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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Patients with nodding syndrome in Uganda improve with symptomatic treatment: a cross-sectional study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood neurological disorder affecting thousands of children in Africa. In March 2012, we introduced a treatment intervention that aimed to provide symptomatic relief. This intervention included sodium valproate for seizures, management of behaviour and emotional difficulties, nutritional therapy and physical rehabilitation. We assessed the clinical and functional outcomes of this intervention after 12?months of implementation.
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High Plasma Erythropoietin Levels are Associated With Prolonged Coma Duration and Increased Mortality in Children With Cerebral Malaria.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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?Elevated endogenous plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels have been associated with protection from acute neurologic deficits in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria (CM). Based on these findings and animal studies, clinical trials of recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) have been started in children with CM. Recent clinical trials in adults with acute ischemic stroke have demonstrated increased mortality with rHuEPO treatment. We conducted a study in children with CM to assess the relationship of endogenous plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) EPO levels with mortality and acute and long-term neurologic outcomes.
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Severe malarial anemia is associated with long-term neurocognitive impairment.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Cerebral malaria (CM) is associated with long-term neurocognitive impairment in children ?5 years of age. No prospective studies to date have assessed neurocognitive impairment in children with CM <5 years of age, or in children with severe malarial anemia (SMA), a form of severe malaria estimated to affect as many as 5 million children annually.
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Performance of point-of-care diagnostics for glucose, lactate, and hemoglobin in the management of severe malaria in a resource-constrained hospital in Uganda.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Severe malaria is frequently managed without access to laboratory testing. We report on the performance of point-of-care tests used to guide the management of a cohort of 179 children with severe malaria in a resource-limited Ugandan hospital. Correlation coefficients between paired measurements for glucose (i-STAT and One Touch Ultra), lactate (i-STAT and Lactate Scout), and hemoglobin (Hb; laboratory and i-STAT) were 0.86, 0.85, and 0.73, respectively. The OneTouch Ultra glucometer readings deviated systematically from the i-STAT values by +1.7 mmol/L. Lactate Scout values were systematically higher than i-STAT by +0.86 mmol/L. Lactate measurements from either device predicted subsequent mortality. Hb estimation by the i-STAT instrument was unbiased, with upper and lower limits of agreement of -34 and +34 g/L, and it was 91% sensitive and 89% specific for the diagnosis of severe anemia (Hb < 50 g/L). New commercially available bedside diagnostic tools, although imperfect, may expedite clinical decision-making in the management of critically ill children in resource-constrained settings.
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Use of a three-band HRP2/pLDH combination rapid diagnostic test increases diagnostic specificity for falciparum malaria in Ugandan children.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria provide a practical alternative to light microscopy for malaria diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Three-band RDTs incorporating two parasite antigens may have enhanced diagnostic specificity, relative to two-band RDTs with a single parasite antigen (typically histidine-rich protein 2 [HRP2]).
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A year-long caregiver training program to improve neurocognition in preschool Ugandan HIV-exposed children.
J Dev Behav Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Mediational intervention for sensitizing caregivers (MISC) is a structured program enabling caregivers to enhance their childs cognitive and emotional development through daily interactions. The principal aim was to evaluate if a year-long MISC caregiver training program produced greater improvement in child cognitive and emotional development compared with a control program.
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Exploring mechanisms of excess mortality with early fluid resuscitation: insights from the FEAST trial.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Early rapid fluid resuscitation (boluses) in African children with severe febrile illnesses increases the 48-hour mortality by 3.3% compared with controls (no bolus). We explored the effect of boluses on 48-hour all-cause mortality by clinical presentation at enrolment, hemodynamic changes over the first hour, and on different modes of death, according to terminal clinical events. We hypothesize that boluses may cause excess deaths from neurological or respiratory events relating to fluid overload.
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A year-long caregiver training program improves cognition in preschool Ugandan children with human immunodeficiency virus.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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To evaluate mediational intervention for sensitizing caregivers (MISC). MISC biweekly caregiver training significantly enhanced child development compared with biweekly training on health and nutrition (active control) and to evaluate whether MISC training improved the emotional well-being of the caregivers compared with controls.
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Nodding syndrome in Ugandan children--clinical features, brain imaging and complications: a case series.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Nodding syndrome is a devastating neurological disorder of uncertain aetiology affecting children in Africa. There is no diagnostic test, and risk factors and symptoms that would allow early diagnosis are poorly documented. This study aimed to describe the clinical, electrophysiological and brain imaging (MRI) features and complications of nodding syndrome in Ugandan children.
