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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Polymorphisms at PRSS1-PRSS2 and CLDN2-MORC4 loci associate with alcoholic and non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis in a European replication study.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Several genetic risk factors have been identified for non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (NACP). A genome-wide association study reported an association of chronic pancreatitis (CP) with variants in PRSS1-PRSS2 (rs10273639; near the gene encoding cationic trypsinogen) and CLDN2-MORC4 loci (rs7057398 in RIPPLY1 and rs12688220 in MORC4). We aimed to refine these findings in a large European cohort.
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Chronic pancreatitis of the pancreatic remnant is an independent risk factor for pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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There is an ongoing debate about the best closure technique after distal pancreatectomy (DP). The aim of the closure is to prevent the formation of a clinically relevant post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF). Stapler technique seems to be equal compared with hand-sewn closure of the remnant. For both techniques, a fistula rate of approximately 30% has been reported.
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Genomics of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the worst prognostic cancers because of the late diagnosis and the absence of effective treatment. Within all subtypes of this disease, ductal adenocarcinoma has the shortest survival time. In recent years, global genomics profiling allowed the identification of hundreds of genes that are perturbed in pancreatic cancer. The integration of different omics sources in the study of pancreatic cancer has revealed several molecular mechanisms, indicating the complex history of its development. However, validation of these genes as biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis or treatment efficacy is still incomplete but should lead to new approaches for the treatment of the disease in the future.
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Evaluation of POSSUM for Patients Undergoing Pancreatoduodenectomy.
J Invest Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: The POSSUM score is a predictive scoring system for postoperative morbidity. Although numerous studies have validated its application in major abdominal surgery, few have exclusively considered pancreatic resections, which have unique complications that are costly and problematic. We examined whether POSSUM could accurately reflect the clinical outcomes in pancreatic resection.
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Prognostic relevance of minimal residual disease in colorectal cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Presence of occult minimal residual disease in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) has a strong prognostic impact on survival. Minimal residual disease plays a major role in disease relapse and formation of metastases in CRC. Analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the blood is increasingly used in clinical practice for disease monitoring of CRC patients. In this review article the role of CTC, disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone marrow and micrometastases and isolated tumor cells (ITC) in the lymph nodes will be discussed, including literature published until September 2013. Occult disease is a strong prognostic marker for patient survival in CRC and defined by the presence of CTC in the blood, DTC in the bone marrow and/or micrometastases and ITC in the lymph nodes. Minimal residual disease could be used in the future to identify patient groups at risk, who might benefit from individualized treatment options.
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PAK1 mediates pancreatic cancer cell migration and resistance to MET inhibition.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major unmet medical need and a deeper understanding of molecular drivers is needed to advance therapeutic options for patients. We report here that p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is a central node in PDAC cells downstream of multiple growth factor signalling pathways, including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and MET receptor tyrosine kinase. PAK1 inhibition blocks signalling to cytoskeletal effectors and tumour cell motility driven by HGF/MET. MET antagonists, such as onartuzumab and crizotinib, are currently in clinical development. Given that even highly effective therapies have resistance mechanisms, we show that combination with PAK1 inhibition overcomes potential resistance mechanisms mediated either by activation of parallel growth factor pathways or by direct amplification of PAK1. Inhibition of PAK1 attenuated in vivo tumour growth and metastasis in a model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In human tissues, PAK1 is highly expressed in a proportion of PDACs (33% IHC score 2 or 3; n = 304) and its expression is significantly associated with MET positivity (p < 0.0001) and linked to a widespread metastatic pattern in patients (p = 0.067). Taken together, our results provide evidence for a functional role of MET/PAK1 signalling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and support further characterization of therapeutic inhibitors in this indication. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Precursor lesions for sporadic pancreatic cancer: PanIN, IPMN, and MCN.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is still a dismal disease. The high mortality rate is mainly caused by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools, and most of the patients are diagnosed in an advanced and incurable stage. Knowledge about precursor lesions for pancreatic cancer has grown significantly over the last decade, and nowadays we know that mainly three lesions (PanIN, and IPMN, MCN) are responsible for the development of pancreatic cancer. The early detection of these lesions is still challenging but provides the chance to cure patients before they might get an invasive pancreatic carcinoma. This paper focuses on PanIN, IPMN, and MCN lesions and reviews the current level of knowledge and clinical measures.
