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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Successful treatment of post-transplant thrombocytopenia with romiplostim in a pediatric patient with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Thrombocytopenia is a frequent complication following HSCT in pediatric patients. Romiplostim is a TPO receptor agonist that has been utilized successfully in the treatment of pediatric patients with immune thrombocytopenia. We describe a three-yr-old male with X-linked CGD treated with an unrelated donor bone marrow transplant. His course was complicated by the development of symptomatic thrombocytopenia. He was started on romiplostim with prompt improvement in his thrombocytopenia. We found the use of romiplostim to be an effective and safe alternative to the potential complications as well as morbidity and mortality associated with the use of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids.
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Activity of broad-spectrum T cells as treatment for AdV, EBV, CMV, BKV, and HHV6 infections after HSCT.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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It remains difficult to treat the multiplicity of distinct viral infections that afflict immunocompromised patients. Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells (VSTs) can be safe and effective, but such cells have been complex to prepare and limited in antiviral range. We now demonstrate the feasibility and clinical utility of rapidly generated single-culture VSTs that recognize 12 immunogenic antigens from five viruses (Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, BK virus, and human herpesvirus 6) that frequently cause disease in immunocompromised patients. When administered to 11 recipients of allogeneic transplants, 8 of whom had up to four active infections with the targeted viruses, these VSTs proved safe in all subjects and produced an overall 94% virological and clinical response rate that was sustained long-term.
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Radiation Therapy to the Primary and Postinduction Chemotherapy MIBG-Avid Sites in High-Risk Neuroblastoma.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Although it is generally accepted that consolidation therapy for neuroblastoma includes irradiation of the primary site and any remaining metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid metastatic sites, limited information has been published regarding the efficacy of this approach.
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Outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for children with I-cell disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Mucolipidosis type II (MLII), or I-cell disease, is a rare but severe disorder affecting localization of enzymes to the lysosome, generally resulting in death before the 10th birthday. Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used to successfully treat some lysosomal storage diseases, only 2 cases have been reported on the use of HSCT to treat MLII. For the first time, we describe the combined international experience in the use of HSCT for MLII in 22 patients. Although 95% of the patients engrafted, overall survival was low, with only 6 patients (27%) alive at last follow-up. The most common cause of death post-transplant was cardiovascular complications, most likely due to disease progression. Survivors were globally delayed in development and often required complex medical support, such as gastrostomy tubes for nutrition and tracheostomy with mechanical ventilation. Although HSCT has demonstrated efficacy in treating some lysosomal storage disorders, the neurologic outcome and survival for patents with MLII were poor. Therefore, new medical and cellular therapies should be sought for these patients.
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Symptom prevalence and physiologic biomarkers among adolescents using a mobile phone intervention following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Oncol Nurs Forum
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To examine symptom reports and physiologic parameters in adolescents using the Eating After Transplant (EAT!) intervention during recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
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Graft Versus Leukemia Response Without Graft-versus-host Disease Elicited By Adoptively Transferred Multivirus-specific T-cells.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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A 12-year-old boy with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia received a haploidentical transplant from his mother. As prophylaxis for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and adenovirus, he received ex vivo expanded virus-specific donor T cells 3.5 months after transplant. Four weeks later leukemic blasts bearing the E2A deletion, identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), appeared transiently in the blood followed by a FISH-negative hematological remission, which was sustained until a testicular relapse 3.5 months later. Clearance of the circulating leukemic cells coincided with a marked increase in circulating virus-specific T cells. The virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) line showed strong polyfunctional reactivity with the patient's leukemic cells but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA) blasts, suggesting that virus-specific CTL lines may have clinically significant antileukemia activity.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.192.
