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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mini-mental state examination as a predictor of mortality among older people referred to secondary mental healthcare.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Lower levels of cognitive function have been found to be associated with higher mortality in older people, particularly in dementia, but the association in people with other mental disorders is still inconclusive.
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Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels and risk of Alzheimer disease: a mendelian randomization analysis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD) and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD.
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A prospective study of statin use and poststroke depression.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Associations between serum cholesterol levels or lipid-lowering treatment and depression risk have been controversial. Associations between statin use and depression risk have been investigated in patients with coronary artery diseases but have not been examined after stroke. This study aimed to investigate whether statin use was associated with depression ascertained at 2 weeks and 1 year after stroke. A total of 423 patients were evaluated 2 weeks after stroke, and 288 (68%) were followed 1 year later. At the 2 examinations, depression (major or minor depressive disorder) was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria, and depression severity was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression subscale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Logistic regression and repeated-measures analyses of variance were carried out. Statins were used in 251 (59%) of 423 patients at baseline. Statin use was not associated with poststroke depression (PSD) status at baseline but was significantly associated with reduced risk of all PSD, and of major PSD specifically, at follow-up. Statin use was also associated with better trajectories of depression assessment scale scores over the 1-year follow-up. Statin use was associated with a reduced risk of depression at 1 year after stroke. Likely causality and underlying mechanisms need to be further clarified.
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The Effect of Clozapine on Premature Mortality: An Assessment of Clinical Monitoring and Other Potential Confounders.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Clozapine can cause severe adverse effects yet it is associated with reduced mortality risk. We test the hypothesis this association is due to increased clinical monitoring and investigate risk of premature mortality from natural causes. We identified 14 754 individuals (879 deaths) with serious mental illness (SMI) including schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders aged ? 15 years in a large specialist mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. In this cohort study we modeled the effect of clozapine on mortality over a 5-year period (2007-2011) using Cox regression. Individuals prescribed clozapine had more severe psychopathology and poorer functional status. Many of the exposures associated with clozapine use were themselves risk factors for increased mortality. However, we identified a strong association between being prescribed clozapine and lower mortality which persisted after controlling for a broad range of potential confounders including clinical monitoring and markers of disease severity (adjusted hazard ratio 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.7; p = .001). This association remained after restricting the sample to those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or those taking antipsychotics and after using propensity scores to reduce the impact of confounding by indication. Among individuals with SMI, those prescribed clozapine had a reduced risk of mortality due to both natural and unnatural causes. We found no evidence to indicate that lower mortality associated with clozapine in SMI was due to increased clinical monitoring or confounding factors. This is the first study to report an association between clozapine and reduced risk of mortality from natural causes.
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A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants.
Confl Health
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The rising global burden of forced migration due to armed conflict is increasingly recognised as an important issue in global health. Forced migrants are at a greater risk of developing mental disorders. However, resilience, defined as the ability of a person to successfully adapt to or recover from stressful and traumatic experiences, has been highlighted as a key potential protective factor. This study aimed to review systematically the global literature on the impact of resilience on the mental health of adult conflict-driven forced migrants.
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Predictors of mortality for people aged over 65?years receiving mental health care for delirium in a South London Mental Health Trust, UK: a retrospective survival analysis.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Delirium is a common phenomenon in older people. Using a large mental health care data resource, we investigated mortality rates and predictors of mortality following delirium in older people.
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Alleles that increase risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus are not associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Although epidemiological studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the biological basis of this relationship is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic comorbidity between the 2 disorders and to investigate whether genetic liability to T2DM, estimated by a genotype risk scores based on T2DM associated loci, is associated with increased risk of LOAD. This study was performed in 2 stages. In stage 1, we combined genotypes for the top 15 T2DM-associated polymorphisms drawn from approximately 3000 individuals (1349 cases and 1351 control subjects) with extracted and/or imputed data from 6 genome-wide studies (>10,000 individuals; 4507 cases, 2183 controls, 4989 population controls) to form a genotype risk score and examined if this was associated with increased LOAD risk in a combined meta-analysis. In stage 2, we investigated the association of LOAD with an expanded T2DM score made of 45 well-established variants drawn from the 6 genome-wide studies. Results were combined in a meta-analysis. Both stage 1 and stage 2 T2DM risk scores were not associated with LOAD risk (odds ratio = 0.988; 95% confidence interval, 0.972-1.004; p = 0.144 and odds ratio = 0.993; 95% confidence interval, 0.983-1.003; p = 0.149 per allele, respectively). Contrary to expectation, genotype risk scores based on established T2DM candidates were not associated with increased risk of LOAD. The observed epidemiological associations between T2DM and LOAD could therefore be a consequence of secondary disease processes, pleiotropic mechanisms, and/or common environmental risk factors. Future work should focus on well-characterized longitudinal cohorts with extensive phenotypic and genetic data relevant to both LOAD and T2DM.
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Neuropsychological and Behavioral Disturbance Correlates of Unawareness of Memory Impairment in Dementia: A Population-Based Study.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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This study investigated in a community sample associations of 2 different measures of unawareness of memory impairment in dementia with cognitive variables and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.