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Preoperative CEA and CA 19-9 are prognostic markers for survival after curative resection for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas - A retrospective tumor marker prognostic study.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The prognosis for patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC) remains poor even after curative resection. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) and the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are the most widely used serum-based tumor markers for the diagnosis and follow up of pancreatic cancer. In our analysis we aim to assess the prognostic value of a combination of both tumor markers in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
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Variants in CPA1 are strongly associated with early onset chronic pancreatitis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disorder of the pancreas. We analyzed CPA1, encoding carboxypeptidase A1, in subjects with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis (cases) and controls in a German discovery set and three replication sets. Functionally impaired variants were present in 29/944 (3.1%) German cases and 5/3,938 (0.1%) controls (odds ratio (OR) = 24.9, P = 1.5 × 10(-16)). The association was strongest in subjects aged ? 10 years (9.7%; OR = 84.0, P = 4.1 × 10(-24)). In the replication sets, defective CPA1 variants were present in 8/600 (1.3%) cases and 9/2,432 (0.4%) controls from Europe (P = 0.01), 5/230 (2.2%) cases and 0/264 controls from India (P = 0.02) and 5/247 (2.0%) cases and 0/341 controls from Japan (P = 0.013). The mechanism by which CPA1 variants confer increased pancreatitis risk may involve misfolding-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress rather than elevated trypsin activity, as is seen with other genetic risk factors for this disease.
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Pathohistological subtype predicts survival in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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To investigate different subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas and their prognostic value.
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Evaluation of survival in patients after pancreatic head resection for ductal adenocarcinoma.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Surgery remains the only curative option for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome and prognostic factors in patients after resection for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head.
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Malignancy in chronic pancreatitis: analysis of diagnostic procedures and proposal of a clinical algorithm.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by its poor prognosis, and some benign conditions and syndromes, including chronic pancreatitis (CP), are risk factors for pancreatic carcinoma. However, the differential diagnosis of CP from PDAC is difficult for clinicians because PDAC frequently causes inflammation within the pancreas. Therefore, patients with CP exhibit not only an elevated risk of cancer, but they are also in danger of underdiagnosis.
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Improved protocol for laser microdissection of human pancreatic islets from surgical specimens.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Laser microdissection (LMD) is a technique that allows the recovery of selected cells and tissues from minute amounts of parenchyma. The dissected cells can be used for a variety of investigations, such as transcriptomic or proteomic studies, DNA assessment or chromosomal analysis. An especially challenging application of LMD is transcriptome analysis, which, due to the lability of RNA, can be particularly prominent when cells are dissected from tissues that are rich of RNases, such as the pancreas. A microdissection protocol that enables fast identification and collection of target cells is essential in this setting in order to shorten the tissue handling time and, consequently, to ensure RNA preservation. Here we describe a protocol for acquiring human pancreatic beta cells from surgical specimens to be used for transcriptomic studies. Small pieces of pancreas of about 0.5-1 cm(3) were cut from the healthy appearing margins of resected pancreas specimens, embedded in Tissue-Tek O.C.T. Compound, immediately frozen in chilled 2-Methylbutane, and stored at -80 °C until sectioning. Forty serial sections of 10 ?m thickness were cut on a cryostat under a -20 °C setting, transferred individually to glass slides, dried inside the cryostat for 1-2 min, and stored at -80 °C. Immediately before the laser microdissection procedure, sections were fixed in ice cold, freshly prepared 70% ethanol for 30 sec, washed by 5-6 dips in ice cold DEPC-treated water, and dehydrated by two one-minute incubations in ice cold 100% ethanol followed by xylene (which is used for tissue dehydration) for 4 min; tissue sections were then air-dried afterwards for 3-5 min. Importantly, all steps, except the incubation in xylene, were performed using ice-cold reagents - a modification over a previously described protocol. utilization of ice cold reagents resulted in a pronounced increase of the intrinsic autofluorescence of beta cells, and facilitated their recognition. For microdissection, four sections were dehydrated each time: two were placed into a foil-wrapped 50 ml tube, to protect the tissue from moisture and bleaching; the remaining two were immediately microdissected. This procedure was performed using a PALM MicroBeam instrument (Zeiss) employing the Auto Laser Pressure Catapulting (AutoLPC) mode. The completion of beta cell/islet dissection from four cryosections required no longer than 40-60 min. Cells were collected into one AdhesiveCap and lysed with 10 ?l lysis buffer. Each single RNA specimen for transcriptomic analysis was obtained by combining 10 cell microdissected samples, followed by RNA extraction using the Pico Pure RNA Isolation Kit (Arcturus). This protocol improves the intrinsic autofluorescence of human beta cells, thus facilitating their rapid and accurate recognition and collection. Further improvement of this procedure could enable the dissection of phenotypically different beta cells, with possible implications for better understanding the changes associated with type 2 diabetes.
