JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Atypical Chemokine Receptor ACKR2 Mediates Chemokine Scavenging by Primary Human Trophoblasts and Can Regulate Fetal Growth, Placental Structure, and Neonatal Mortality in Mice.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammatory chemokines produced in the placenta can direct the migration of placental leukocytes using chemokine receptors that decorate the surface of these cells. Fetal trophoblasts can also express receptors for inflammatory chemokines, and they are one of the few cell types that express atypical chemokine receptor 2 (ACKR2), previously known as D6. ACKR2 binds many inflammatory CC chemokines but cannot stimulate cell migration or activate signaling pathways used by conventional chemokine receptors. Existing evidence suggests that ACKR2 is a specialized chemokine scavenger, but its function in primary human trophoblasts has not been explored. In mice, ACKR2 is thought to be dispensable for the reproductive success of unchallenged females that have conceived naturally, but it can suppress inflammation-induced abortion and aid the survival of implanted allogeneic embryos. In this article, we demonstrate that cultured primary human trophoblasts express ACKR2 far more strongly than genes encoding conventional receptors for inflammatory CC chemokines. Moreover, these cells are capable of the rapid internalization and efficient scavenging of extracellular chemokine, and this is mediated by ACKR2. We also report that in unchallenged DBA/1j mice, Ackr2 deficiency increases the incidence of stillbirth and neonatal death, leads to structural defects in the placenta, and can decrease fetal weight. Loss of Ackr2 specifically from fetal cells makes a key contribution to the placental defects. Thus, primary human trophoblasts use ACKR2 to scavenge chemokines, and ACKR2 deficiency can cause abnormal placental structure and reduced neonatal survival.
Related JoVE Video
The chemokine receptors ACKR2 and CCR2 reciprocally regulate lymphatic vessel density.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Macrophages regulate lymphatic vasculature development; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating their recruitment to developing, and adult, lymphatic vascular sites are not known. Here, we report that resting mice deficient for the inflammatory chemokine-scavenging receptor, ACKR2, display increased lymphatic vessel density in a range of tissues under resting and regenerating conditions. This appears not to alter dendritic cell migration to draining lymph nodes but is associated with enhanced fluid drainage from peripheral tissues and thus with a hypotensive phenotype. Examination of embryonic skin revealed that this lymphatic vessel density phenotype is developmentally established. Further studies indicated that macrophages and the inflammatory CC-chemokine CCL2, which is scavenged by ACKR2, are associated with this phenotype. Accordingly, mice deficient for the CCL2 signalling receptor, CCR2, displayed a reciprocal phenotype of reduced lymphatic vessel density. Further examination revealed that proximity of pro-lymphangiogenic macrophages to developing lymphatic vessel surfaces is increased in ACKR2-deficient mice and reduced in CCR2-deficient mice. Therefore, these receptors regulate vessel density by reciprocally modulating pro-lymphangiogenic macrophage recruitment, and proximity, to developing, resting and regenerating lymphatic vessels.
Related JoVE Video
The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2 suppresses Th17 responses to protein autoantigens.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemokine-directed leukocyte migration is a critical component of all innate and adaptive immune responses. The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2 is expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells and scavenges pro-inflammatory CC chemokines to indirectly subdue leukocyte migration. This contributes to the resolution of acute inflammatory responses in vivo. ACKR2 is also universally expressed by innate-like B cells, suppressing their responsiveness to the non-ACKR2 ligand CXCL13, and controlling their distribution in vivo. The role of ACKR2 in autoimmunity remains relatively unexplored, although Ackr2 deficiency reportedly lessens the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by immunization with encephalogenic peptide (MOG35-55). This was attributed to poor T-cell priming stemming from the defective departure of dendritic cells from the site of immunization. However, we report here that Ackr2-deficient mice, on two separate genetic backgrounds, are not less susceptible to autoimmunity induced by immunization, and in some cases develop enhanced clinical symptoms. Moreover, ACKR2 deficiency does not suppress T-cell priming in response to encephalogenic peptide (MOG35-55), and responses to protein antigen (collagen or MOG1-125) are characterized by elevated interleukin-17 production. Interestingly, after immunization with protein, but not peptide, antigen, Ackr2 deficiency was also associated with an increase in lymph node B cells expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a cytokine that enhances T helper type 17 (Th17) cell development and survival. Thus, Ackr2 deficiency does not suppress autoreactive T-cell priming and autoimmune pathology, but can enhance T-cell polarization toward Th17 cells and increase the abundance of GM-CSF(+) B cells in lymph nodes draining the site of immunization.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 28 October 2014; doi:10.1038/icb.2014.90.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of conventional and atypical receptors for the chemokine CCL2 on mouse leukocytes.