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Early life factors in relation to cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease in old age in Bergen: a Norwegian retrospective cohort study based on the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).
JRSM Open
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis describes associations found for fetal or early-life exposures with cardiovascular risk and disease in adulthood. The extension or not of these associations into old age has received less attention. We investigated if maternal health and family circumstances were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in late life and discuss results in light of possible selection effects and measurement error.
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The effect of using high facilitation when implementing the Gold Standards Framework in Care Homes programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.
Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The provision of quality end-of-life care is increasingly on the national agenda in many countries. In the United Kingdom, the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme has been promoted as a national framework for improving end-of-life care. While its implementation is recommended, there are no national guidelines for facilitators to follow to undertake this role.
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Escitalopram treatment for depressive disorder following acute coronary syndrome: a 24-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Depression is common after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and has adverse effects on prognosis. There are few evidence-based interventions for treating depression in ACS. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in treating depressive disorders identified 2-14 weeks after a confirmed ACS episode.
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Current prevalence of dementia, depression and behavioural problems in the older adult care home sector: the South East London Care Home Survey.
Age Ageing
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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a large and increasing number of older people in the UK are living in care homes. Dementia is a frequent reason underlying admission and determining care needs, but prevalence data are becoming increasingly outdated and reliant on brief screening instruments.
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Asthma and self-harm: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Few studies have investigated the relationship between asthma and suicidality-related outcomes in the world. We sought to investigate the association between asthma and risk of non-fatal self-harm in a large national sample.
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Zinc and Vitamin Supplementation in an Under-5 Indigenous Population of Guatemala: Influence of Lay Health Promoters in Decreasing Incidence of Diarrhea.
J Transcult Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Malnutrition is an urgent problem in the developing world, especially for children under 5 years of age. The article describes the utilization of a standard of practice designed to prevent illness in a malnourished, under-5 indigenous population and reinforced by weekly basic health messages taught by lay community health promoters.
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Association of asthma and bipolar disorder: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The relationship between asthma and bipolar disorder has received little research. We sought to investigate this in a large national sample. Previous studies have found mood changes after prednisone use in asthma patients, and we therefore also investigated this exposure in relation to bipolar disorder.
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Suicide completion in secondary mental healthcare: a comparison study between schizophrenia spectrum disorders and all other diagnoses.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Suicide completion is a tragic outcome in secondary mental healthcare. However, the extent to which demographic and clinical characteristics, suicide method and service use-related factors vary across psychiatric diagnoses remains poorly understood, particularly regarding differences between 'schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD)' and 'all other diagnoses', which may have implications for suicide prevention in high risk groups.
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The impact of co-morbid personality disorder on use of psychiatric services and involuntary hospitalization in people with severe mental illness.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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To examine the impact of co-morbid personality disorder (PD), on inpatient and community-based service use and risk of involuntary hospitalization, amongst patients with severe mental illness (SMI).
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Construct validity of the mini mental state examination across time in a sample with low-education levels: 10-year follow-up of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The study aims to investigate whether longitudinal data on the structure of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) collected in an older Brazilian cohort support factorial invariance over time.
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Pregnancy intentions among women living with HIV in the United States.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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The number of HIV-infected women giving birth in the United States is increasing. Research on pregnancy planning in HIV-infected women is limited.
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Comparison of long-term postoperative sequelae in patients with tetralogy of Fallot versus isolated pulmonic stenosis.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) after complete repair and pulmonic stenosis (PS) after surgical valvotomy often develop significant pulmonic regurgitation (PR) that eventually requires valve replacement. Although criteria exist for the timing of pulmonary valve replacement in TOF, it remains less clear when to intervene in valvotomy patients and whether TOF recommendations can be applied. Our aim was to compare the structural and functional sequelae of valvotomy for PS with complete repair for TOF. We compared the clinical characteristics, electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and invasive hemodynamics of 109 adults (34 PS and 75 TOF) newly referred to a congenital heart disease center for evaluation of PR between 2005 and 2012. Both cohorts were similar in terms of baseline demographics and presenting New York Heart Association function class. Valvotomy patients had a slightly greater degree of PR by echocardiogram, although it was similar by cardiac MRI. Electrocardiography QRS width was greater in patients with TOF (114±27 vs 150±28 ms, p<0.001). MRI right ventricular ejection fraction (49±8 vs 41±11%, p=0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (59±7 vs 52±10%, p=0.002) were lower in patients with TOF. Pacemaker or defibrillator implantation was significantly greater in patients with TOF (3% vs 23%, p=0.011). In conclusion, patients postvalvotomy and complete repair present with similar degrees of PR and severity of symptoms. Biventricular systolic function and electrocardiography QRS width appear less affected, suggesting morphologic changes in TOF and its repair that extend beyond the effects of PR. These findings suggest the need for developing disease-specific guidelines for patients with PR postvalvotomy.
