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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Bolivian children and adults after a population-based "screen and treat" strategy.
Helicobacter
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Strategies to prevent gastric cancer by decreasing Helicobacter pylori infections in high-prevalence, low-income countries could include a population-based "screen and treat" eradication program.
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Cholera epidemic associated with consumption of unsafe drinking water and street-vended water--Eastern Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2012.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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During 2012, Sierra Leone experienced a cholera epidemic with 22,815 reported cases and 296 deaths. We conducted a matched case-control study to assess risk factors, enrolling 49 cases and 98 controls. Stool specimens were analyzed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Conditional logistic regression found that consuming unsafe water (matched odds ratio [mOR]: 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 11.0), street-vended water (mOR: 9.4; 95% CI: 2.0, 43.7), and crab (mOR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.03, 10.6) were significant risk factors for cholera infection. Of 30 stool specimens, 13 (43%) showed PCR evidence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1. Six specimens yielded isolates of V. cholerae O1, El Tor; PFGE identified a pattern previously observed in seven countries. We recommended ensuring the quality of improved water sources, promoting household chlorination, and educating street vendors on water handling practices.
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Improved health among people living with HIV/AIDS who received packages of proven preventive health interventions, Amhara, Ethiopia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In 2009, basic care packages (BCP) containing health products were distributed to HIV-infected persons in Ethiopia who were clients of antiretroviral therapy clinics. To measure health impact, we enrolled clients from an intervention hospital and comparison hospital, and then conducted a baseline survey, and 7 bi-weekly home visits. We enrolled 405 intervention group clients and 344 comparison clients. Intervention clients were more likely than comparison clients to have detectable chlorine in stored water (40% vs. 1%, p<0.001), soap (51% vs. 36%, p<0.001), and a BCP water container (65% vs. 0%, p<0.001) at every home visit. Intervention clients were less likely than comparison clients to report illness (44% vs. 67%, p<0.001) or health facility visits for illness (74% vs. 95%, p<0.001), and had lower median illness scores (1.0 vs. 3.0, p<0.05). Participation in the BCP program appeared to improve reported health outcomes.
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The challenge of promoting interventions to prevent disease in impoverished populations in rural western Kenya.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Poverty is a critical social determinant of health. A particular approach toward mitigating inequitable access to health services in Kenya has been through a community-based distribution program implemented by the Safe Water and AIDS Project (SWAP) that has achieved modest uptake of public health interventions. To explore reasons for modest uptake, we asked program participants about child health problems, daily tasks, household expenditures, and services needed by their communities. Respondents identified child health problems consistent with health data and reported daily tasks, expenses, and needed services that were more related to basic needs of life other than health. These findings highlight the challenges of implementing potentially self-sustaining preventive interventions at scale in poor populations in the developing world.
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Evaluation of a rapid cholera response activity--Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2008.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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In response to recurrent cholera outbreaks in Nyanza Province, Kenya, a local nongovernmental organization assisted the Ministry of Health by providing cholera education activities to some cholera-affected communities. We evaluated the impact on cholera prevention knowledge and practices.
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Cholera prevention training materials for community health workers, Haiti, 2010–2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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Stopping the spread of the cholera epidemic in Haiti required engaging community health workers (CHWs) in prevention and treatment activities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated with the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population to develop CHW educational materials, train >1,100 CHWs, and evaluate training efforts.
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Epidemic cholera in a crowded urban environment, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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We conducted a case-control study to investigate factors associated with epidemic cholera. Water treatment and handwashing may have been protective, highlighting the need for personal hygiene for cholera prevention in contaminated urban environments. We also found a diverse diet, a possible proxy for improved nutrition, was protective against cholera.
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Rapid assessment of cholera-related deaths, Artibonite Department, Haiti, 2010.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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We evaluated a high (6%) cholera case-fatality rate in Haiti. Of 39 community decedents, only 23% consumed oral rehydration salts at home, and 59% did not seek care, whereas 54% of 48 health facility decedents died after overnight admission. Early in the cholera epidemic, care was inadequate or nonexistent.
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Risk factors early in the 2010 cholera epidemic, Haiti.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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During the early weeks of the cholera outbreak that began in Haiti in October 2010, we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors. Drinking treated water was strongly protective against illness. Our results highlight the effectiveness of safe water in cholera control.