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Long-term outcome after haploidentical stem cell transplant and infusion of T cells expressing the inducible caspase 9 safety transgene.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Adoptive transfer of donor-derived T lymphocytes expressing a safety switch may promote immune reconstitution in patients undergoing haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (haplo-HSCT) without the risk for uncontrolled graft versus host disease (GvHD). Thus, patients who develop GvHD after infusion of allodepleted donor-derived T cells expressing an inducible human caspase 9 (iC9) had their disease effectively controlled by a single administration of a small-molecule drug (AP1903) that dimerizes and activates the iC9 transgene. We now report the long-term follow-up of 10 patients infused with such safety switch-modified T cells. We find long-term persistence of iC9-modified (iC9-T) T cells in vivo in the absence of emerging oligoclonality and a robust immunologic benefit, mediated initially by the infused cells themselves and subsequently by an apparently accelerated reconstitution of endogenous naive T lymphocytes. As a consequence, these patients have immediate and sustained protection from major pathogens, including cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, BK virus, and Epstein-Barr virus in the absence of acute or chronic GvHD, supporting the beneficial effects of this approach to immune reconstitution after haplo-HSCT. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00710892.
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Opportunities and challenges of proteomics in pediatric patients: Circulating biomarkers after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a successful example.
Proteomics Clin Appl
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis, facilitate-targeted treatment, and reduce health care costs. Thus, there is great hope that biomarkers will be integrated in all clinical decisions in the near future. A decade ago, the biomarker field was launched with great enthusiasm because MS revealed that blood contains a rich library of candidate biomarkers. However, biomarker research has not yet delivered on its promise due to several limitations: (i) improper sample handling and tracking as well as limited sample availability in the pediatric population, (ii) omission of appropriate controls in original study designs, (iii) lability and low abundance of interesting biomarkers in blood, and (iv) the inability to mechanistically tie biomarker presence to disease biology. These limitations as well as successful strategies to overcome them are discussed in this review. Several advances in biomarker discovery and validation have been made in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the current most effective tumor immunotherapy, and these could serve as examples for other conditions. This review provides fresh optimism that biomarkers clinically relevant in pediatrics are closer to being realized based on: (i) a uniform protocol for low-volume blood collection and preservation, (ii) inclusion of well-controlled independent cohorts, (iii) novel technologies and instrumentation with low analytical sensitivity, and (iv) integrated animal models for exploring potential biomarkers and targeted therapies.
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Systemic inflammatory response syndrome after administration of unmodified T lymphocytes.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a rare systemic inflammatory response associated with fever, tachycardia, profound hypotension, and respiratory distress, which has been reported in cancer patients receiving T cells genetically modified with chimeric antigen receptors to retarget their specificity to tumor-associated antigens. The syndrome usually occurs following significant in vivo expansion of the infused cells and has been associated with tumor destruction/lysis. Analysis of patient plasma has shown elevated cytokine levels, and resolution of symptoms has been reported after administration of steroids and/or antibodies (such as anti-tumor necrosis factor and anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibodies) that interfere with cytokine responses.To date, SIRS has not been reported in subjects receiving genetically unmodified T cells with native receptors directed against tumor antigens, in which greater physiological control of T-cell activation and expansion may occur. Here, however, we report a patient with bulky refractory Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma, who developed this syndrome 2 weeks after receiving T cells directed against EBV antigens through their native receptors. She was treated with steroids and etanercept, with rapid resolution of symptoms. SIRS may therefore occur even when T cells recognize antigens physiologically through their "wild-type" native receptors and should be acknowledged as a potential complication of this therapy.
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Ultra low-dose IL-2 for GVHD prophylaxis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation mediates expansion of regulatory T cells without diminishing antiviral and antileukemic activity.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) has been associated with low numbers of circulating CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Because Tregs express high levels of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor, they may selectively expand in vivo in response to doses of IL-2 insufficient to stimulate T effector T-cell populations, thereby preventing GVHD.