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Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals potential diagnostic markers and pathways involved in pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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There are no serum biomarkers for the accurate diagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Diagnosis and decision of nephrectomy rely on imaging which is not always accurate. Non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers are urgently required. In this study, we preformed quantitative proteomics analysis on a total of 199 patients including 30 matched pairs of normal kidney and ccRCC using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins. We found 55 proteins significantly dysregulated in ccRCC compared to normal kidney tissue. 54 were previously reported to play a role in carcinogenesis, and 39 are secreted proteins. Dysregulation of alpha-enolase (ENO1), L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain (LDHA), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1/Hsp27), and 10 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial (HSPE1) was confirmed in two independent sets of patients by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Pathway analysis, validated by PCR, showed glucose metabolism is altered in ccRCC compared to normal kidney tissue. In addition, we examined the utility of Hsp27 as biomarker in serum and urine. In ccRCC patients, Hsp27 was elevated in the urine and serum and high serum Hsp27 was associated with high grade (Grade 3-4) tumors. These data together identify potential diagnostic biomarkers for ccRCC and shed new light on the molecular mechanisms that are dysregulated and contribute to the pathogenesis of ccRCC. Hsp27 is a promising diagnostic marker for ccRCC although further large-scale studies are required. Also, molecular profiling may help pave the road to the discovery of new therapies.
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A cohort study on mental disorders, stage of cancer at diagnosis and subsequent survival.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To assess the stage at cancer diagnosis and survival after cancer diagnosis among people served by secondary mental health services, compared with other local people.
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Benefit of interpregnancy HIV viral load suppression on subsequent maternal and infant outcomes.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The objective of the study was to determine whether interpregnancy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load suppression affects outcomes in subsequent pregnancies.
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Interactions between a serotonin transporter gene, life events and social support on suicidal ideation in Korean elders.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) may modify associations between environmental stressors and suicidality in adolescents and working-age adults. We investigated whether the 5-HTTLPR s/l polymorphism interacts with stressful life events (SLEs) and social support deficits (SSDs) on late-life suicidal ideation.
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Firing of hippocampal neurogliaform cells induces suppression of synaptic inhibition.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Little is known about how neuron firing recorded in vivo retrogradely influences synaptic strength. We injected the firing of a rat hippocampal neurogliaform cell (NGFC), a widely expressed GABAergic neuron type, detected in vivo during theta rhythm, into NGFCs of rat or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-Cre-tdTomato mouse recorded in vitro. We found that the "in vivo firing pattern" produced a transient firing-induced suppression of synaptic inhibition (FSI) evoked by a presynaptic NGFC. Imaging experiments demonstrate that FSI was associated with action potential backpropagation (bAP) and a supralinear increase in dendritic Ca(2+). The application of the L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist nimodipine blocked FSI. Further pharmacological experiments, such as the application of a nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-sGC) receptor antagonist, a NOS inhibitor, and NO donors, suggested that NO released from postsynaptic cells mediated FSI and likely activated presynaptic receptors to inhibit GABA release. The in vivo firing pattern modulated the size of unitary EPSPs impinging on NGFCs through FSI and not via a direct effect on excitatory synaptic transmission. Our data demonstrate: (1) retrograde signaling initiated by in vivo firing pattern, (2) interneuron bAPs detected with fast temporal resolution, and (3) a novel role for NO expressed by specific interneuron types.
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Prevalence and correlates of problematic internet experiences and computer-using time: a two-year longitudinal study in korean school children.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To measure the prevalence of and factors associated with online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, and computer-using time in early adolescence.
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A conceptual framework for research on subjective cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimers Dement
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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There is increasing evidence that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in individuals with unimpaired performance on cognitive tests may represent the first symptomatic manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The research on SCD in early AD, however, is limited by the absence of common standards. The working group of the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) addressed this deficiency by reaching consensus on terminology and on a conceptual framework for research on SCD in AD. In this publication, research criteria for SCD in pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are presented. In addition, a list of core features proposed for reporting in SCD studies is provided, which will enable comparability of research across different settings. Finally, a set of features is presented, which in accordance with current knowledge, increases the likelihood of the presence of preclinical AD in individuals with SCD. This list is referred to as SCD plus.
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Predictors of natural and unnatural mortality among patients with personality disorder: evidence from a large UK case register.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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People with personality disorder have reduced life expectancy, yet, within this population, little is known about the clinical predictors of natural and unnatural deaths. We set out to investigate this, using a large cohort of secondary mental health patients with personality disorder.
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Neutron exposures in human cells: bystander effect and relative biological effectiveness.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bystander effects have been observed repeatedly in mammalian cells following photon and alpha particle irradiation. However, few studies have been performed to investigate bystander effects arising from neutron irradiation. Here we asked whether neutrons also induce a bystander effect in two normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines. These cells were exposed to fast neutrons produced by targeting a near-monoenergetic 50.5 MeV proton beam at a Be target (17 MeV average neutron energy), and irradiated-cell conditioned media (ICCM) was transferred to unirradiated cells. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to quantify genetic damage in radiation-naïve cells exposed to ICCM from cultures that received 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 or 4 Gy neutrons. Cells grown in ICCM from irradiated cells showed no significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or nucleoplasmic bridges compared to cells grown in ICCM from sham irradiated cells for either cell line. However, the neutron beam has a photon dose-contamination of 5%, which may modulate a neutron-induced bystander effect. To determine whether these low doses of contaminating photons can induce a bystander effect, cells were irradiated with cobalt-60 at doses equivalent to the percent contamination for each neutron dose. No significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or bridges was observed at these doses of photons for either cell line when cultured in ICCM. As expected, high doses of photons induced a clear bystander effect in both cell lines for micronuclei and bridges (p<0.0001). These data indicate that neutrons do not induce a bystander effect in these cells. Finally, neutrons had a relative biological effectiveness of 2.0 ± 0.13 for micronuclei and 5.8 ± 2.9 for bridges compared to cobalt-60. These results may be relevant to radiation therapy with fast neutrons and for regulatory agencies setting standards for neutron radiation protection and safety.