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Gene expression profiling of ampullary carcinomas classifies ampullary carcinomas into biliary-like and intestinal-like subtypes that are prognostic of outcome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adenocarcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are classified as biliary cancers, though the exact epithelium of origin for these cancers is not known. We sought to molecularly classify ampullary adenocarcinomas in comparison to known adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, bile duct, and duodenum by gene expression analysis.
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Isolation of human islets from partially pancreatectomized patients.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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Investigations into the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and islets of Langerhans malfunction (1) have been hampered by the limited availability of type 2 diabetic islets from organ donors(2). Here we share our protocol for isolating islets from human pancreatic tissue obtained from type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients who have undergone partial pancreatectomy due to different pancreatic diseases (benign or malignant pancreatic tumors, chronic pancreatitis, and common bile duct or duodenal tumors). All patients involved gave their consent to this study, which had also been approved by the local ethics committee. The surgical specimens were immediately delivered to the pathologist who selected soft and healthy appearing pancreatic tissue for islet isolation, retaining the damaged tissue for diagnostic purposes. We found that to isolate more than 1,000 islets, we had to begin with at least 2 g of pancreatic tissue. Also essential to our protocol was to visibly distend the tissue when injecting the enzyme-containing media and subsequently mince it to aid digestion by increasing the surface area. To extend the applicability of our protocol to include the occasional case in which a large amount (>15g) of human pancreatic tissue is available , we used a Ricordi chamber (50 ml) to digest the tissue. During digestion, we manually shook the Ricordi chamber(3) at an intensity that varied by specimen according to its level of tissue fibrosis. A discontinous Ficoll gradient was then used to separate the islets from acinar tissue. We noted that the tissue pellet should be small enough to be homogenously resuspended in Ficoll medium with a density of 1.125 g/ml. After isolation, we cultured the islets under stress free conditions (no shaking or rotation) with 5% CO(2;) at 37 °C for at least 48 h in order to facilitate their functional recovery. Widespread application of our protocol and its future improvement could enable the timely harvesting of large quantities of human islets from diabetic and clinically matched non-diabetic subjects, greatly advancing type 2 diabetes research.
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Integrated proteomic profiling of cell line conditioned media and pancreatic juice for the identification of pancreatic cancer biomarkers.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths, for which serological biomarkers are urgently needed. Most discovery-phase studies focus on the use of one biological source for analysis. The present study details the combined mining of pancreatic cancer-related cell line conditioned media and pancreatic juice for identification of putative diagnostic leads. Using strong cation exchange chromatography, followed by LC-MS/MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we extensively characterized the proteomes of conditioned media from six pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPc3, MIA-PaCa2, PANC1, CAPAN1, CFPAC1, and SU.86.86), the normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line HPDE, and two pools of six pancreatic juice samples from ductal adenocarcinoma patients. All samples were analyzed in triplicate. Between 1261 and 2171 proteins were identified with two or more peptides in each of the cell lines, and an average of 521 proteins were identified in the pancreatic juice pools. In total, 3479 nonredundant proteins were identified with high confidence, of which ? 40% were extracellular or cell membrane-bound based on Genome Ontology classifications. Three strategies were employed for identification of candidate biomarkers: (1) examination of differential protein expression between the cancer and normal cell lines using label-free protein quantification, (2) integrative analysis, focusing on the overlap of proteins among the multiple biological fluids, and (3) tissue specificity analysis through mining of publically available databases. Preliminary verification of anterior gradient homolog 2, syncollin, olfactomedin-4, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and collagen alpha-1(VI) chain in plasma samples from pancreatic cancer patients and healthy controls using ELISA, showed a significant increase (p < 0.01) of these proteins in plasma from pancreatic cancer patients. The combination of these five proteins showed an improved area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to CA19.9 alone. Further validation of these proteins is warranted, as is the investigation of the remaining group of candidates.