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Diarrhea prevention in people living with HIV: an evaluation of a point-of-use water quality intervention in Lagos, Nigeria.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Africa. The impact of a point-of-use water chlorination and storage intervention on diarrheal-disease risk in a population of HIV-infected women in Lagos, Nigeria was evaluated. A baseline survey was performed, followed by six weeks of baseline diarrhea surveillance consisting of weekly home visits, distribution of free water chlorination products and safe storage containers to project participants, and continued weekly home-based diarrhea surveillance for 15 additional weeks. To confirm use of the water chlorination product, during each home visit, stored water was tested for residual chlorine. About 187 women were enrolled. At baseline, 80% of women had access to improved water supplies and 95% had access to sanitation facilities. Following distribution of the intervention, water stored in participants households was observed to have residual chlorine during 50-80% of home visits, a sign of adherence to recommended water-treatment practices. Diarrhea rates in project participants were 36% lower in the post-intervention period than during the baseline period (p=0.04). Diarrhea rates were 46% lower in the post-intervention period than the baseline period among project participants who were confirmed to have residual chlorine in stored water during 85% or more of home visits (p=0.04); there was no significant difference in diarrhea rates between baseline and post-intervention periods in participants confirmed to have residual chlorine in stored water during less than 85% of home visits. The percent change in diarrhea rates between baseline and post-intervention surveillance periods was statistically significant among non-users of prophylactic antibiotics (-62%, p=0.02) and among persons who used neither prophylactic antibiotics nor antiretroviral treatment (-46%, p=0.04). Point-of-use water treatment was associated with a reduced risk of diarrhea in PLHIV. Regular water treatment was required to achieve health benefits.
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Enhancing a safe water intervention with student-created visual aids to promote handwashing behavior in Kenyan primary schools.
Int Q Community Health Educ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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The Nyando Integrated Child Health Education (NICHE) project was a collaborative effort by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and local partners to assess the effectiveness of multiple interventions for improving child survival in western Kenya. To increase handwashing in schools, NICHE trained teachers and installed handwashing stations with treated water and soap in 51 primary schools. This cluster-randomized trial evaluated an additional educational strategy (a poster contest themed, "Handwashing with Soap") to improve handwashing behavior in 23 NICHE primary schools. Pupils were engaged in the poster development. Pupil handwashing behavior was observed unobtrusively at baseline and after four months. Intervention schools displayed a significant increase in the number of handwashing stations and proportion of teacher-supervised stations over the study period. No significant between-group differences of intervention in handwashing frequency, soap availability, or visibility of handwashing stations was observed. Despite finding a limited effect beyond the NICHE intervention, the trial appeared to promote sustainability across some measures.
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Impact of the integration of water treatment and handwashing incentives with antenatal services on hygiene practices of pregnant women in Malawi.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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Access to safe drinking water and improved hygiene are important for reducing morbidity and mortality from diarrhea. We surveyed 330 pregnant women who participated in an antenatal clinic-based intervention in Malawi that promoted water treatment and hygiene through distribution of water storage containers, sodium hypochlorite water treatment solution, soap, and educational messages. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (62% versus 27%, P < 0.0001), chlorinate drinking water (61% versus 1%, P < 0.0001), demonstrate correct handwashing practices (68% versus 22%, P < 0.0001), and purchase water treatment solution after free distribution (32% versus 1%, P < 0.0001). Among participants, 72% had at least three antenatal visits, 76% delivered in a health facility, and 54% had a postnatal check. This antenatal-clinic-based program is an effective new strategy for promoting water treatment and hygiene behaviors among pregnant women. Participants had high use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal services, which could improve maternal and child health.
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Determinants of use of household-level water chlorination products in rural Kenya, 2003-2005.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Household-level water treatment products provide safe drinking water to at-risk populations, but relatively few people use them regularly; little is known about factors that influence uptake of this proven health intervention. We assessed uptake of these water treatments in Nyanza Province, Kenya, November 2003-February 2005. We interviewed users and non-user controls of a new household water treatment product regarding drinking water and socioeconomic factors. We calculated regional use-prevalence of these products based on 10 randomly selected villages in the Asembo region of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Thirty-eight percent of respondents reported ever using household-level treatment products. Initial use of a household-level product was associated with having turbid water as a source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 16.6, p = 0.007), but consistent usage was more common for a less costly and more accessible product that did not address turbidity. A combination of social marketing, retail marketing, and donor subsidies may be necessary to extend the health benefits of household-level water treatment to populations most at risk.
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Monitoring the marketing, distribution, and use of Sprinkles micronutrient powders in rural western Kenya.
Food Nutr Bull
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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In 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with local Kenyan institutions to implement the Nyando Integrated Child Health and Education Project, an effectiveness study that used social marketing and a community-based distribution program to promote the sale of Sprinkles and other health products.
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Sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets for routine treatment of household drinking water in periurban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded trial to determine the health impact of daily use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets for household drinking water treatment in periurban Ghana. We randomized 240 households (3,240 individuals) to receive either NaDCC or placebo tablets. All households received a 20-liter safe water storage vvessel. Over 12 weeks, 446 diarrhea episodes (2.2%) occurred in intervention and 404 (2.0%) in control households (P = 0.38). Residual free chlorine levels indicated appropriate tablet use. Escherichia coli was found in stored water at baseline in 96% of intervention and 88% of control households and at final evaluation in 8% of intervention and 54% of control households (P = 0.002). NaDCC use did not prevent diarrhea but improved water quality. Diarrhea rates were low and water quality improved in both groups. Safe water storage vessels may have been protective. A follow-up health impact study of NaDCC tablets is warranted.