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PGM3 mutations cause a congenital disorder of glycosylation with severe immunodeficiency and skeletal dysplasia.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Human phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) catalyzes the conversion of N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-6-phosphate into GlcNAc-1-phosphate during the synthesis of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-GlcNAc, a sugar nucleotide critical to multiple glycosylation pathways. We identified three unrelated children with recurrent infections, congenital leukopenia including neutropenia, B and T cell lymphopenia, and progression to bone marrow failure. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated deleterious mutations in PGM3 in all three subjects, delineating their disease to be due to an unsuspected congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Functional studies of the disease-associated PGM3 variants in E. coli cells demonstrated reduced PGM3 activity for all mutants tested. Two of the three children had skeletal anomalies resembling Desbuquois dysplasia: short stature, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual disability. However, these additional features were absent in the third child, showing the clinical variability of the disease. Two children received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of cord blood and bone marrow from matched related donors; both had successful engraftment and correction of neutropenia and lymphopenia. We define PGM3-CDG as a treatable immunodeficiency, document the power of whole-exome sequencing in gene discoveries for rare disorders, and illustrate the utility of genomic analyses in studying combined and variable phenotypes.
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Infusion of donor-derived CD19-redirected virus-specific T cells for B-cell malignancies relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplant: a phase 1 study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Autologous T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CD19.CAR) are active against B-cell malignancies, but it is unknown whether allogeneic CD19.CAR T cells are safe or effective. After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), infused donor-derived virus-specific T cells (VSTs) expand in vivo, persist long term, and display antiviral activity without inducing graft-vs-host disease; therefore, we determined whether donor VSTs, engineered to express CD19.CAR, retained the characteristics of nonmanipulated allogeneic VSTs while gaining antitumor activity. We treated 8 patients with allogeneic (donor-derived) CD19.CAR-VSTs 3 months to 13 years after HSCT. There were no infusion-related toxicities. VSTs persisted for a median of 8 weeks in blood and up to 9 weeks at disease sites. Objective antitumor activity was evident in 2 of 6 patients with relapsed disease during the period of CD19.CAR-VST persistence, whereas 2 patients who received cells while in remission remain disease free. In 2 of 3 patients with viral reactivation, donor CD19.CAR-VSTs expanded concomitantly with VSTs. Hence CD19.CAR-VSTs display antitumor activity and, because their number may be increased in the presence of viral stimuli, earlier treatment post-HSCT (when lymphodepletion is greater and the incidence of viral infection is higher) or planned vaccination with viral antigens may enhance disease control.
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Feasibility of a symptom management intervention for adolescents recovering from a hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Cancer Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Adolescents undergoing a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) experience a variety of adverse effects and eating difficulties. Few interventions exist to assist patients with self-care after HSCT hospitalization. The Eating After Transplant (EAT!) program is a mobile phone applications developed to assist adolescents with self-management of common eating-related issues during HSCT recovery.
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Significant morbidity and mortality attributable to rothia mucilaginosa infections in children with hematological malignancies or following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Rothia mucilaginosa is a gram-positive coccus that poses a diagnostic challenge and often requires DNA pyrosequencing for diagnosis as it can be easily mistaken for coagulase-negative staphylococci on initial culture results. While it is often times normal human oral and upper respiratory tract microbiota, it can be a virulent pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Most commonly, it causes bacteremia (catheter and non-catheter related) and meningitis in these patients. Our objective was to report the incidence of R. mucilaginosa infections in neutropenic children with hematological malignancies or following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at a major childrens hospital. We report 11 patients in this cohort who developed clinically significant R. mucilaginosa infections, including three deaths directly attributable to this microorganism. Three patients developed significant neurological involvement, accounting for two of the deaths, and one patient died of disseminated infection. Except for one, all patients had severe neutropenia, central line catheters, and mucosal breakdown at the time of infection. Patients who succumbed never achieved neutrophil recovery. In conclusion, R. mucilaginosa can lead to life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts, especially in profoundly neutropenic patients.
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Safety and clinical efficacy of rapidly-generated trivirus-directed T cells as treatment for adenovirus, EBV, and CMV infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells can prevent and treat serious infections with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and adenovirus (Adv) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. It has, however, proved difficult to make this approach widely available since infectious virus and viral vectors are required for T cell activation, followed by an intensive and prolonged culture period extending over several months. We now show that T cells targeting a range of viral antigens derived from EBV, CMV, and Adv can be reproducibly generated in a single culture over a 2-3-week period, using methods that exclude all viral components and employ a much-simplified culture technology. When administered to recipients of haploidentical (n = 5), matched unrelated (n = 3), mismatched unrelated (n = 1) or matched related (n = 1) transplants with active CMV (n = 3), Adv (n = 1), EBV (n = 2), EBV+Adv (n = 2) or CMV+Adv (n = 2) infections, the cells produced complete virological responses in 80%, including all patients with dual infections. In each case, a decrease in viral load correlated with an increase in the frequency of T cells directed against the infecting virus(es); both immediate and delayed toxicities were absent. This approach should increase both the feasibility and applicability of T cell therapy. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01070797.