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Chronic pancreatitis: early results of pancreatoduodenectomy and analysis of risk factors.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Although mortality after pancreatoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis has declined, the complication rate remains high. Today, there is an increasing need to base clinical decisions on the available scientific evidence to provide the best available treatment for the patients. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative characteristics of patients undergoing pancreatic head resection for chronic pancreatitis and performed an outcome analysis to provide prospective selection or managing criteria that could improve the early surgical results.
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An update on molecular research of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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This review provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms and pathways known to enhance development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
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Quality of life in patients after pancreaticoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is the most frequently performed resectional procedure in chronic pancreatitis. Only a few studies have evaluated quality of life (QOL) after PD for chronic pancreatitis. This retrospective study examined long-term quality of life and relief of symptoms in a homogenous consecutive cohort of 67 patients undergoing PD for chronic pancreatitis.
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Evaluation of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery definition of post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage in a high-volume center.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Although postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is observed infrequently after pancreatic surgery, it remains a serious complication with a high rate of mortality. Recently, the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) issued a new definition for PPH. To evaluate and validate this new definition, we analyzed data retrospectively from our center.
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Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN) of the pancreas: its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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The many varieties of cystic pancreatic tumor, and especially intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN), have attracted increased attention recently. Their incidence may be rising, and their histopathological evaluation and classification have become more precise than before.
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Neoadjuvant therapy in patients with pancreatic cancer: a disappointing therapeutic approach?
Cancers (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in Germany. The incidence in 2003/2004 was 16 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Of all carcinomas, pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rate, with one- and five-year survival rates of 25% and less than 5%, respectively, regardless of the stage at diagnosis. These low survival rates demonstrate the poor prognosis of this carcinoma. Previous therapeutic approaches including surgical resection combined with adjuvant therapy or palliative chemoradiation have not achieved satisfactory results with respect to overall survival. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate new therapeutic approaches. Neoadjuvant therapy is an interesting therapeutic option for patients with pancreatic cancer. For selected patients with borderline or unresectable disease, neoadjuvant therapy offers the potential for tumor downstaging, increasing the probability of a margin-negative resection and decreasing the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Currently, there is no universally accepted approach for treating patients with pancreatic cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. In this review, the most common neoadjuvant strategies will be described, compared and discussed.
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Molecular profiles and clinical outcome of stage UICC II colon cancer patients.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Published multigene classifiers suggesting outcome prediction for patients with stage UICC II colon cancer have not been translated into a clinical application so far. Therefore, we aimed at validating own and published gene expression signatures employing methods which enable their reconstruction in routine diagnostic specimens.
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RET-protooncogene variants in patients with sporadic neoplasms of the digestive tract and the central nervous system.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The RET protooncogene plays a crucial role in neural crest development; accordingly, mutations of RET cause MEN2A and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, while the expression deregulation of RET is involved in the pathophysiology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and pancreatic cancer (PDAC). The aim of this study was to evaluate if germline variants of the RET protooncogene are associated with GBM, pancreatic cancer and gastric cancer (GC).
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Five primary human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines established by the outgrowth method.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive tumor; treatment remains a challenge because of the lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Basic research in this field is dependent on the availability of model systems. New pancreatic cancer cell lines are therefore important for the study of its biology. In the present study, we report the establishment and characterization of five new pancreatic cancer cell lines (PaCaDD-43, -60, -119, -135, -137).
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Pancreatic heterotopia of the duodenum: anatomic anomaly or clinical challenge?
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Pancreatic heterotopia (PH) is a common congenital anomaly and can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In most cases, these heterotopias are asymptomatic and are only incidentally detected upon pathohistological examination or autopsy. We analyzed our cases of duodenal PH with respect to their clinical relevance and impact.
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Recent patents concerning targeted therapy of apoptosis resistance in pancreatic cancer.
Recent Pat DNA Gene Seq
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant forms of cancer. Due to numerous defects of the apoptosis machinery this tumor shows a high resistance towards conventional oncological therapies. On the level of the extrinsic pathway, signal transduction is flawed by over-expression of decoy receptors but also by a dysfunctional death inducing signaling complex (DISC). The mitochondrial pathway, normally stimulated by cell stress and toxic agents is impeded by over-expression of anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl 2 protein family and the so-called inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). To overcome the dysfunction of the apoptosis pathway, new therapeutics focus on molecular targets within the apoptosis pathway. Recently, many new treatment modalities have been reported like recombinant ligands of the cell death receptors or inhibitors of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members. Furthermore, various substances for the direct activation of the caspase cascade were patented and the over-expression of IAPs could be treated by binding inhibitors or using RNA interference techniques. The present review aims at giving an overview on these new treatment modalities.