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High mortality in a cholera outbreak in western Kenya after post-election violence in 2008.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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In 2008, a cholera outbreak with unusually high mortality occurred in western Kenya during civil unrest after disputed presidential elections. Through active case finding, we found a 200% increase in fatal cases and a 37% increase in surviving cases over passively reported cases; the case-fatality ratio increased from 5.5% to 11.4%. In conditional logistic regression of a matched case-control study of fatal versus non-fatal cholera infection, home antibiotic treatment (odds ratio [OR] 0.049; 95% CI: < 0.001-0.43), hospitalization (OR, 0.066; 95% CI, 0.001-0.54), treatment in government-operated health facilities (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.015-0.73), and receiving education about cholera by health workers (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.018-0.96) were protective against death. Among 13 hospitalized fatal cases, chart review showed inadequate intravenous and oral hydration and substantial staff and supply shortages at the time of admission. Cholera mortality was under-reported and very high, in part because of factors exacerbated by widespread post-election violence.
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Effect of a point-of-use water treatment and safe water storage intervention on diarrhea in infants of HIV-infected mothers.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
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To reduce mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource-poor settings, the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months, followed by rapid weaning if replacement feeding is affordable, feasible, available, safe, and sustainable. In the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00146380), infants of HIV-infected mothers who received antiretroviral therapy experienced high rates of diarrhea at weaning. To address this problem, mothers in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study were given safe water storage vessels, hygiene education, and bleach for household water treatment. We compared the incidence of diarrhea in infants enrolled before (cohort A) and after (cohort B) implementation of the intervention. Cohort B infants experienced less diarrhea than cohort A infants, before and after weaning (P < .001 and P = .047, respectively); however, during the weaning period, there were no differences in the frequency of diarrhea between cohorts (P = 0.89). Testing of stored water in cohort B homes indicated high adherence (monthly range, 80%-95%) to recommended chlorination practices. Among infants who were weaned early, provision of safe water may be insufficient to prevent weaning-associated diarrhea.
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Increasing equity of access to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: a case study in western Kenya.
J Water Health
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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Point-of-use water chlorination reduces diarrhoea risk by 25-85%. Social marketing has expanded access to inexpensive sodium hypochlorite for water treatment, at a cost of less than US$0.01 per day, in Kenya. To increase product access, womens groups in western Kenya were trained to educate neighbours and sell health products to generate income. We evaluated this programmes impact on equity of access to water treatment products in a cross-sectional survey. We surveyed 487 randomly selected households in eight communities served by the womens groups. Overall, 20% (range 5-39%) of households in eight communities purchased and used chlorine, as confirmed by residual chlorine observed in stored water. Multivariate models using illiteracy and the poorest socioeconomic status as a referent showed that persons with at least some primary education (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.5) or secondary education (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.6, 17.5) and persons in the four wealthiest quintiles (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) were more likely to chlorinate stored water. While this implementation model was associated with good product penetration and use, barriers to access to inexpensive water treatment remained among the very poor and less educated.
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Impact of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves on respiratory disease in children in rural western Kenya.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Household air pollution is a risk factor for pneumonia, the leading cause of death among children < 5 years of age. From 2008 to 2010, a Kenyan organization sold ? 2,500 ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) that produce less visible household smoke than 3-stone firepits. During a year-long observational study, we made 25 biweekly visits to 200 homes to determine stove use and observe signs of acute respiratory infection in children < 3 years of age. Reported stove use included 3-stone firepit only (81.8%), upesi jiko only (15.7%), and both (2.3%). Lower, but not statistically significant, percentages of children in upesi jiko-using households than 3-stone firepit-using households had observed cough (1.3% versus 2.9%, rate ratio [RR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-1.03), pneumonia (0.9% versus 1.7%, RR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.24-1.48), and severe pneumonia (0.3% versus 0.6%, RR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.17-2.62). Upesi jiko use did not result in significantly lower pneumonia rates. Further research on the health impact of improved cookstoves is warranted.
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Long-term impact of integration of household water treatment and hygiene promotion with antenatal services on maternal water treatment and hygiene practices in Malawi.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants.
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Impact of a hygiene curriculum and the installation of simple handwashing and drinking water stations in rural Kenyan primary schools on student health and hygiene practices.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half ("intervention schools"). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention.
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A strategy to increase adoption of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves in rural Kenyan households.