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Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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The role of fluid resuscitation in the treatment of children with shock and life-threatening infections who live in resource-limited settings is not established.
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Nitric oxide for the adjunctive treatment of severe malaria: hypothesis and rationale.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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We hypothesize that supplemental inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) will improve outcomes in children with severe malaria receiving standard antimalarial therapy. The rationale for the hypothesized efficacy of iNO rests on: (1) biological plausibility, based on known actions of NO in modulating endothelial activation; (2) pre-clinical efficacy data from animal models of experimental cerebral malaria; and (3) a human trial of the NO precursor l-arginine, which improved endothelial function in adults with severe malaria. iNO is an attractive new candidate for the adjunctive treatment of severe malaria, given its proven therapeutic efficacy in animal studies, track record of safety in clinical practice and numerous clinical trials, inexpensive manufacturing costs, and ease of administration in settings with limited healthcare infrastructure. We plan to test this hypothesis in a randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01255215).
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Inhaled nitric oxide for the adjunctive therapy of severe malaria: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Severe malaria remains a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Despite the use of potent anti-parasitic agents, the mortality rate in severe malaria remains high. Adjunctive therapies that target the underlying pathophysiology of severe malaria may further reduce morbidity and mortality. Endothelial activation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of severe malaria, of which angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) has recently been shown to function as a key regulator. Nitric oxide (NO) is a major inhibitor of Ang-2 release from endothelium and has been shown to decrease endothelial inflammation and reduce the adhesion of parasitized erythrocytes. Low-flow inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) gas is a US FDA-approved treatment for hypoxic respiratory failure in neonates.
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Adjunctive therapy for cerebral malaria and other severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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Severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum causes more than 800,000 deaths every year. Primary therapy with quinine or artesunate is generally effective in controlling P. falciparum parasitemia, but mortality from cerebral malaria and other forms of severe malaria remains unacceptably high. Long-term cognitive impairment is also common in children with cerebral malaria. Of the numerous adjunctive therapies for cerebral malaria and severe malaria studied over the past five decades, only one (albumin) was associated with a reduction in mortality. In this article, we review past and ongoing studies of adjunctive therapy, and examine the evidence of efficacy for newer therapies, including inhibitors of cytoadherence (e.g., levamisole), immune modulators (e.g., rosiglitazone), agents that increase nitric oxide levels (e.g., arginine) and neuroprotective agents (e.g., erythropoietin).
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A pilot study of the neuropsychological benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation in Ugandan children with HIV.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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Because antiretroviral treatment (ART) fails to improve neurocognitive impairment in children with HIV, we completed a pilot study evaluating the feasibility and cognitive benefit of computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) in Ugandan children with HIV.
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Cutting edge: merocytic dendritic cells break T cell tolerance to beta cell antigens in nonobese diabetic mouse diabetes.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
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In type 1 diabetes, the breach of central and peripheral tolerance results in autoreactive T cells that destroy insulin-producing, pancreatic beta cells. In this study, we identify a critical subpopulation of dendritic cells responsible for mediating both the cross-presentation of islet Ags to CD8(+) T cells and the direct presentation of beta cell Ags to CD4(+) T cells. These cells, termed merocytic dendritic cells (mcDCs), are more numerous in the NOD mouse and, when Ag-loaded, rescue CD8(+) T cells from peripheral anergy and deletion while stimulating islet-reactive CD4(+) T cells. When purified from the pancreatic lymph nodes of overtly diabetic NOD mice, mcDCs break peripheral T cell tolerance to beta cells in vivo and induce rapid onset type 1 diabetes in the young NOD mouse. Thus, the mcDC subset appears to represent the long-sought APC responsible for breaking peripheral tolerance to beta cell Ags in vivo.
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TLR9 polymorphisms are associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with cerebral malaria.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms have been associated with disease severity in malaria infection, but mechanisms for this association have not been characterized. The TLR2, 4, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies and serum interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were assessed in Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM, N = 65) and uncomplicated malaria (UM, N = 52). The TLR9 C allele at -1237 and G allele at 1174 were strongly linked, and among children with CM, those with the C allele at -1237 or the G allele at 1174 had higher levels of IFN-gamma than those without these alleles (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). The TLR9 SNPs were not associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with UM or altered TNF-alpha levels in either group. We present the first human data that TLR SNPs are associated with altered cytokine production in parasitic infection.