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemokine-directed leukocyte migration is crucial for effective immune and inflammatory responses. Conventional chemokine receptors (cCKRs) directly control cell movement; atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) regulate coexpressed cCKRs; and both cCKRs and ACKRs internalize chemokines to limit their abundance in vivo, a process referred to as scavenging. A leukocyte's migratory and chemokine-scavenging potential is determined by which cCKRs and ACKRs it expresses, and by the ligand specificity, signaling properties, and chemokine internalization capacity of these receptors. Most chemokines can bind at least one cCKR and one ACKR. CCL2 can bind to CCR2 (a cCKR) and two ACKRs (ACKR1 and ACKR2). In this study, by using fluorescent CCL2 uptake to label cells bearing functional CCL2 receptors, we have defined the expression profile, scavenging activity, and ligand specificity of CCL2 receptors on mouse leukocytes. We show that qualitative and quantitative differences in the expression of CCR2 and ACKR2 endow individual leukocyte subsets with distinctive CCL2 receptor profiles and CCL2-scavenging capacities. We reveal that some cells, including plasmacytoid dendritic cells, can express both CCR2 and ACKR2; that Ly6C(high) monocytes have particularly strong CCL2-scavenging potential in vitro and in vivo; and that CCR2 is a much more effective CCL2 scavenger than ACKR2. We confirm the unique, overlapping, ligand specificities of CCR2 and ACKR2 and, unexpectedly, find that cell context influences the interaction of CCL7 and CCL12 with CCR2. Fluorescent chemokine uptake assays were instrumental in providing these novel insights into CCL2 receptor biology, and the sensitivity, specificity, and versatility of these assays are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Chemokines as novel and versatile reagents for flow cytometry and cell sorting.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cell therapy regimens are frequently compromised by low-efficiency cell homing to therapeutic niches. Improvements in this regard would enhance effectiveness of clinically applicable cell therapy. The major regulators of tissue-specific cellular migration are chemokines, and therefore selection of therapeutic cellular populations for appropriate chemokine receptor expression would enhance tissue-homing competence. A number of practical considerations preclude the use of Abs in this context, and alternative approaches are required. In this study, we demonstrate that appropriately labeled chemokines are at least as effective in detecting their cognate receptors as commercially available Abs. We also demonstrate the utility of biotinylated chemokines as cell-sorting reagents. Specifically, we demonstrate, in the context of CCR7 (essential for lymph node homing of leukocytes), the ability of biotinylated CCL19 with magnetic bead sorting to enrich for CCR7-expressing cells. The sorted cells demonstrate improved CCR7 responsiveness and lymph node-homing capability, and the sorting is effective for both T cells and dendritic cells. Importantly, the ability of chemokines to detect CCR7, and sort for CCR7 positivity, crosses species being effective on murine and human cells. This novel approach to cell sorting is therefore inexpensive, versatile, and applicable to numerous cell therapy contexts. We propose that this represents a significant technological advance with important therapeutic implications.
Related JoVE Video
The atypical chemokine receptor CCRL1 shapes functional CCL21 gradients in lymph nodes.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Afferent lymph-borne dendritic cells essentially rely on the chemokine receptor CCR7 for their transition from the subcapsular lymph node sinus into the parenchyma, a migratory step driven by putative gradients of CCR7 ligands. We found that lymph node fringes indeed contained physiological gradients of the chemokine CCL21, which depended on the expression of CCRL1, the atypical receptor for the CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21. Lymphatic endothelial cells lining the ceiling of the subcapsular sinus, but not those lining the floor, expressed CCRL1, which scavenged chemokines from the sinus lumen. This created chemokine gradients across the sinus floor and enabled the emigration of dendritic cells. In vitro live imaging revealed that spatially confined expression of CCRL1 was necessary and sufficient for the creation of functional chemokine gradients.
Related JoVE Video
The N-terminal region of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2 is a key determinant of ligand binding.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The atypical chemokine receptor, ACKR2 is a pivotal regulator of chemokine-driven inflammatory responses and works by binding, internalizing, and degrading inflammatory CC-chemokines. ACKR2 displays promiscuity of ligand binding and is capable of interacting with up to 14 different inflammatory CC-chemokines. Despite its prominent biological role, little is known about the structure/function relationship within ACKR2, which regulates ligand binding. Here we demonstrate that a conserved tyrosine motif at the N terminus of ACKR2 is essential for ligand binding, internalization, and scavenging. In addition we demonstrate that sulfation of this motif contributes to ligand internalization. Furthermore, a peptide derived from this region is capable of binding inflammatory chemokines and inhibits their interaction with their cognate signaling receptors. Importantly, the peptide is only active in the sulfated form, further confirming the importance of the sulfated tyrosines for function. Finally, we demonstrate that the bacterial protease, staphopain A, can cleave the N terminus of ACKR2 and suppress its ligand internalization activity. Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of the structural motifs in ACKR2 that are responsible for ligand binding. The study also highlights ACKR2-derived N-terminal peptides as being of potential therapeutic significance.