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Betel chewing and arecoline affects eotaxin-1, asthma and lung function.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Betel nut is commonly used in many countries. Despite evidence suggesting an association with asthma, few studies have investigated the connection between betel nut use and asthma; thus, the underlying mechanism for the association with asthma is also unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between betel chewing and asthma as well as the associations of plasma arecoline (a biomarker for exposure) and eotaxin-1 (a potential mediator) with asthma and lung function.
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Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Children Undergoing Heart Surgery.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of cardiac surgical site infection. Based on studies in adults, nasal screening to detect S aureuscolonization is used to guide decolonization and selection of prophylactic antibiotics. In our Childrens Hospital, a sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay is used to screen patients undergoing cardiac surgery for nasal colonization with methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). Additionally for patients in diapers, cultures are used to detect MRSA colonization of the groin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether screening two anatomic locations results in a higher MRSA detection rate among children undergoing cardiac surgery.
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The provision of care for residents dying in UK nursing care homes.
Age Ageing
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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to identify the care currently provided to residents dying in UK nursing care homes.Method: study participants were residents who had died within 38 nursing care homes in southeast England over a 3-year period. The nursing care homes had been recruited to take part in a cluster randomised controlled trial looking at different models of facilitation while implementing the Gold Standards Framework in Care Homes (GSFCH) programme. Two researchers examined the notes and daily records of all residents who died in each of these homes between the 1 June 2008 and the 31 May 2011.
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Suicidal ideation in elderly Korean population: a two-year longitudinal study.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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ABSTRACT Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, incidence, and persistence of suicidal ideation (SI), and to investigate the psychosocial factors associated with these. Methods: A total of 1,204 community dwelling elderly adults aged 65 years or older were evaluated at baseline, 909 (75%) of whom were followed two years later. The presence of SI was identified using the questions from the community version of the Geriatric Mental State (GMS) diagnostic schedule (GMS B3) at both baseline and follow-up interviews. Baseline measures included demographic status, years of education, rural/urban residence, accommodation, past and current occupation, monthly income, marital status, stressful life events, social support deficits, number of physical illnesses, severity of pain, physical activity, disability, depressive symptoms, anxiety, insomnia, cognitive function, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Results: Baseline SI prevalence, follow-up incidence (SI rate at follow-up of 805 elderly subjects who did not have SI at baseline), and persistence (SI rate at follow-up of 104 elderly subjects who had SI at baseline) were 11.5%, 9.6%, and 36.5%, respectively. Baseline SI was independently associated with no current employment, lower monthly income, stressful life events, more severe pain, presence of disability, depressive symptoms, and smoking. Incident SI was independently predicted by baseline unmarried status, social support deficit, severe pain, presence of depressive symptoms, and smoking. Persistent SI was independently predicted by baseline stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms were independently associated with prevalent, incident, and persistent SI, but other predictors varied according to incidence and persistence outcomes.
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Midlife hypertensive status and cognitive function 20 years later: the Southall and Brent revisited study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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To investigate long-term prospective associations between a range of measurements of hypertensive status in midlife and cognitive impairment 20 years later.
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Anxiety and mortality risk in community-dwelling elderly people.
Br J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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There are conflicting data on the role of anxiety in predicting mortality.
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Snus use and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HUNT3 study.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Snus, a form of smokeless tobacco, is increasingly popular in its traditional Nordic markets, and was recently launched commercially in the United States. We examined the cross-sectional associations between snus use and cardiovascular risk factors, and compared them with the corresponding associations of smoking.
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Operative techniques in association with arrhythmia surgery in patients with congenital heart disease.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Arrhythmia surgery in patients with congenital disease is challenged by the range of anatomic variants, arrhythmia types, and intramyocardial scar location. Experimental and clinical studies have elucidated the mechanisms of arrhythmias for accessory connections, atrial fibrillation, atrial reentry tachycardia, nodal reentry tachycardia, focal or automatic atrial tachycardia, and ventricular tachycardia. The surgical and transcatheter possibilities are numerous, and the congenital heart surgeon should have a comprehensive understanding of all arrhythmia types and potential methods of ablation. The purpose of this article is to introduce resternotomy techniques for safe mediastinal reentry and to review operative techniques of arrhythmia surgery in association with congenital heart disease.
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Personality Disorder and Self-Rated Health: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.