BMC Public Health
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Exposure to household air pollutants released during cooking has been linked to numerous adverse health outcomes among residents of rural areas in low-income countries. Improved cookstoves are one of few available interventions, but achieving equity in cookstove access has been challenging. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed. To evaluate a project designed to motivate adoption of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) in an impoverished, rural African population, we assessed the perceived benefits of the cookstoves (in monetary and time-savings terms), the rate of cookstove adoption, and the equity of adoption.
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Water treatment and handwashing behaviors among non-pregnant friends and relatives of participants in an antenatal hygiene promotion program in Malawi.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Access to safe drinking water and improved hygiene are essential for preventing diarrheal diseases. To integrate hygiene improvement with antenatal care, free hygiene kits (water storage containers, water treatment solution, soap) and educational messages were distributed to pregnant women at antenatal clinics in Malawi. We assessed water treatment and hygiene practices of 275 non-pregnant friends and relatives of the hygiene kit recipients at baseline and follow-up nine months later to measure program impact on non-participants in the same communities. At follow-up, friends and relatives who did not receive kits or education were more likely than at baseline to purchase and use water treatment solution (25% versus 1%; P < 0.0001) and demonstrate correct handwashing practices (60% versus 18%; P < 0.0001). This antenatal clinic-based program resulted in improved water treatment and hygiene behaviors among non-pregnant friends and relatives living in the same communities as hygiene kit recipients, suggesting that program benefits extended beyond direct beneficiaries.
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Systematic review of behavior change research on point-of-use water treatment interventions in countries categorized as low- to medium-development on the human development index.
Soc Sci Med
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Point-of-use water treatment (i.e., water purification at the point of consumption) has proven effective in preventing diarrhea in developing countries. However, widespread adoption has not occurred, suggesting that implementation strategies have not motivated sustained behavior change. We conducted a systematic literature review of published behavioral research on factors influencing adoption of point-of-use water treatment in countries categorized as low- to medium-development on the United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index. We used 22 key words to search peer-reviewed literature from 1950 to 2010 from OVID Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Twenty-six (1.7%) of 1551 papers met our four inclusion criteria: 1) implemented a point-of-use water treatment intervention, 2) applied a behavioral intervention, 3) evaluated behavior change as the outcome, and 4) occurred in a low- or medium-development country. We reviewed these 26 publications for detailed descriptions of the water treatment intervention, theoretical rationales for the behavioral intervention, and descriptions of the evaluation. In 5 (19%) papers, details of the behavioral intervention were fully specified. Seven (27%) papers reported using a behavioral theory in the design of the intervention and evaluation of its impact. Ten (38%) studies used a comparison or control group; 5 provided detailed descriptions. Seven (27%) papers reported high sustained use of point-of-use water treatment with rates >50% at the last recorded follow-up. Despite documented health benefits of point-of-use water treatment interventions in reducing diarrheal diseases, we found limited peer-reviewed behavioral research on the topic. In addition, we found the existing literature often lacked detailed descriptions of the intervention for replication, seldom described the theoretical and empirical rationale for the implementation and evaluation of the intervention, and often had limitations in the evaluation methodology. The scarcity of papers on behavior change with respect to point-of-use water treatment technologies suggests that this field is underdeveloped.
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Selling Sprinkles micronutrient powder reduces anemia, iron deficiency, and vitamin A deficiency in young children in Western Kenya: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
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Although the efficacy of micronutrient powders [MNPs; eg, Sprinkles MNP (Sprinkles Global Health Initiative)] in the reduction of anemia has been established, the effectiveness of these powders in real-world programs has seldom been assessed.
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Integration of routine vaccination and hygiene interventions: a comparison of 2 strategies in Kenya.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Hygiene interventions reduce child mortality from diarrhea. Vaccination visits provide a platform for delivery of other health services but may overburden nurses. We compared 2 strategies to integrate hygiene interventions with vaccinations in Kenyas Homa Bay district, 1 using community workers to support nurses and 1 using nurses.
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Impact of integration of hygiene kit distribution with routine immunizations on infant vaccine coverage and water treatment and handwashing practices of Kenyan mothers.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Integration of immunizations with hygiene interventions may improve use of both interventions. We interviewed 1361 intervention and 1139 comparison caregivers about hygiene practices and vaccination history, distributed water treatment and hygiene kits to caregivers during infant vaccination sessions in intervention clinics for 12 months, and conducted a followup survey of 2361 intervention and 1033 comparison caregivers. We observed significant increases in reported household water treatment (30% vs 44%, P < .0001) and correct handwashing technique (25% vs 51%, P < .0001) in intervention households and no changes in comparison households. Immunization coverage improved in both intervention and comparison infants (57% vs 66%, P = .04; 37% vs 53%, P < .0001, respectively). Hygiene kit distribution during routine immunizations positively impacted household water treatment and hygiene without a negative impact on vaccination coverage. Further study is needed to assess hygiene incentives, implement alternative water quality indicators, and evaluate the impact of this intervention in other settings.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.