Related JoVE Video
Immune regulation by atypical chemokine receptors.
Nat. Rev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemokines have fundamental roles in regulating immune and inflammatory responses, primarily through their control of leukocyte migration and localization. The biological functions of chemokines are typically mediated by signalling through G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, but chemokines are also bound by a small family of atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs), the members of which are unified by their inability to initiate classical signalling pathways after ligand binding. These ACKRs are emerging as crucial regulatory components of chemokine networks in a wide range of developmental, physiological and pathological contexts. In this Review, we discuss the biochemical and immunological properties of ACKRs and the potential unifying themes in this family, and we highlight recent studies that identify novel roles for these molecules in development , homeostasis, inflammatory disease, infection and cancer.
Related JoVE Video
International Union of Pharmacology. LXXXIX. Update on the extended family of chemokine receptors and introducing a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors.
Pharmacol. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145-176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human Genome Nomenclature Committee.
Related JoVE Video
Microarray Analyses Demonstrate the Involvement of Type I Interferons in Psoriasiform Pathology Development in D6-deficient Mice.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The inflammatory response is normally limited by mechanisms regulating its resolution. In the absence of resolution, inflammatory pathologies can emerge, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. We have been studying the D6 chemokine scavenging receptor, which played an indispensable role in the resolution phase of inflammatory responses and does so by facilitating removal of inflammatory CC chemokines. In D6-deficient mice, otherwise innocuous cutaneous inflammatory stimuli induce a grossly exaggerated inflammatory response that bears many similarities to human psoriasis. In the present study, we have used transcriptomic approaches to define the molecular make up of this response. The data presented highlight potential roles for a number of cytokines in initiating and maintaining the psoriasis-like pathology. Most compellingly, we provide data indicating a key role for the type I interferon pathway in the emergence of this pathology. Neutralizing antibodies to type I interferons are able to ameliorate the psoriasis-like pathology, confirming a role in its development. Comparison of transcriptional data generated from this mouse model with equivalent data obtained from human psoriasis further demonstrates the strong similarities between the experimental and clinical systems. As such, the transcriptional data obtained in this preclinical model provide insights into the cytokine network active in exaggerated inflammatory responses and offer an excellent tool to evaluate the efficacy of compounds designed to therapeutically interfere with inflammatory processes.
Related JoVE Video
Cell-autonomous regulation of neutrophil migration by the D6 chemokine decoy receptor.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemokines, acting on their cognate receptors on infiltrating leukocytes, drive the inflammatory response. We have been interested in determining roles and potential mechanisms for the atypical chemokine-scavenging receptor D6 in the regulation of inflammation. In this study, we show that a psoriasis-like pathology that arises in inflamed skins of D6-deficient mice is characterized by a massive and aberrant localization of neutrophils to the dermal/epidermal junction, which is associated with development of the pathology. Such misplacement of neutrophils is also seen with D6-deficient mice in other inflammatory models, suggesting a role for D6 in the spatial positioning of neutrophils within inflamed sites. We further show that D6 functions cell autonomously in this context and that D6, expressed by neutrophils, limits their migrational responses to CCR1 ligands such as CCL3. Our data therefore indicate that D6 is able to play a cell-autonomous role as a migratory rheostat restricting migration of D6-expressing cells such as neutrophils toward ligands for coexpressed inflammatory chemokine receptors. These data have important implications for our understanding of the roles for D6 in regulating inflammation and for our understanding of the control of spatial positioning of leukocytes at inflamed sites.
Related JoVE Video
Using fluorescent chemokine uptake to detect chemokine receptors by fluorescent activated cell sorting.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) is a powerful technique that allows rapid quantitative cell-by-cell analysis of the expression of multiple distinct proteins and the isolation of specific cell types from complex cellular mixtures. FACS-based detection of chemokine receptors is typically achieved using chemokine receptor-specific antibodies. However, this approach has some limitations, and, in our experience, many anti-chemokine receptor antibodies have poor signal-to-noise ratios and thus low sensitivity and reliability in FACS. Moreover, antibodies against some chemokine receptors are not commercially available, particularly in nonhuman species, and generating good antibodies against chemokine receptors is challenging and expensive. Here, we describe a simple alternative method of detecting chemokine receptors by FACS that relies on cellular internalization of fluorescently labelled chemokines. This approach detects chemokine receptors with high sensitivity, specificity, and reliability, and consistently outperforms antibody-based detection methods when applied to the analysis of mouse cells in our experience. It can also be used to study receptor specificity on primary cells and, since chemokines from one species often bind to receptors from other species, a single fluorescently labelled chemokine should allow reliable chemokine receptor detection and analysis across a range of species.