J. Pers. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Little is known about the impact of personality disorder (PD) on the health of people living in the community. The authors set out to examine the association between PD and general health, using a cross-sectional survey of a representative community sample in London, UK. A total of 1,698 adults aged 16 years or over from 1,075 randomly selected households were recruited and interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers. Using multivariable logistic regression, the authors examined the cross-sectional association between PD screen status, as assessed by the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), and self-rated health, adjusting for demographic and health covariates. Of the participants, 14.5% screened positively for PD. A greater proportion of those scoring positively for PD reported poor self-rated health, compared to screen negative participants (41.3% versus 15.0%). This association was reduced, but remained significant, after adjustment for potential confounders (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.99, 95% CI [2.93, 5.42]; fully adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.02, 2.29]. Of note, subthreshold symptoms of PD were significantly associated with poor self-rated health (unadjusted OR per unit SAPAS score increment = 1.53, 95% CI [1.40, 1.67]; fully adjusted OR = 1.19, 95% CI [1.07, 1.33]. Furthermore, people screening positive for PD were more likely to report multiple (three or more) long-standing illnesses. The authors conclude that in the general population, individuals who are at high risk for PD are independently at increased risk of poor general health.
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Longitudinal associations between serum cholesterol levels and suicidal ideation in an older Korean population.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Relationships between low total cholesterol levels and suicidality have been reported but there has been little investigation of this issue in older age groups. This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between serum lipid levels and suicidal ideation in an older population.
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Dementia and lower blood pressure in Latin America, India, and China: a 10/66 cross-cohort study.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To study the relationship between dementia and blood pressure (BP) in 8 low- and middle-income countries.
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Impact of exposure to conflict, tsunami and mental disorders on school absenteeism: findings from a national sample of Sri Lankan children aged 12--17 years.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts and natural disasters are common. Millions of people, including children are killed, injured, disabled and displaced as a result. The effects of conflict and natural disaster on mental health, especially of children are well established but effects on education have received less attention. This study investigated associations between conflict and/or tsunami exposure in Sri Lanka and their associations with absenteeism in a national sample of school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006--7 among 1,505 randomly selected school children aged 12--17 years attending government schools in 17 districts. The hypotheses were that absenteeism would be more common in children previously affected by conflict or the 2004 tsunami and that at least part of this effect would be accounted for by mental disorders. Survey information included socio-demographic, conflict and tsunami exposure, mental health status (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and information on absenteeism (defined as 20% or greater non-attendance over one year). RESULTS: The total sample of consisted of 1,505 students aged 12--17 years with a mean age of 13.7 years. 120 children reported at least one conflict exposure and 65 reported at least one tsunami exposure while only 15 reported exposure to both conflict and tsunami. Prevalence of emotional disorder caseness was 2.7%, conduct disorder caseness 5.8%, hyperactivity disorder caseness 0.6%, and 8.5% were identified as having any psychiatric disorder. Absenteeism was present in 26.8%. Overall, previous exposure to tsunami (OR 2.29 95% CI 1.36-3.84) was significantly associated with absenteeism whereas exposure to conflict was not (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.88-1.97), although some specific conflict-related exposures were significant risk factors. Mental disorder was strongly associated with absenteeism but did not account for its association with tsunami or conflict exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to traumatic events may have a detrimental effect on subsequent school attendance. This may give rise to perpetuating socioeconomic inequality and needs further research to inform policy and intervention.
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Determinants of suicidal ideation in patients with breast cancer.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Breast cancer survivors are at higher risk of psychological problems including suicidal ideation. However, studies on suicidal ideation in breast cancer survivors have been rare and have not been investigated prospectively. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and independent risk factors for suicidal ideation within 1?week and at 1?year after breast surgery for breast cancer.
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Induction and repair of clustered DNA lesions: what do we know so far?
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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The accumulated evidence in the literature indicates that a cluster of two or more lesions within one or two helical turns of the DNA is more challenging to repair than individual, widely dispersed lesions. The biological importance of clustered DNA lesions, especially complex double-strand breaks (DSB) and some types of non-DSB clusters (e.g., opposed bases that are oxidized), are now well known within the radiation research community. Still, many details of the induction and biological processing of complex clusters remain to be elucidated, especially in human cells. In this mini-review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the pathway(s) used by the mammalian cells to process and efficiently repair complex clusters other than the DSB. The effects of radiation quality and hypoxia on cluster induction and complexity are also briefly reviewed and discussed. Additional research is needed to better understand and quantify the multi-scale physiochemical and biological processes ultimately responsible for radiation-induced mutagenesis and genomic instability. New information and models to better quantify intermediate events (outcomes) related to the biological processing of non-DSB clusters are also important for ongoing efforts to assess the human health risks of terrestrial and space radiation environments and to guide the radiation therapy treatment planning process, especially for protons and carbon ions.
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An investigation of factors identified at birth in relation to anxiety and depression in old age: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Although life course influences have long been recognised in affective disorder, little is known about the influence of early life factors on late life anxiety and depression. The aim was to investigate the extent to which birth measures, maternal health and family circumstances were associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in late life.
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Development and evaluation of a de-identification procedure for a case register sourced from mental health electronic records.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Electronic health records (EHRs) provide enormous potential for health research but also present data governance challenges. Ensuring de-identification is a pre-requisite for use of EHR data without prior consent. The South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM), one of the largest secondary mental healthcare providers in Europe, has developed, from its EHRs, a de-identified psychiatric case register, the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS), for secondary research.