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Outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with dyskeratosis congenita.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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We describe outcomes after allogeneic transplantation in 34 patients with dyskeratosis congenita who underwent transplantation between 1981 and 2009. The median age at transplantation was 13 years (range, 2 to 35). Approximately 50% of transplantations were from related donors. Bone marrow was the predominant source of stem cells (24 of 34). The day-28 probability of neutrophil recovery was 73% and the day-100 platelet recovery was 72%. The day-100 probability of grade II to IV acute GVHD and the 3-year probability of chronic graft-versus-host disease were 24% and 37%, respectively. The 10-year probability of survival was 30%; 14 patients were alive at last follow-up. Ten deaths occurred within 4 months from transplantation because of graft failure (n = 6) or other transplantation-related complications; 9 of these patients had undergone transplantation from mismatched related or from unrelated donors. Another 10 deaths occurred after 4 months; 6 of them occurred more than 5 years after transplantation, and 4 of these were attributed to pulmonary failure. Transplantation regimen intensity and transplantations from mismatched related or unrelated donors were associated with early mortality. Transplantation of grafts from HLA-matched siblings with cyclophosphamide-containing nonradiation regimens was associated with early low toxicity. Late mortality was attributed mainly to pulmonary complications and likely related to the underlying disease.
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Inducible apoptosis as a safety switch for adoptive cell therapy.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Cellular therapies could play a role in cancer treatment and regenerative medicine if it were possible to quickly eliminate the infused cells in case of adverse events. We devised an inducible T-cell safety switch that is based on the fusion of human caspase 9 to a modified human FK-binding protein, allowing conditional dimerization. When exposed to a synthetic dimerizing drug, the inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9) becomes activated and leads to the rapid death of cells expressing this construct.
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Comparison of pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole intravenous-to-oral switch in immunocompromised children and healthy adults.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Voriconazole pharmacokinetics are not well characterized in children despite prior studies. To assess the appropriate pediatric dosing, a study was conducted in 40 immunocompromised children aged 2 to <12 years to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole following intravenous (IV)-to-oral (PO) switch regimens based on a previous population pharmacokinetic modeling: 7 mg/kg IV every 12 h (q12h) and 200 mg PO q12h. Area under the curve over the 12-h dosing interval (AUC(0-12)) was calculated using the noncompartmental method and compared to that for adults receiving approved dosing regimens (6 ? 4 mg/kg IV q12h, 200 mg PO q12h). On average, the AUC(0-12) in children receiving 7 mg/kg IV q12h on day 1 and at IV steady state were 7.85 and 21.4 ?g · h/ml, respectively, and approximately 44% and 40% lower, respectively, than those for adults at 6 ? 4 mg/kg IV q12h. Large intersubject variability was observed. At steady state during oral treatment (200 mg q12h), children had higher average exposure than adults, with much larger intersubject variability. The exposure achieved with oral dosing in children tended to decrease as weight and age increased. The most common treatment-related adverse events were transient elevated liver function tests. No clear threshold of voriconazole exposure was identified that would predict the occurrence of treatment-related hepatic events. Overall, voriconazole IV doses higher than 7 mg/kg are needed in children to closely match adult exposures, and a weight-based oral dose may be more appropriate for children than a fixed dose. Safety of voriconazole in children was consistent with the known safety profile of voriconazole.