Related JoVE Video
An analysis of the function and expression of D6 on lymphatic endothelial cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanisms by which CC chemokine receptor (CCR)7 ligands are selectively presented on lymphatic endothelium in the presence of inflammatory chemokines are poorly understood. The chemokine-scavenging receptor D6 is expressed on lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) and contributes to selective presentation of CCR7 ligands by suppressing inflammatory chemokine binding to LEC surfaces. As well as preventing inappropriate inflammatory cell attachment to LECs, D6 is specifically involved in regulating the ability of LEC to discriminate between mature and immature dendritic cells (DCs). D6 overexpression reduces immature DC (iDC) adhesion to LECs, whereas D6 knockdown increases adhesion of iDCs that displace mature DCs. LEC D6 expression is regulated by growth factors, cytokines, and tumor microenvironments. In particular, interleukin-6 and interferon-? are potent inducers, indicating a preferential role for D6 in inflamed contexts. Expression of the viral interleukin-6 homolog from Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is also sufficient to induce significant D6 upregulation both in vitro and in vivo, and Kaposi sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma cells demonstrate high levels of D6 expression. We therefore propose that D6, which is upregulated in both inflammatory and tumor contexts, is an essential regulator of inflammatory leukocyte interactions with LECs and is required for immature/mature DC discrimination by LECs.
Related JoVE Video
Co-opting endogenous immunoglobulin for the regulation of inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in humans and mice.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cells of the monocytic lineage play fundamental roles in the regulation of health, ranging from the initiation and resolution of inflammation to bone homeostasis. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the inflamed synovium exhibits characteristic infiltration of macrophages along with local osteoclast maturation, which, together, drive chronic inflammation and downstream articular destruction. The aim of this study was to explore an entirely novel route of immunoglobulin-mediated regulation, involving simultaneous suppression of the inflammatory and erosive processes in the synovium.
Related JoVE Video
D6 facilitates cellular migration and fluid flow to lymph nodes by suppressing lymphatic congestion.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lymphatic endothelial cells are important for efficient flow of antigen-bearing fluid and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from peripheral sites to lymph nodes (LNs). APC movement to LNs is dependent on the constitutive chemokine receptor CCR7, although how conflicting inflammatory and constitutive chemokine cues are integrated at lymphatic surfaces during this process is not understood. Here we reveal a previously unrecognized aspect of the regulation of this process. The D6 chemokine-scavenging receptor, which is expressed on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), maintains lymphatic surfaces free of inflammatory CC-chemokines and minimizes interaction of inflammatory leukocytes with these surfaces. D6 does not alter the level of CCR7 ligands on LECs, thus ensuring selective presentation of homeostatic chemokines for interaction with CCR7(+) APCs. Accordingly, in D6-deficient mice, inflammatory CC-chemokine adherence to LECs results in inappropriate perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory leukocytes at peripheral inflamed sites and draining LNs. This results in lymphatic congestion and impaired movement of APCs, and fluid, from inflamed sites to LNs. We propose that D6, by suppressing inflammatory chemokine binding to lymphatic surfaces, and thereby preventing inappropriate inflammatory leukocyte adherence, is a key regulator of lymphatic function and a novel, and indispensable, contributor to the integration of innate and adaptive immune responses.
