitakari, Bo Isomaa, Pål R Njølstad, Jose C Florez, Simin Liu, Andy Ness, Timothy D Spector, E Shyong Tai, Philippe Froguel, Heiner Boeing, Markku Laakso, Michael Marmot, Sven Bergmann, Chris Power, Kay-Tee Khaw, Daniel Chasman, Paul Ridker, Torben Hansen, Keri L Monda, Thomas Illig, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Nicholas J Wareham, Frank B Hu, Leif C Groop, Marju Orho-Melander, Ulf Ekelund, Paul W Franks, Ruth J F Loos.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n?=?218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n?=?19,268).
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The injured eye.
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3-4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world.
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Antibody-mediated rejection in heart transplantation: case presentation with a review of current international guidelines.
J Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) (humoral rejection) of cardiac allografts remains difficult to diagnose and treat. Interest in AMR of cardiac allografts has increased over the last decade as it has become apparent that untreated humoral rejection threatens graft and patient survival. An international and multidisciplinary consensus group has formulated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of AMR and established that identification of circulating or donor-specific antibodies is not required and that asymptomatic AMR, that is, biopsy-proven AMR without cardiac dysfunction is a real entity with worsened prognosis. Strict criteria for the diagnosis of cardiac AMR have not been firmly established, although the diagnosis relies heavily on tissue pathological findings. Therapy remains largely empirical. We review an unfortunate experience with one of our patients and summarize recommended criteria for the diagnosis of AMR and potential treatment schemes with a focus on current limitations and the need for future research and innovation.
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Control of copper resistance and inorganic sulfur metabolism by paralogous regulators in Staphylococcus aureus.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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All strains of Staphylococcus aureus encode a putative copper-sensitive operon repressor (CsoR) and one other CsoR-like protein of unknown function. We show here that NWMN_1991 encodes a bona fide Cu(I)-inducible CsoR of a genetically unlinked copA-copZ copper resistance operon in S. aureus strain Newman. In contrast, an unannotated open reading frame found between NWMN_0027 and NWMN_0026 (denoted NWMN_0026.5) encodes a CsoR-like regulator that represses expression of adjacent genes by binding specifically to a pair of canonical operator sites positioned in the NWMN_0027-0026.5 intergenic region. Inspection of these regulated genes suggests a role in assimilation of inorganic sulfur from thiosulfate and vectorial sulfur transfer, and we designate NWMN_0026.5 as CstR (CsoR-like sulfur transferase repressor). Expression analysis demonstrates that CsoR and CstR control their respective regulons in response to distinct stimuli with no overlap in vivo. Unlike CsoR, CstR does not form a stable complex with Cu(I); operator binding is instead inhibited by oxidation of the intersubunit cysteine pair to a mixture of disulfide and trisulfide linkages by a likely metabolite of thiosulfate assimilation, sulfite. CsoR is unreactive toward sulfite under the same conditions. We conclude that CsoR and CstR are paralogs in S. aureus that function in the same cytoplasm to control distinct physiological processes.
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Natural competence in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus facilitates genetic manipulation: construction of markerless deletions of genes encoding the two cytoplasmic hydrogenases.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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In attempts to develop a method of introducing DNA into Pyrococcus furiosus, we discovered a variant within the wild-type population that is naturally and efficiently competent for DNA uptake. A pyrF gene deletion mutant was constructed in the genome, and the combined transformation and recombination frequencies of this strain allowed marker replacement by direct selection using linear DNA. We have demonstrated the use of this strain, designated COM1, for genetic manipulation. Using genetic selections and counterselections based on uracil biosynthesis, we generated single- and double-deletion mutants of the two gene clusters that encode the two cytoplasmic hydrogenases. The COM1 strain will provide the basis for the development of more sophisticated genetic tools allowing the study and metabolic engineering of this important hyperthermophile.
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A traveling team concept to expedite the transfer and management of unstable patients in cardiopulmonary shock.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Emergent mechanical support with transfer of patients in acute cardiopulmonary shock to specialty centers for definitive management is often required at non-transplant centers. An alternative approach to the traditional "hub and spoke" model is presented. A team of health care specialists from our hospital is deployed to the community hospital for stabilization, possible implantation, and transfer of patients to our tertiary care facility. Patient assessment can be made with intervention, allowing stabilization and safe transfer by our team to our institution. This method provides tertiary level care at the referring hospital and may improve survival for a sub-set of patients in the community hospital setting.
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Spectroscopic and photophysical properties of ZnTPP in a room temperature ionic liquid.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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The steady-state absorption and emission spectra and the time-resolved Soret- and Q-band excited fluorescence profiles of the model metalloporphyrin, ZnTPP, have been measured in a highly purified sample of the common room temperature ionic liquid, [bmim][PF?]. S?-S? emission resulting from Soret-band excitation behaves in a manner completely consistent with that of molecular solvents of the same polarizability. The ionic nature of the solvent and its slow solvation relaxation times have no significant effect on the nature of the radiationless decay of the S? state, which decays quantitatively to S? at a population decay rate that is consistent with the weak coupling case of radiationless transition theory (energy gap law). The ratio of the intensities of the Q?:Q? (0-0:1-0) bands is consistent with the solvatochromic shift correlation data obtained for molecular solvents. The temporal S? fluorescence decay profiles measured at a single emission wavelength are biexponential; the longer-lived major component is similar to that observed for ZnTPP in molecular solvents, and the minor shorter-lived component is attributed to solvent relaxation processes on a nanosecond time scale.
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Does a short breastfeeding period protect from FTO-induced adiposity in children?
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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A number of studies have reported replicable associations between common genetic loci and obesity indices. One of these loci is the fat mass and obesity associated locus (FTO). We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding mediated the known association between FTO and indices of body fatness.
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Molar microwear textures and the diets of Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis.
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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Many researchers have suggested that Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis were among the earliest hominins to have diets that included hard, brittle items. Here we examine dental microwear textures of these hominins for evidence of this. The molars of three Au. anamensis and 19 Au. afarensis specimens examined preserve unobscured antemortem microwear. Microwear textures of these individuals closely resemble those of Paranthropus boisei, having lower complexity values than Australopithecus africanus and especially Paranthropus robustus. The microwear texture complexity values for Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis are similar to those of the grass-eating Theropithecus gelada and folivorous Alouatta palliata and Trachypithecus cristatus. This implies that these Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis individuals did not have diets dominated by hard, brittle foods shortly before their deaths. On the other hand, microwear texture anisotropy values for these taxa are lower on average than those of Theropithecus, Alouatta or Trachypithecus. This suggests that the fossil taxa did not have diets dominated by tough foods either, or if they did that directions of tooth-tooth movement were less constrained than in higher cusped and sharper crested extant primate grass eaters and folivores.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.