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Comparison of pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole intravenous-to-oral switch in immunocompromised adolescents and healthy adults.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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The current voriconazole dosing recommendation in adolescents is based on limited efficacy and pharmacokinetic data. To confirm the appropriateness of dosing adolescents like adults, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted in 26 immunocompromised adolescents aged 12 to <17 years following intravenous (IV) voriconazole to oral switch regimens: 6 mg/kg IV every 12 h (q12h) on day 1 followed by 4 mg/kg IV q12h, then switched to 300 mg orally q12h. Area under the curve over a 12-hour dosing interval (AUC(0-12)) was calculated using a noncompartmental method and compared to the value for adults receiving the same dosing regimens. On average, the AUC(0-12) in adolescents after the first loading dose on day 1 and at steady state during IV treatment were 9.14 and 22.4 ?g·h/ml, respectively (approximately 34% and 36% lower, respectively, than values for adults). At steady state during oral treatment, adolescents also had lower average exposure than adults (16.7 versus 34.0 ?g·h/ml). Larger intersubject variability was observed in adolescents than in adults. There was a slight trend for some young adolescents with low body weight to have lower voriconazole exposure. It is likely that these young adolescents may metabolize voriconazole more similarly to children than to adults. Overall, with the same dosing regimens, voriconazole exposures in the majority of adolescents were comparable to those in adults. The young adolescents with low body weight during the transitioning period from childhood to adolescence (e.g., 12 to 14 years old) may need to receive higher doses to match the adult exposures. Safety of voriconazole in adolescents was consistent with the known safety profile of voriconazole.
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Excellent survival after sibling or unrelated donor stem cell transplantation for chronic granulomatous disease.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Matched related donor (MRD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a successful treatment for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), but the safety and efficacy of HSCT from unrelated donors is less certain.
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Children with acute leukemia: a comparison of outcomes from allogeneic blood stem cell and bone marrow transplantation.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The relative merits of peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation (PBSCT) versus bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for children with standard and high-risk hematologic malignancies remain unclear. In a retrospective study, we compared allogeneic PBSCT (n = 30) with BMT (n = 110) in children with acute leukemia between January 2001 and September 2006.
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Hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index predicts transplantation outcomes in pediatric patients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Quantifying the risk of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-related mortality for pediatric patients is challenging. The HCT-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) has been confirmed as a useful tool in adults, but has not yet been validated in children. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 252 pediatric patients undergoing their first allogeneic HCT between January 2008 and May 2009. Pretransplantation comorbidities were scored prospectively using the HCT-CI. Median age at transplantation was 6 years (range, 0.1-20) and median follow-up was 343 days (range, 110-624). HCT-CI scores were distributed as follows: 0, n=139; 1-2, n=52; and 3+, n=61. The 1-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) increased (10%, 14%, and 28%, respectively; P<.01) and overall survival (OS) decreased (88%, 67%, and 62%, respectively; P<.01) with increasing HCT-CI score. Multivariate analysis showed that compared with score 0, those with scores of 1-2 and 3+ had relative risks of NRM of 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-4.3, P=.48) and 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-12.1, P<.01), respectively. These results indicate that the HCT-CI score predicts NRM and OS in pediatric patients undergoing HCT and is a useful tool to assess risk, guide counseling in the pretransplantation setting, and devise innovative therapies for the highest risk groups.
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Stem cell transplantation in childhood non-Hodgkins lymphomas.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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Despite the high cure rates achieved with intensified primary therapies for childhood non-Hodgkins lymphomas (NHL), the prognosis for children with relapsed or refractory disease is poor. Optimal treatment for this group remains a challenge. Dose intensification followed by stem cell transplantation has been used in these circumstances and may provide a curative treatment option for these patients, but the number of children treated using this approach is relatively small and its effectiveness has been difficult to judge. Moreover, the limited experience is insufficient to define the patient most likely to benefit from transplantation. Likewise, the selection of autologous or allogeneic transplantation and the optimal conditioning regimen are debated. We summarize the current experience for stem cell transplantation in childhood NHL and offer our recommendations.