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Immediate neuropsychological and behavioral benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation in Ugandan pediatric cerebral malaria survivors.
J Dev Behav Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Our earlier studies on Ugandan children surviving cerebral malaria showed cognitive deficits mainly in attention and memory. We now present the first study in sub-Saharan Africa to investigate the feasibility and potential benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation training on neuropsychological and behavioral functioning of children surviving cerebral malaria.
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Reliability of the Luganda version of the Child Behaviour Checklist in measuring behavioural problems after cerebral malaria.
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2009
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No measure of childhood behaviour has been validated in Uganda despite the documented risks to behaviour. Cerebral malaria in children poses a great risk to their behaviour, however behavioural outcomes after cerebral malaria have not been described in children. This study examined the reliability of the Luganda version of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and described the behavioural outcomes of cerebral malaria in Ugandan children.
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Seizure activity and neurological sequelae in Ugandan children who have survived an episode of cerebral malaria.
Afr Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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Seizures are a common presenting feature in children with cerebral malaria (CM) and neurologic deficits have been described in survivors of CM. However few prospective studies have described the frequency of seizure activity and neurologic deficits in survivors of CM over time.
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Socioeconomic predictors of cognition in Ugandan children: implications for community interventions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
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Several interventions to improve cognition in at risk children have been suggested. Identification of key variables predicting cognition is necessary to guide these interventions. This study was conducted to identify these variables in Ugandan children and guide such interventions.
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Investigating arsenic susceptibility from a genetic perspective in Drosophila reveals a key role for glutathione synthetase.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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Chronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water can lead to a variety of serious pathological outcomes. However, differential responsiveness within human populations suggests that interindividual genetic variation plays an important role. We are using Drosophila to study toxic metal response pathways because of unrivalled access to varied genetic approaches and significant demonstrable overlap with many aspects of mammalian physiology and disease phenotypes. Genetic analysis (via chromosomal segregation and microsatellite marker-based recombination) of various wild-type strains exhibiting relative susceptibility or tolerance to the lethal toxic effects of arsenite identified a limited X-chromosomal region (16D-F) able to confer a differential response phenotype. Using an FRT-based recombination approach, we created lines harboring small, overlapping deficiencies within this region and found that relative arsenite sensitivity arose when the dose of the glutathione synthetase (GS) gene (located at 16F1) was reduced by half. Knockdown of GS expression by RNA interference (RNAi) in cultured S2 cells led to enhanced arsenite sensitivity, while GS RNAi applied to intact organisms dramatically reduced the concentration of food-borne arsenite compatible with successful growth and development. Our analyses, initially guided by observations on naturally occurring variants, provide genetic proof that an optimally functioning two-step glutathione (GSH) biosynthetic pathway is required in vivo for a robust defense against arsenite; the enzymatic implications of this are discussed in the context of GSH supply and demand under arsenite-induced stress. Given an identical pathway for human GSH biosynthesis, we suggest that polymorphisms in GSH biosynthetic genes may be an important contributor to differential arsenic sensitivity and exposure risk in human populations.
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Serum angiopoietin-1 and -2 levels discriminate cerebral malaria from uncomplicated malaria and predict clinical outcome in African children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Limited tools exist to identify which individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are at risk of developing serious complications such as cerebral malaria (CM). The objective of this study was to assess serum biomarkers that differentiate between CM and non-CM, with the long-term goal of developing a clinically informative prognostic test for severe malaria.
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Evidence of Endothelial Activation in Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia and Effect of Blood Group on Levels of von Willebrand Factor in Malaria.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
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Endothelial activation may contribute to development of severe disease from Plasmodium falciparum infection, but optimal markers of endothelial activation in severe malaria, the extent of endothelial activation in asymptomatic infection, and the effect of blood group O on endothelial activation have not been defined.
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Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and cerebral malaria: TLR2 ?22 polymorphism is associated with protection from cerebral malaria in a case control study.
Malar. J.
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In malaria endemic areas, host genetics influence whether a Plasmodium falciparum-infected child develops uncomplicated or severe malaria. TLR2 has been identified as a receptor for P. falciparum-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), and polymorphisms within the TLR2 gene may affect disease pathogenesis. There are two common polymorphisms in the 5 un-translated region (UTR) of TLR2, a 22 base pair deletion in the first unstranslated exon (?22), and a GT dinucleotide repeat in the second intron (GTn).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.