Related JoVE Video
Mast cells reside in myometrium and cervix, but are dispensable in mice for successful pregnancy and labor.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parturition is associated with myometrial and cervical inflammation. The causes and consequences of this inflammatory response are not clear. Mast cells (MCs) are important inducers of allergic and non-allergic inflammation, and their secreted products can induce myometrial contractions. Thus, mast cell activation has been hypothesized to have a role in initiating labor and/or driving labor-associated inflammation. We report that small numbers of MCs expressing chymase and tryptase are present in the myometrium and cervix of pregnant women. Labor did not lead to any change in mast cell abundance in these tissues, but was associated with reduced expression of the mast-cell regulator Fc?R1A, indicative of a change in mast cell properties. This coincided with contraction-dependent myocyte production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), a known suppressor of Fc?R1A expression. MCs were also found in the uterine horn and cervical region of pregnant C57BL/6 mice, increasing in number in the cervix, but not the myometrium, with labor. As expected, these cells were absent from mast-cell-deficient Kit(W-sh) mice. Nonetheless, pregnant Kit(W-sh) mice showed no defects in the timing of labor induction or in the upregulation of leukocyte markers during labor. Thus, MCs are present in the uterus and cervix of humans and mice, and our mouse studies suggest that they do not have a vital role in the induction of labor, or in the promotion of labor-associated inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Universal expression and dual function of the atypical chemokine receptor D6 on innate-like B cells in mice.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mouse innate-like B cells are a heterogeneous collection of multifunctional cells that control infection, play housekeeping roles, contribute to adaptive immunity, and suppress inflammation. We show that, among leukocytes, chemokine internalization by the D6 receptor is a unique and universal feature of all known innate-like B-cell populations and, to our knowledge, the most effective unifying marker of these cells. Moreover, we identify novel D6(active) B1-cell subsets, including those we term B1d, which lack CD5 and CD11b but exhibit typical B1-cell properties, including spontaneous ex vivo production of IgM, IL-10, and anti-phosphorylcholine antibody. The unprecedented opportunity to examine D6 on primary cells has allowed us to clarify its ligand specificity and show that, consistent with a scavenging role, D6 internalizes chemokines but cannot induce Ca(2+) fluxes or chemotaxis. Unexpectedly, however, D6 can also suppress the function of CXCR5, a critical chemokine receptor in innate-like B-cell biology. This is associated with a reduction in B1 cells and circulating class-switched anti-phosphorylcholine antibody in D6-deficient mice. Therefore, in the present study, we identify a unifying marker of innate-like B cells, describe novel B1-cell subsets, reveal a dual role for D6, and provide the first evidence of defects in resting D6-deficient mice.
Related JoVE Video
DARC and D6: silent partners in chemokine regulation?
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemokine receptors adorn the surface of leukocytes and other cell types ready to translate the extracellular chemokine environment into functional cellular outcomes. However, there are several molecules that, in many respects, look like chemokine receptors, but which do not have the ability to confer chemotactic potential to cell lines. This apparent silence spurred the search for signalling-independent functions and led to the development of new paradigms of chemokine regulation. In this review, we summarise the experimental basis for these ideas focussing on DARC and D6, the most studied members of this group of molecules. We discuss data generated using in vitro systems and genetically deficient mice, include results from observational human studies, and summarise the key findings of recent research. We take a critical look at current models of in vivo function highlighting important gaps in our knowledge and demonstrating that there is still much to find out about these enigmatic molecules.
Related JoVE Video
The atypical chemokine receptor CCX-CKR scavenges homeostatic chemokines in circulation and tissues and suppresses Th17 responses.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our previous in vitro studies led to proposals that the atypical chemokine receptor CCX-CKR is a scavenger of CCR7 ligand homeostatic chemokines. In the present study, we generated CCX-CKR(-/-) mice and confirm this scavenger function in vivo. Compared with wild-type mice, CCX-CKR(-/-) have a 5-fold increase in the level of CCL21 protein in blood, and 2- to 3-fold increases in CCL19 and CCL21 in peripheral lymph nodes. The effect of these protein increases on immunity was investigated after immunization with MOG(35-55) peptide emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant (CFA). The subsequent characteristic paralysis develops with enhanced kinetics and severity in CCX-CKR(-/-) versus wild-type mice. Despite this effect, antigen-specific immune responses in the draining lymph nodes are diminished in CCX-CKR(-/-) mice. Instead, the earlier onset of disease is associated with enhanced T-cell priming in the CCX-CKR(-/-) spleen and a skewing of CD4(+) T-cell responses toward Th17 rather than Th1. This observation correlates with increased expression of IL-23 in the CCX-CKR(-/-) spleen and increased CCL21 levels in the central nervous system postimmunization. The early onset of disease in CCX-CKR(-/-) mice is reversed by systemic administration of neutralizing anti-CCL21 antibodies. Thus, by regulating homeostatic chemokine bioavailability, CCX-CKR influences the localization, kinetics, and nature of adaptive immune responses in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
IL-7 induces rapid clathrin-mediated internalization and JAK3-dependent degradation of IL-7Ralpha in T cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an essential cytokine for T-cell development and homeostasis. It is well established that IL-7 promotes the transcriptional down-regulation of IL7RA, leading to decreased IL-7Ralpha surface expression. However, it is currently unknown whether IL-7 regulates the intracellular trafficking and early turnover of its receptor on ligand binding. Here, we show that, in steady-state T cells, IL-7Ralpha is slowly internalized and degraded while a significant fraction recycles back to the surface. On IL-7 stimulation, there is rapid IL-7Ralpha endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits, decreased receptor recycling, and accelerated lysosome and proteasome-dependent degradation. In accordance, the half-life of IL-7Ralpha decreases from 24 hours to approximately 3 hours after IL-7 treatment. Interestingly, we further demonstrate that clathrin-dependent endocytosis is necessary for efficient IL-7 signal transduction. In turn, pretreatment of T cells with JAK3 or pan-JAK inhibitors suggests that IL-7Ralpha degradation depends on the activation of the IL-7 signaling effector JAK3. Overall, our findings indicate that IL-7 triggers rapid IL-7Ralpha endocytosis, which is required for IL-7-mediated signaling and subsequent receptor degradation.