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The association between social relationships and self-harm: a case-control study in Taiwan.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Although suicide has been postulated as a result of social breakdown, relatively little attention has been paid to the association between social relationships and non-fatal self-harm. We sought to investigate the extent to which social factors correlate with self-harm in this case-control study.
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The obstetrical and neonatal impact of maternal opioid detoxification in pregnancy.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the obstetric and neonatal impact of an opioid detoxification program during pregnancy, as well as to examine variables associated with successful opioid detoxification.
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Risk and predictors of suicide and non-suicide mortality following non-fatal self-harm in Northern Taiwan.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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To investigate the risk and predictors of suicide and non-suicide mortality after self-harm in a Taiwanese population.
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Adverse oral health and cognitive decline: the health, aging and body composition study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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To investigate the relationship between periodontal disease and cognitive decline.
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White matter hyperintensities and functional outcomes at 2 weeks and 1 year after stroke.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Many stroke survivors remain at a functionally disabled state. Early prediction of functional outcome is an important step in the treatment and care of stroke patients. Brain imaging measures have received particular attention as one of the predictors of stroke outcomes. However, the associations between white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and post-stroke recovery have been controversial. This study aimed to investigate whether deep and periventricular WMHs (DWMHs and PVWMHs, respectively) were associated with functional outcomes at 2 weeks and 1 year after stroke separately and interactively.
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Harnessing clinical psychiatric data with an electronic assessment tool (OPCRIT+): the utility of symptom dimensions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Progress in personalised psychiatry is dependent on researchers having access to systematic and accurately acquired symptom data across clinical diagnoses. We have developed a structured psychiatric assessment tool, OPCRIT+, that is being introduced into the electronic medical records system of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust which can help to achieve this. In this report we examine the utility of the symptom data being collected with the tool. Cross-sectional mental state data from a mixed-diagnostic cohort of 876 inpatients was subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA). Six components, explaining 46% of the variance in recorded symptoms, were extracted. The components represented dimensions of mania, depression, positive symptoms, anxiety, negative symptoms and disorganization. As indicated by component scores, different clinical diagnoses demonstrated distinct symptom profiles characterized by wide-ranging levels of severity. When comparing the predictive value of symptoms against diagnosis for a variety of clinical outcome measures (e.g. Overactive, aggressive behaviour), symptoms proved superior in five instances (R(2) range: 0.06-0.28) whereas diagnosis was best just once (R(2):0.25). This report demonstrates that symptom data being routinely gathered in an NHS trust, when documented on the appropriate tool, have considerable potential for onward use in a variety of clinical and research applications via representation as dimensions of psychopathology.
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Participation in productive activities and depression among older Europeans: survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Although engagement in productive activities is associated with favourable outcomes with respect to the health and well-being of older individuals, the association between such activities and depression in older populations remains relatively unexplored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association among five productive activities (paid work, formal volunteering, caregiving, informal helping and caring for grandchildren) with depression in older adults in 14 European countries.
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A longitudinal study of SLC6A4 DNA promoter methylation and poststroke depression.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including poststroke depression (PSD). SLC6A4 expression is influenced by DNA methylation status and the SLC6A4 linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism. This study aimed to investigate whether SLC6A4 methylation status was associated with depression ascertained at two weeks and one year after stroke taking into account the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. A total of 286 patients were evaluated two weeks after stroke, and 222 (78%) were followed one year later. Depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, and depression severity was assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at each evaluation point. The effects of SLC6A4 methylation status on PSD status and HAMD scores were investigated using multivariate logistic regression models and partial correlation tests, respectively. Analyses were repeated after stratification by 5-HTTLPR genotype groups (l/l or l/s and s/s). Higher SLC6A4 promoter methylation status was independently associated with PSD both at 2 weeks and more prominently at 1 year after stroke, and was significantly associated with the worsening of depressive symptoms over one year. These findings were significant only in the presence of the 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype. SLC6A4 methylation profile was supported as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for PSD; associations with SLC6A4 methylation status may represent a target for drug development.
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Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration.
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Obsessive and compulsive symptoms in a national sample of older people: prevalence, comorbidity, and associations with cognitive function.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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To describe the prevalence of obsessive and compulsive symptoms in a national community sample of older adults, their comorbidity with mental disorders, and associations with cognitive impairment.
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West nile virus infection in pregnancy.
Case Rep Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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A recent outbreak of West Nile virus has allowed for observations as to the clinical course of this emerging pathogen during pregnancy. We present three cases of West Nile virus infection during pregnancy. Case 1 presented at term with focal subjective weakness and fever. With supportive care, her symptoms were resolved within 7 days, and she subsequently delivered an unaffected term infant. Case 2 presented in the first trimester with fever and headache. Her symptoms were resolved in 8 days with supportive care. Case 3 was diagnosed during the first trimester during workup of nonspecific respiratory symptoms, with resolution of all symptoms in 24 days. Obstetricians need to be aware of the varied clinical presentation of West Nile virus during pregnancy.