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The costs and cost-effectiveness of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation versus bone marrow transplantation in pediatric patients with acute leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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In a retrospective study, we evaluated the cost and cost-effectiveness of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) (n = 30) compared with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (n = 110) in children with acute leukemia after 1 year of follow-up. Treatment success was defined as disease-free survival at 1 year posttransplantation. For patients at standard risk for disease, the treatment success rate was 57.1% for PBSCT recipients and 80.3% for BMT recipients (P = not significant [NS]). The average total cost per treatment success at 1 year in the standard-risk disease group was $512,294 for PBSCT recipients and $352,885 for BMT recipients (P = NS). For patients with high-risk disease, the treatment success rate was 18.8% for PBSCT recipients and 23.5% for BMT recipients (P = NS). The cumulative average cost was $457,078 in BMT recipients and $377,316 in PBSCT recipients (P = NS). Point estimates of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) indicate that in patients with standard-risk disease, allogeneic BMT had lower costs and greater effectiveness than PBSCT (ICER, -$687,108; 95% confidence interval [CI], $2.4 million to dominated). For patients with high-risk disease, BMT was more effective and more costly, and it had an ICER of $1.69 million (95% CI, $29.7 million to dominated) per additional treatment success. The comparative economic evaluation provides support for BMT in standard-risk patients, but much uncertainty precludes a clear advantage of either treatment option in patients with high-risk disease. More studies using larger and randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the long-term cost-effectiveness of each procedure.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens for allogeneic transplantation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been used extensively in adults with hematologic malignancies. To address whether this is a feasible approach for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, we evaluated transplant outcomes in 38 recipients transplanted from 1995-2005 for whom this was their first transplant. The median age at transplant was 12 years, and 47% had performance scores <90%. Disease status was first complete remission (CR) in 13%, > or =CR2 in 60% of patients, and 22% had active disease at transplantation. Matched related donors were available for a third of patients, about half of whom received bone marrow (BM) and the others, peripheral blood progenitor cells. Sixty percent of unrelated donor transplant recipients received peripheral blood progenitor cells. The day-100 probability of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was 37% and the 3-year probability of chronic graft-versus-host disease, 26%. At 3 years, the probability of treatment-related mortality was 40%, relapse 37%, and disease-free survival 30%. These data indicate long-term DFS can be achieved using reduced-intensity conditioning regimens in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Given the relatively small cohort, these findings must be validated in a larger population.
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Cytotoxic T lymphocyte therapy with donor T cells prevents and treats adenovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections after haploidentical and matched unrelated stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Viral infection or reactivation remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We now show that infusions of single cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lines (5 x 10(6)-1.35 x 10(8) cells/m(2)) with specificity for 2 commonly detected viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and adenovirus, can be safely administered to pediatric transplantation recipients receiving partially human leukocyte antigen-matched and haploidentical stem cell grafts (n = 13), without inducing graft-versus-host disease. The EBV-specific component of the CTLs expanded in vivo and persisted for more than 12 weeks, but the adenovirus-specific component only expanded in vivo in the presence of concomitant adenoviral infection. Nevertheless, adenovirus-specific T cells could be detected for at least 8 weeks in peripheral blood, even in CTL recipients without viral infection, provided the adenovirus-specific component of their circulating lymphocytes was first expanded by exposure to adenoviral antigens ex vivo. After infusion, none of these 13 high-risk recipients developed EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease, while 2 of the subjects had resolution of their adenoviral disease. Hence, bispecific CTLs containing both EBV- and adenovirus-specific T cells can safely reconstitute an antigen responsive "memory" population of CTLs after human leukocyte antigen-mismatched stem cell transplantation and may provide antiviral activity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00590083.
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Outcomes of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with and without preconditioning.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2009
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The effect of pretransplantation conditioning on the long-term outcomes of patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been completely determined.