Related JoVE Video
Chemokine scavenger D6 is expressed by trophoblasts and aids the survival of mouse embryos transferred into allogeneic recipients.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proinflammatory CC chemokines are thought to drive recruitment of maternal leukocytes into gestational tissues and regulate extravillous trophoblast migration. The atypical chemokine receptor D6 binds many of these chemokines and is highly expressed by the human placenta. D6 is thought to act as a chemokine scavenger because, when ectopically expressed in cell lines in vitro, it efficiently internalizes proinflammatory CC chemokines and targets them for destruction in the absence of detectable chemokine-induced signaling. Moreover, D6 suppresses inflammation in many mouse tissues, and notably, D6-deficient fetuses in D6-deficient female mice show increased susceptibility to inflammation-driven resorption. In this paper, we report strong anti-D6 immunoreactivity, with specific intracellular distribution patterns, in trophoblast-derived cells in human placenta, decidua, and gestational membranes throughout pregnancy and in trophoblast disease states of hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. We show, for the first time, that endogenous D6 in a human choriocarcinoma-derived cell line can mediate progressive chemokine scavenging and that the D6 ligand CCL2 can specifically associate with human syncytiotrophoblasts in term placenta in situ. Moreover, despite strong chemokine production by gestational tissues, levels of D6-binding chemokines in maternal plasma decrease during pregnancy, even in women with pre-eclampsia, a disease associated with increased maternal inflammation. In mice, D6 is not required for syngeneic or semiallogeneic fetal survival in unchallenged mice, but interestingly, it does suppress fetal resorption after embryo transfer into fully allogeneic recipients. These data support the view that trophoblast D6 scavenges maternal chemokines at the fetomaternal interface and that, in some circumstances, this can help to ensure fetal survival.
Related JoVE Video
CCL19 is a specific ligand of the constitutively recycling atypical human chemokine receptor CRAM-B.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The human chemokine receptor CRAM (chemokine receptor on activated macrophages), encoded by the gene CCRL2, is a new candidate for the atypical chemokine receptor family that includes the receptors DARC, D6 and chemocentryx chemokine receptor (CCX-CKR). CRAM is maturation-stage-dependently expressed on human B lymphocytes and its surface expression is up-regulated upon short-term CCL5 exposure. Here, we demonstrate that the homeostatic chemokine CCL19 is a specific ligand for CRAM. In radioactive labelling studies CCL19 bound to CRAM-expressing cells with an affinity similar to the described binding of its other receptor CCR7. In contrast to the known CCL19/CCR7 ligand/receptor pair, CRAM stimulation by CCL19 did not result in typical chemokine-receptor-dependent cellular activation like calcium mobilization or migration. Instead, we demonstrate that CRAM is constitutively recycling via clathrin-coated pits and able to internalize CCL19 as well as anti-CRAM antibodies. As this absence of classical chemokine receptor responses and the recycling and internalization features are characteristic for non-classical chemokine receptors, we suggest that CRAM is the newest member of this group. As CCL19 is known to be critically involved in lymphocyte and dendritic cell trafficking, CCL19-binding competition by CRAM might be involved in modulating these processes.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical value of immunohistochemically detected lymphatic and vascular invasions in clinically staged endometrioid endometrial cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel technique to differentiate lymphatic from vascular invasion and to assess the clinicopathological significance in patients with early endometrial cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Structure-function dissection of D6, an atypical scavenger receptor.
Meth. Enzymol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemokines direct leukocyte migration by activating intracellular signalling pathways through G-protein coupled chemokine receptors. However, they also bind to other surface proteins, including a group of molecules which we refer to as atypical chemokine receptors. One such molecule is D6. D6 is structurally-related to other chemokine receptors, and binds specific pro-inflammatory chemokines with high affinity, but surprisingly, when expressed in heterologous cell lines, it is unable to transduce signals after chemokine engagement. Instead, by using the approaches outlined in this chapter, evidence has emerged that D6 acts as a chemokine scavenger which uses unique intracellular trafficking properties to continuously sequester extracellular chemokines into cells. It is envisaged that this suppresses inflammation in vivo by limiting pro-inflammatory chemokine bioavailability, and indeed, D6 deficient mice show exaggerated inflammatory responses to a variety of challenges. In addition to the in vitro functional studies, we also describe the methods we have used to express, purify and analyse large quantities of D6 protein. The unusually high stability of D6 and its broad subcellular distribution enables D6 to be expressed to very high levels in transfected cells, making it possible, at least in principal, to produce enough D6 to allow for purification of quantities suitable for crystallisation. This is a key step on the path towards generating a three-dimensional structure of the molecule. Thus, the protocols we outline have helped establish chemokine scavenging as a novel paradigm in chemokine biology, and may also ultimately provide unprecedented insight into the structure of D6 and other chemokine receptors.