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Influences of personality traits on quality of life after stroke.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To investigate influences of personality traits on quality of life (QOL) over the first 3 months after stroke.
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A longitudinal study of BDNF promoter methylation and genotype with poststroke depression.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including poststroke depression (PSD). BDNF secretion is influenced by epigenetic and genetic profiles. This study aimed to investigate whether BDNF gene promoter methylation status and val66met polymorphism were associated with depression ascertained at two weeks and one year after stroke.
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Association of SLC6A4 methylation with early adversity, characteristics and outcomes in depression.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Childhood adversities have been associated with onset and worse clinical presentations of depression. Epigenetic changes may reflect childhood adversities, while their effects on clinical characteristics of depression are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether epigenetic changes were associated with childhood adversities, pretreatment characteristics, and treatment outcomes in depressive patients. In 108 patients with major depressive disorders, the methylation status in the promoter of gene encoding serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) was measured. Childhood adversities, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics including assessment scales for depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, HAMD), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAMA), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, SOFAS), disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-12, WHODAS-12), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated form, WHOQOL-BREF) were evaluated at baseline. After a 12-week treatment with antidepressants, the assessment scales were reevaluated. To avoid type I error by multiple comparisons, Bonferroni corrections were applied. Higher SLC6A4 promoter methylation status was significantly associated with childhood adversities, worse clinical presentation (family history of depression, higher perceived stress, and more severe psychopathology assessed by SOFAS, WHODAS-12, and WHOQOL-BREF), but was not associated with treatment outcomes after considering multiple comparisons. SLC6A4 methylation status could be a proxy marker for childhood adversities and a clinical biomarker for certain presentations of depression.
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Toward patient-specific, biologically optimized radiation therapy plans for the treatment of glioblastoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To demonstrate a method of generating patient-specific, biologically-guided radiotherapy dose plans and compare them to the standard-of-care protocol.
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Evaluation of smoking status identification using electronic health records and open-text information in a large mental health case register.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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High smoking prevalence is a major public health concern for people with mental disorders. Improved monitoring could be facilitated through electronic health record (EHR) databases. We evaluated whether EHR information held in structured fields might be usefully supplemented by open-text information. The prevalence and correlates of EHR-derived current smoking in people with severe mental illness were also investigated.
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Prolonged internal displacement and common mental disorders in Sri Lanka: the COMRAID study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Evidence is lacking on the mental health issues of internally displaced persons, particularly where displacement is prolonged. The COMRAID study was carried out in year 2011 as a comprehensive evaluation of Muslims in North-Western Sri Lanka who had been displaced since 1990 due to conflict, to investigate the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders.
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Serotonergic and BDNF genes associated with depression 1 week and 1 year after mastectomy for breast cancer.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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Polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes have been investigated as candidate genes for depression occurring in medical disorders. The serotonin 2a receptor (5-HTR2a) genes have been investigated as risk factors for depression but rarely in combination with medical conditions. This study aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms of interest in 5-HTT, 5-HTR2a, and BDNF genes are associated with depression after mastectomy for breast cancer.
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Air quality assessment of benzo(a)pyrene from asphalt plant operation.
J Environ Monit
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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A study has been carried out to assess the contribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from asphalt plant operation, utilising Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker for PAHs, to the background air concentration around asphalt plants in the UK. The purpose behind this assessment was to determine whether the use of published BaP emission factors based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology is appropriate in the context of the UK, especially as the EPA methodology does not give BaP emission factors for all activities. The study also aimed to improve the overall understanding of BaP emissions from asphalt plants in the UK, and determine whether site location and operation is likely to influence the contribution of PAHs to ambient air quality. In order to establish whether the use of US EPA emissions factors is appropriate, the study has compared the BaP emissions measured and calculated emissions rates from two UK sites with those estimated using US EPA emission factors. A dispersion modelling exercise was carried out to show the BaP contribution to ambient air around each site. This study showed that, as the US EPA methodology does not provide factors for all emission sources on asphalt plants, their use may give rise to over- or under-estimations, particularly where sources of BaP are temperature dependent. However, the contribution of both the estimated and measured BaP concentrations to environmental concentration were low, averaging about 0.05 ng m(-3) at the boundary of the sites, which is well below the UK BaP assessment threshold of 0.25 ng m(-3). Therefore, BaP concentrations, and hence PAH concentrations, from similar asphalt plant operations are unlikely to contribute negatively to ambient air quality.
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Mortality after hospital discharge for people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: retrospective study of linked English hospital episode statistics, 1999-2006.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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To investigate whether the mortality gap has reduced in recent years between people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and the general population.