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A pilot study of risk-adapted radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with supratentorial PNET.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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We undertook this study to estimate the event-free survival (EFS) of patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (SPNET) treated with risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with additional radiation to the primary tumor site and subsequent high-dose chemotherapy supported by stem cell rescue. Between 1996 and 2003, 16 patients with SPNET were enrolled. High-risk (HR) disease was differentiated from average-risk (AR) disease by the presence of residual tumor (M(0) and tumor size > 1.5 cm(2)) or disseminated disease in the neuraxis (M(1)-M(3)). Patients received risk-adapted CSI: those with AR disease received 23.4 Gy; those with HR disease, 36-39.6 Gy. The tumor bed received a total of 55.8 Gy. Subsequently, all patients received four cycles of high-dose cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and vincristine with stem cell support. The median age at diagnosis was 7.9 years; eight patients were female. Seven patients had pineal PNET. Twelve patients are alive at a median follow-up of 5.4 years. The 5-year EFS and overall survival (OS) estimates for all patients were 68% +/- 14% and 73% +/- 13%. The 5-year EFS and OS estimates were 75% +/- 17% and 88% +/- 13%, respectively, for the eight patients with AR disease and 60% +/- 19% and 58% +/- 19%, respectively, for the eight with HR disease. No deaths were due to toxicity. High-dose cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy with stem cell support after risk-adapted CSI results in excellent EFS estimates for patients with newly diagnosed AR SPNET. Further, this chemotherapy allows for a reduction in the dose of CSI used to treat AR SPNET without compromising EFS.
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Overexpression of ZNF342 by juxtaposition with MPO promoter/enhancer in the novel translocation t(17;19)(q23;q13.32) in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and analysis of ZNF342 expression in leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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We report a novel translocation t(17;19)(q22;q13.32) found in 100% of blast cells from a pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and vectorette polymerase chain reaction were used to precisely map the chromosomal breakpoint located on the derivative chromosome 17 at 352 bp 5 of MPO, encoding myeloperoxidase a highly expressed protein in myeloid cells, and 2,085 bp 5 of ZNF342 on 19q, encoding a transcription factor expressed in human stem cells and previously implicated in mouse models of leukemia. Analysis of RNA levels from the patient sample revealed significant overexpression of ZNF342, potentially contributing to AML formation. This is the first report of a translocation in myeloid leukemia occurring only in the promoter/enhancer regions of the two genes involved, similar to translocations commonly found in lymphoid malignancies. Analysis of ZNF342 protein levels in a large dataset of leukemia samples by reverse phase protein array showed that higher levels of ZNF342 expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia was associated with poorer outcome (P = 0.033). In the myeloid leukemia samples with the highest ZNF342 expression, there was overrepresentation of FLT3 internal tandem duplication (P = 0.0016) and AML subtype M7 (P = 0.0002). Thus, overexpression of ZNF342 by translocation or other mechanisms contributes to leukemia biology in multiple hematopoietic compartments.
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Impact of immune modulation with in vivo T-cell depletion and myleoablative total body irradiation conditioning on outcomes after unrelated donor transplantation for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
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To determine whether in vivo T-cell depletion, which lowers GVHD, abrogates the antileukemic benefits of myeloablative total body irradiation-based conditioning and unrelated donor transplantation, in the present study, we analyzed 715 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Patients were grouped for analysis according to whether conditioning included antithymocyte globulin (ATG; n = 191) or alemtuzumab (n = 132) and no in vivo T-cell depletion (n = 392). The median follow-up time was 3.5 years for the ATG group and 5 years for the alemtuzumab and T cell-replete groups. Using Cox regression analysis, we compared transplantation outcomes between groups. Compared with no T-cell depletion, grade 2-4 acute and chronic GVHD rates were significantly lower after in vivo T-cell depletion with ATG (relative risk [RR] = 0.66; P = .005 and RR = 0.55; P < .0001, respectively) or alemtuzumab (RR = 0.09; P < .003 and RR = 0.21; P < .0001, respectively). Despite lower GVHD rates after in vivo T-cell depletion, nonrelapse mortality, relapse, overall survival, and leukemia-free survival (LFS) did not differ significantly among the treatment groups. The 3-year probabilities of LFS after ATG-containing, alemtuzumab-containing, and T cell-replete transplantations were 43%, 49%, and 46%, respectively. These data suggest that in vivo T-cell depletion lowers GVHD without compromising LFS among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who are undergoing unrelated donor transplantation with myeloablative total body irradiation-based regimens.
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