Related JoVE Video
The atypical chemokine receptor D6 contributes to the development of experimental colitis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proinflammatory CC chemokines control leukocyte recruitment and function during inflammation by engaging chemokine receptors expressed on circulating leukocytes. The D6 chemokine receptor can bind several of these chemokines, but appears unable to couple to signal transduction pathways or direct cell migration. Instead, D6 has been proposed to act as a chemokine scavenger, removing proinflammatory chemokines to dampen leukocyte responses. In this study, we have examined the role of D6 in the colon using the dextran sodium sulfate-induced model of colitis. We show that D6 is expressed in the resting colon, predominantly by stromal cells and B cells, and is up-regulated during colitis. Unexpectedly, D6-deficient mice showed reduced susceptibility to colitis and had less pronounced clinical symptoms associated with this model. D6 deletion had no impact on the level of proinflammatory CC chemokines released from cultured colon explants, or on the balance of leukocyte subsets recruited to the inflamed colon. However, late in colitis, inflamed D6-deficient colons showed enhanced production of several proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma and IL-17A, and there was a marked increase in IL-17A-secreting gammadelta T cells in the lamina propria. Moreover, Ab-mediated neutralization of IL-17A worsened the clinical symptoms of colitis at these later stages of the response in D6-deficient, but not wild-type, mice. Thus, D6 can contribute to the development of colitis by regulating IL-17A secretion by gammadelta T cells in the inflamed colon.
Related JoVE Video
A TLR2 ligand suppresses inflammation by modulation of chemokine receptors and redirection of leukocyte migration.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toll-like receptors orchestrate rapid local protective innate-immune responses to invading pathogens and optimize leukocyte priming of subsequent adaptive responses. Paradoxically, systemic excess of the TLR2 ligand, bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), suppresses peripheral inflammatory responses. Here, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is regulated via the TLR2-dependent, cell-autonomous down-regulation of inflammatory chemokine receptor expression on a variety of leukocyte subsets. Remarkably, BLP mediated no effect on constitutive chemokine receptor expression. By tracking adoptively transferred wild-type and TLR2(-/-) leukocytes in vivo, we observed that BLP mediated chemokine receptor switching directed leukocytes away from inflamed sites toward secondary lymphoid organs. These data highlight a novel role for TLR ligands, such as BLP, in regulating leukocyte retention and migration away from innate immune lesions via discrete constitutive and inflammatory chemokine receptor regulation.
Related JoVE Video
The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines transports chemokines and supports their promigratory activity.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) belongs to a family of silent heptahelical chemokine receptors that do not couple to G proteins and fail to transmit measurable intracellular signals. DARC binds most inflammatory chemokines and is prominently expressed on venular endothelial cells, where its function has remained contentious. Here we show that DARC, like other silent receptors, internalized chemokines but did not effectively scavenge them. Instead, DARC mediated chemokine transcytosis, which led to apical retention of intact chemokines and more leukocyte migration across monolayers expressing DARC. Mice overexpressing DARC on blood vessel endothelium had enhanced chemokine-induced leukocyte extravasation and contact-hypersensitivity reactions. Thus, interactions of chemokines with DARC support their activity on apposing leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
CCX-CKR deficiency alters thymic stroma impairing thymocyte development and promoting autoimmunity.
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The atypical chemokine receptor CCX-CKR regulates bioavailability of CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25, homeostatic chemokines that play crucial roles in thymic lymphopoiesis. Deletion of CCX-CKR results in accelerated experimental autoimmunity induced by immunization. Here we show that CCX-CKR deletion also increases incidence of a spontaneous Sjögrens syndrome-like pathology, characterized by lymphocytic infiltrates in salivary glands and liver of CCX-CKR(-/-) mice, suggestive of a defect in self-tolerance when CCX-CKR is deleted. This prompted detailed examination of the thymus in CCX-CKR(-/-) mice. Negatively selected mature SP cells were less abundant in CCX-CKR(-/-) thymi, yet expansion of both DP and immature SP cells was apparent. Deletion of CCX-CKR also profoundly reduced proportions of DN3 thymocyte precursors and caused DN2 cells to accumulate within the medulla. These effects are likely driven by alterations in thymic stroma as CCX-CKR(-/-) mice have fewer cTECs per thymocyte, and cTECs express the highest level of CCX-CKR in the thymus. A profound decrease in CCL25 within the thymic cortex was observed in CCX-CKR(-/-) thymi, likely accounting for their defects in thymocyte distribution and frequency. These findings identify a novel role for CCX-CKR in regulating cTEC biology, which promotes optimal thymocyte development and selection important for self-tolerant adaptive immunity.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of CXCR2 profoundly suppresses inflammation-driven and spontaneous tumorigenesis.