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Exploring the role of miRNAs in renal cell carcinoma progression and metastasis through bioinformatic and experimental analyses.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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Metastasis results in most of the cancer deaths in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many important cell functions and play important roles in tumor development, metastasis and progression. In our previous study, we identified a miRNA signature for metastatic RCC. In this study, we validated the top differentially expressed miRNAs on matched primary and metastatic ccRCC pairs by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We performed bioinformatics analyses including target prediction and combinatorial analysis of previously reported miRNAs involved in tumour progression and metastasis. We also examined the co-expression of the miRNAs clusters and compared expression of intronic miRNAs and their host genes. We observed significant dysregulation between primary and metastatic tumours from the same patient. This indicates that, at least in part, the metastatic signature develops gradually during tumour progression. We identified metastasis-dysregulated miRNAs that can target a number of genes previously found to be involved in metastasis of kidney cancer as well as other malignancies. In addition, we found a negative correlation of expression of miR-126 and its target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. Cluster analysis showed that members of the same miRNA cluster follow the same expression pattern, suggesting the presence of a locus control regulation. We also observed a positive correlation of expression between intronic miRNAs and their host genes, thus revealing another potential control mechanism for miRNAs. Many of the significantly dysregulated miRNAs in metastatic ccRCC are highly conserved among species. Our analysis suggests that miRNAs are involved in ccRCC metastasis and may represent potential biomarkers.
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The effectiveness of community day-long CBT-I workshops for participants with insomnia symptoms: a randomised controlled trial.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Insomnia is a very common and disabling symptom. Whilst evidence for the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy for people diagnosed with insomnia (CBT-I) is strong, few people seek help and not many services offer CBT-I. Less intensive adaptations of CBT-I have been shown to be valuable, and given the size of the problem and low rates of help-seeking, an accessible intervention with a large capacity is needed. Day-long CBT-I psycho-educational workshops (each for up to 30 people), to which members of the public with insomnia symptoms could self-refer, have been developed. This randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of these workshops. Baseline measures were taken from 151 participants, who were then randomised to experimental or waiting-list control groups. Scores of the experimental group and the control group were compared 3 months after baseline. Random effects models found a significant interaction between time and group, indicating differences between the control and experimental groups on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Post hoc analyses indicated that ISI scores decreased significantly in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Promising results were also found on corroborative sleep diary measures. Access to the workshops was good, with 50% of participants having never previously sought help for sleep difficulties from their GP. CBT-I workshops proved to be both accessible and effective in reducing insomnia symptoms in the medium term. They may represent a feasible brief intervention with the potential to address unmet treatment needs of adults complaining of insomnia symptoms.
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Effects of radiation quality and oxygen on clustered DNA lesions and cell death.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Radiation quality and cellular oxygen concentration have a substantial impact on DNA damage, reproductive cell death and, ultimately, the potential efficacy of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. To better understand and quantify the effects of radiation quality and oxygen on the induction of clustered DNA lesions, we have now extended the Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) to account for reductions in the initial lesion yield arising from enhanced chemical repair of DNA radicals under hypoxic conditions. The kinetic energy range and types of particles considered in the MCDS have also been expanded to include charged particles up to and including (56)Fe ions. The induction of individual and clustered DNA lesions for arbitrary mixtures of different types of radiation can now be directly simulated. For low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiations, cells irradiated under normoxic conditions sustain about 2.9 times as many double-strand breaks (DSBs) as cells irradiated under anoxic conditions. New experiments performed by us demonstrate similar trends in the yields of non-DSB (Fpg and Endo III) clusters in HeLa cells irradiated by ? rays under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. The good agreement among measured and predicted DSBs, Fpg and Endo III cluster yields suggests that, for the first time, it may be possible to determine nucleotide-level maps of the multitude of different types of clustered DNA lesions formed in cells under reduced oxygen conditions. As particle LET increases, the MCDS predicts that the ratio of DSBs formed under normoxic to hypoxic conditions by the same type of radiation decreases monotonically toward unity. However, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of higher-LET radiations compared to (60)Co ? rays (0.24 keV/?m) tends to increase with decreasing oxygen concentration. The predicted RBE of a 1 MeV proton (26.9 keV/?m) relative to (60)Co ? rays for DSB induction increases from 1.9 to 2.3 as oxygen concentration decreases from 100% to 0%. For a 12 MeV (12)C ion (681 keV/?m), the predicted RBE for DSB induction increases from 3.4 (100% O(2)) to 9.8 (0% O(2)). Estimates of linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model parameters (? and ?) are closely correlated to the Monte Carlo-predicted trends in DSB induction for a wide range of particle types, energies and oxygen concentrations. The analysis suggests ? is, as a first approximation, proportional to the initial number of DSBs per cell, and ? is proportional to the square of the initial number of DSBs per cell. Although the reported studies provide some evidence supporting the hypothesis that DSBs are a biologically critical form of clustered DNA lesion, the induction of Fpg and Endo III clusters in HeLa cells irradiated by ? rays exhibits similar trends with oxygen concentration. Other types of non-DSB cluster may still play an important role in reproductive cell death. The MCDS captures many of the essential trends in the formation of clustered DNA lesions by ionizing radiation and provides useful information to probe the multiscale effects and interactions of ionizing radiation in cells and tissues. Information from Monte Carlo simulations of cluster induction may also prove useful for efforts to better exploit radiation quality and reduce the impact of tumor hypoxia in proton and carbon-ion radiation therapy.
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Investigation of effective decision criteria for multiobjective optimization in IMRT.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2011
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To investigate how using different sets of decision criteria impacts the quality of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans obtained by multiobjective optimization.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.