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Intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas: biology, diagnosis, and treatment.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) rank among the most common cystic tumors of the pancreas. For a long time they were misdiagnosed as mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, ductal adenocarcinoma in situ, or chronic pancreatitis. Only in recent years have IPMNs been fully recognized as clinical and pathological entities, although their origin and molecular pathogenesis remain poorly understood. IPMNs are precursors of invasive carcinomas. When resected in a preinvasive state patient prognosis is excellent, and even when they are already invasive, patient prognosis is more favorable than with ductal adenocarcinomas. Subdivision into macroscopic and microscopic subtypes facilitates further patient risk stratification and directly impacts treatment. There are main duct and branch duct IPMNs, with the main duct type including the intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic types and the branch duct type solely harboring the gastric type. Whereas main duct IPMNs have a high risk for malignant progression, demanding their resection, branch duct IPMNs have a much lower risk for harboring malignancy. Patients with small branch duct/gastric-type IPMNs (<2 cm) without symptoms or mural nodules can be managed by periodic surveillance.
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Palliative treatment of obstructive jaundice in patients with carcinoma of the pancreatic head or distal biliary tree. Endoscopic stent placement vs. hepaticojejunostomy.
JOP
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2010
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Palliative procedures play an important role in the treatment of malignancies of the pancreatic head/distal biliary tree, as only 20-30% can be cured by surgical resection.
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Examination of apoptosis signaling in pancreatic cancer by computational signal transduction analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains an important cause of cancer death. Changes in apoptosis signaling in pancreatic cancer result in chemotherapy resistance and aggressive growth and metastasizing. The aim of this study was to characterize the apoptosis pathway in pancreatic cancer computationally by evaluation of experimental data from high-throughput technologies and public data bases. Therefore, gene expression analysis of microdissected pancreatic tumor tissue was implemented in a model of the apoptosis pathway obtained by computational protein interaction prediction.
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Simultaneous gene silencing of Bcl-2, XIAP and Survivin re-sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells towards apoptosis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma shows a distinct apoptosis resistance, which contributes significantly to the aggressive nature of this tumor and constrains the effectiveness of new therapeutic strategies. Apoptosis resistance is determined by the net balance of the cells pro-and anti-apoptotic "control mechanisms". Numerous dysregulated anti-apoptotic genes have been identified in pancreatic cancer and seem to contribute to the high anti-apoptotic buffering capacity. We aimed to compare the benefit of simultaneous gene silencing (SGS) of several candidate genes with conventional gene silencing of single genes.
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Functional analysis of LOXL2 in pancreatic carcinoma.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) plays a part in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by stabilizing the transcription factor SNAI1. Previous studies showed that LOXL2 is one of the most highly and specifically upregulated genes in pancreatic cancer. LOXL2 was also found to be strongly upregulated in the secretome of established pancreatic cancer cell lines. To get more insight into the aggressive growth and infiltrating nature of pancreatic cancer, we evaluated the functional role of LOXL2 in pancreatic cancer cells.
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Prognostic significance of AGR2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2009
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The human Anterior Gradient-2 (AGR2) is strongly upregulated in various human cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), but its prognostic value in PDAC has not yet been studied.
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Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling enhances delivery of chemotherapy in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is among the most lethal human cancers in part because it is insensitive to many chemotherapeutic drugs. Studying a mouse model of PDA that is refractory to the clinically used drug gemcitabine, we found that the tumors in this model were poorly perfused and poorly vascularized, properties that are shared with human PDA. We tested whether the delivery and efficacy of gemcitabine in the mice could be improved by coadministration of IPI-926, a drug that depletes tumor-associated stromal tissue by inhibition of the Hedgehog cellular signaling pathway. The combination therapy produced a transient increase in intratumoral vascular density and intratumoral concentration of gemcitabine, leading to transient stabilization of disease. Thus, inefficient drug delivery may be an important contributor to chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer.
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Surgical therapy of intrapancreatic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Pancreatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are clinically rare but highly resectable. The aim of this article is to identify patients who profit from pancreatic resection of RCC despite the invasiveness of the surgery.