J. Clin. Invest.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The chemokine receptor CXCR2 is a key mediator of neutrophil migration that also plays a role in tumor development. However, CXCR2 influences tumors through multiple mechanisms and might promote or inhibit tumor development depending on context. Here, we used several mouse models of spontaneous and inflammation-driven neoplasia to define indispensable roles for CXCR2 in benign and malignant tumors. CXCR2-activating chemokines were part of the secretome of cultured primary benign intestinal adenomas (ApcMin/+) and highly expressed by all tumors in all models. CXCR2 deficiency profoundly suppressed inflammation-driven tumorigenesis in skin and intestine as well as spontaneous adenocarcinoma formation in a model of invasive intestinal adenocarcinoma (AhCreER;Apcfl/+;Ptenfl/fl mice). Pepducin-mediated CXCR2 inhibition reduced tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. Ly6G+ neutrophils were the dominant source of CXCR2 in blood, and CXCR2 deficiency attenuated neutrophil recruitment. Moreover, systemic Ly6G+ cell depletion purged CXCR2-dependent tumor-associated leukocytes, suppressed established skin tumor growth and colitis-associated tumorigenesis, and reduced ApcMin/+ adenoma formation. CXCR2 is thus a potent protumorigenic chemokine receptor that directs recruitment of tumor-promoting leukocytes into tissues during tumor-inducing and tumor-driven inflammation. Similar leukocyte populations were also found in human intestinal adenomas, which suggests that CXCR2 antagonists may have therapeutic and prophylactic potential in the treatment of cancer.
Related JoVE Video
D6: the crowd controller at the immune gateway.
Trends Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The chemokine-scavenging receptor, D6, is reported to regulate resolution of inflammatory responses. However, recent data also point to an unanticipated role for D6 in coordinating innate and adaptive immune responses. Here, we propose that D6 is essential for preventing inflammatory leukocyte association with lymphatic vasculature. In the absence of D6, inappropriate inflammatory leukocyte accumulation around lymphatic endothelium congests the lymphatic system, impairing fluid and cellular flow from inflamed sites to lymph nodes and reducing efficiency of antigen presentation. Thus, the inability of D6-deficient mice to resolve inflammation may be a byproduct of impaired fluid drainage from inflamed sites and thus we provide a model unifying D6 function in innate and adaptive immune responses.
Related JoVE Video
The chemokine receptor CCR2 is not required for successful initiation of labor in mice.
Biol. Reprod.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemokine-driven neutrophil and monocyte recruitment into the uterus and cervix has been proposed to initiate labor. Chemokines that bind CXCR2 direct neutrophil migration and are induced during labor in humans. The chemokine CCL2, induced in the uterus by endocrine and mechanical signals, has been proposed to drive CCR2-dependent monocyte homing to the uterus to contribute to the initiation of labor. However, no direct evidence indicates that chemokines or their receptors play indispensable roles in labor-associated inflammation, and the impact of leukocyte infiltration on labor is unclear. Here, we have quantified expression of the principal monocyte- and neutrophil-attracting chemokines in the uteri of term pregnant (Day 18) and laboring wild-type mice. None of the neutrophil attractants we assayed were up-regulated with labor. Strikingly, however, Ccl2 was markedly increased, and this was concomitant with increased expression of Ccr2, the myeloid marker Itgam (also known as Cd11b), the monocyte/macrophage marker Emr1 (also known as F4/80). Moreover, in CCR2-deficient mice, this labor-associated increase in Itgam and Emr1 was not seen, consistent with the monocyte-trafficking defects that exist in these animals. Nonetheless, laboring CCR2-deficient and wild-type uteri showed similarly enhanced expression of the myometrial activation markers Gja1 and Oxtr (commonly known as connexin 43 and oxytocin receptor, respectively), and CCR2-deficient mice had gestation lengths, litter sizes, and fetal and placental weights no different from those of their wild-type counterparts. Thus, whereas labor is associated with an inflammatory response in gestational tissues, CCR2-dependent leukocyte recruitment into the mouse uterus is dispensable for the initiation of successful labor.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.