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Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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This literature review briefly summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical management, and outcomes of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and highlights recent advances in PNET research. PNETs are rare neoplasms, compared with carcinomas arising from pancreatic exocrine tissue. They, like other neuroendocrine tumor types, display variable malignant potential, hormone-related syndromes (functionality), localization, and genetic background. Although tumor origin and molecular pathogenesis remain poorly understood, recently established grading and staging systems facilitate patient risk stratification, and thereby directly impact clinical decision making. Although the optimal clinical management of PNETs involves a multidisciplinary approach, surgery remains the only curative treatment for early-stage disease. Surgery may also have a role in patients with advanced-stage disease, including those with hepatic metastases. Alternative therapeutic approaches applied to PNETs, including chemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, biotherapy, polypeptide radionuclide receptor therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and selective internal radiotherapy, have failed to demonstrate a long-term survival benefit. Surgery remains the primary therapeutic option for patients with PNETs. Research on PNETs is desperately needed to improve the therapeutic options for patients with this disease.
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Circulating methylated SEPT9 DNA in plasma is a biomarker for colorectal cancer.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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The presence of aberrantly methylated SEPT9 DNA in plasma is highly correlated with the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We report the development of a new SEPT9 biomarker assay and its validation in case-control studies. The development of such a minimally invasive blood-based test may help to reduce the current gap in screening coverage.
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Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma: a multi-institutional study.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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The presentation and outcome of patients with acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas compared to the more common ductal cell adenocarcinoma (DCA) may be distinct. This study combines the experience with ACC from multiple academic institutions to better understand its natural history and outcomes.
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Curative resection of a primarily unresectable acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas after chemotherapy.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) represents only 1-2% of pancreatic cancers and is a very rare malignancy. At the time of diagnosis only 50% of the tumors appear to be resectable. Reliable data for an effective adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatment are not available.
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Quantitative perfusion analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of pancreatic masses and carcinomas.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Preoperative differential diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and focal masses in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) can be challenging. There are fine differences in the vascularization of these lesions; ultrasound contrast agents can aid in their differentiation. We evaluated the value of software-aided quantitative analysis of transabdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for differential diagnosis of PDAC vs focal masses.
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Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: a multi-institutional study of 21 patients.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas (SPN) account for less than 1% of all pancreatic tumors. The goal of this study was to better understand the nature of these rare tumors through analysis of patients clinical presentations and outcomes following surgical resection.
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Inhibition of MIF leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the eighth most common cancer with the lowest overall 5-y relative survival rate. Gene expression profiling of PDAC revealed an overexpression of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a lymphokine involved in cell-mediated immunity and inflammation, as well as in the regulation of cellular signal transduction.
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Association studies of the copy-number variable ß-defensin cluster on 8p23.1 in adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis.
BMC Res Notes
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Human ß-defensins are a family of antimicrobial peptides located at the mucosal surface. Both sequence multi-site variations (MSV) and copy-number variants (CNV) of the defensin-encoding genes are associated with increased risk for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis and acute pancreatitis. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between MSV in DEFB104 as well as defensin gene (DEF) cluster copy number (CN), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and chronic pancreatitis (CP).
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The deubiquitinase USP9X suppresses pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Nature
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains a lethal malignancy despite much progress concerning its molecular characterization. PDA tumours harbour four signature somatic mutations in addition to numerous lower frequency genetic events of uncertain significance. Here we use Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal preneoplasia to identify genes that cooperate with oncogenic Kras(G12D) to accelerate tumorigenesis and promote progression. Our screen revealed new candidate genes for PDA and confirmed the importance of many genes and pathways previously implicated in human PDA. The most commonly mutated gene was the X-linked deubiquitinase Usp9x, which was inactivated in over 50% of the tumours. Although previous work had attributed a pro-survival role to USP9X in human neoplasia, we found instead that loss of Usp9x enhances transformation and protects pancreatic cancer cells from anoikis. Clinically, low USP9X protein and messenger RNA expression in PDA correlates with poor survival after surgery, and USP9X levels are inversely associated with metastatic burden in advanced disease. Furthermore, chromatin modulation with trichostatin A or 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine elevates USP9X expression in human PDA cell lines, indicating a clinical approach for certain patients. The conditional deletion of Usp9x cooperated with Kras(G12D) to accelerate pancreatic tumorigenesis in mice, validating their genetic interaction. We propose that USP9X is a major tumour suppressor gene with prognostic and therapeutic relevance in PDA.
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Genetic analyses of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) in different forms of pancreatitis.
PLoS ONE
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Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) is the rate limiting enzyme in heme degradation and a key regulator of inflammatory processes. In animal models the course of pancreatitis was ameliorated by up-regulation of HMOX1 expression. Additionally, carbon monoxide released during heme breakdown inhibited proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells and might thereby prevent the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Transcription of HMOX1 in humans is influenced by a GT-repeat located in the promoter. As such, HMOX1 variants might be of importance in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.
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Feedback within the inter-cellular communication and tumorigenesis in carcinomas.
PLoS ONE
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The classical somatic mutation theory (SMT) of carcinogenesis and metastasis postulates that malignant transformation occurs in cells that accumulate a sufficient amount of mutations in the appropriate oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes. These mutations result in cell-autonomous activation of the mutated cell and a growth advantage relative to neighboring cells. However, the SMT cannot completely explain many characteristics of carcinomas. Contrary to the cell-centered view of the SMT with respect to carcinogenesis, recent research has revealed evidence that the tumor microenvironment plays a role in carcinogenesis as well. In this review, we present a new model that accommodates the role of the tumor microenvironment in carcinogenesis and complements the classical SMT. Our "feedback" model emphasizes the role of an altered spatiotemporal communication between epithelial and stromal cells during carcinogenesis: a dysfunctional intracellular signaling in tumorigenic epithelial cells leads to inappropriate cellular responses to stimuli from associated stromal or inflammatory cells. Thus, a positive feedback loop of the information flow between parenchymal and stromal cells results. This constant communication between the stromal cells and the tumor cells causes a perpetually activated state of tumor cells analogous to resonance disaster.
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Google goes cancer: improving outcome prediction for cancer patients by network-based ranking of marker genes.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
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Predicting the clinical outcome of cancer patients based on the expression of marker genes in their tumors has received increasing interest in the past decade. Accurate predictors of outcome and response to therapy could be used to personalize and thereby improve therapy. However, state of the art methods used so far often found marker genes with limited prediction accuracy, limited reproducibility, and unclear biological relevance. To address this problem, we developed a novel computational approach to identify genes prognostic for outcome that couples gene expression measurements from primary tumor samples with a network of known relationships between the genes. Our approach ranks genes according to their prognostic relevance using both expression and network information in a manner similar to Googles PageRank. We applied this method to gene expression profiles which we obtained from 30 patients with pancreatic cancer, and identified seven candidate marker genes prognostic for outcome. Compared to genes found with state of the art methods, such as Pearson correlation of gene expression with survival time, we improve the prediction accuracy by up to 7%. Accuracies were assessed using support vector machine classifiers and Monte Carlo cross-validation. We then validated the prognostic value of our seven candidate markers using immunohistochemistry on an independent set of 412 pancreatic cancer samples. Notably, signatures derived from our candidate markers were independently predictive of outcome and superior to established clinical prognostic factors such as grade, tumor size, and nodal status. As the amount of genomic data of individual tumors grows rapidly, our algorithm meets the need for powerful computational approaches that are key to exploit these data for personalized cancer therapies in clinical practice.
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DNA methylation in pancreatic cancer: protocols for the isolation of DNA and bisulfite modification.
Methods Mol. Biol.
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive tumor and still remains a challenge for its lack of effective therapeutic strategies, which is due to the late diagnosis of this disease. Methylation markers might improve early detection and surveillance of PDAC. Furthermore, analysis of hypermethylation in the tumor tissue might help to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention and improve the understanding of the pathophysiological changes occurring in pancreatic cancer. Methylation specific PCR is the method of choice if a small number of genes will be tested in a larger set of patient samples. After DNA isolation by standard procedure, the DNA is then modified using sodium bisulfite. This DNA can then be used in qualitative and quantitative PCR assays.
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A common variant of PNPLA3 (p.I148M) is not associated with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.
PLoS ONE
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Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease that in some patients leads to exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. In industrialized countries the most common aetiology is chronic alcohol abuse. Descriptions of associated genetic alterations in alcoholic CP are rare. However, a common PNPLA3 variant (p.I148M) is associated with the development of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC). Since, alcoholic CP and ALC share the same aetiology PNPLA3 variant (p.I148M) possibly influences the development of alcoholic CP.
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Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of the pancreas, pancreas carcinoma, and mass-forming focal pancreatitis.
Acta Radiol
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Mass-forming focal pancreatitis (FP) may mimic pancreatic cancer (PC) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the preoperative differential diagnosis is often difficult. Recently, the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer has been reported in several studies.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.