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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on psychiatric symptoms in overweight people with schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, pilot study.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Weight gain is a major adverse effect of several second-generation antipsychotic medications. Rimonabant is a cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist that promotes weight loss in the general population. We conducted a 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of rimonabant (20 mg/d) in people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria, who were clinically stable on second-generation antipsychotics. Participants had a body mass index of 27 kg/m or higher with hyperlipidemia or body mass index of 30 kg/m or higher, and no current substance abuse/dependence (except nicotine), more than weekly cannabis use, or recent depressive symptoms/suicidality. An exercise and dietary counseling group was offered weekly. Target enrollment was 60; the trial was terminated early because of withdrawal of rimonabant from the European market. Fifteen participants were randomized (7 rimonabant, 8 placebo); 5 completed in each group. Rimonabant was associated with a greater reduction in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score versus placebo (mean ± SE difference, -1.9 ± 0.8, P = 0.02), driven by differences in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale anxiety/depression (-1.4 ± 0.35, P = 0.0004) and hostility (-0.7 ± 0.3, P = 0.02) factors. Group differences were not significant for the Calgary Depression Scale total score (P = 0.24), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms total score (P = 0.13), weight, blood pressure, or fasting lipids or glucose. Rimonabant was well tolerated with no significant adverse events. No significant weight loss, metabolic effects, or adverse psychiatric effects were associated with the cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist rimonabant in this small sample of people with schizophrenia. The endocannabinoid system remains a promising target for pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia and obesity.
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Analysis of gene variants previously associated with iloperidone response in patients with schizophrenia who are treated with risperidone.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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We examined 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported to be associated with response to iloperidone therapy for association with response to risperidone therapy.
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Striatal mitochondria in subjects with chronic undifferentiated vs. chronic paranoid schizophrenia.
Synapse
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Schizophrenia (SZ) is a heterogeneous disease with a spectrum of symptoms, risk factors, and etiology. Abnormalities in mitochondria, the energy-producing organelles of the cell, have been observed in mixed cohorts of subjects with SZ. The purpose of the present study was to determine if striatal mitochondria were differentially affected in two different DSM-IV subgroups of SZ. Postmortem striatal tissue was examined from normal controls (NC), chronic paranoid SZs (SZP), and chronic undifferentiated SZs (SZU). Tissue was processed for calbindin immunohistochemistry to identify striosomal compartments, prepared for electron microscopy and analyzed using stereological methods. In both caudate and putamen, the density of mitochondria in the neuropil was decreased in SZP compared to both NCs and SZU. In the putamen, both the SZP and the SZU subgroups had fewer mitochondria per synapse than did NCs. When examining patch matrix compartments, striatal compartments associated with different circuitry and function, only the matrix exhibited changes. In the caudate matrix, the SZP subgroup had fewer mitochondria in the neuropil than did the SZU and NCs. In the putamen matrix, the SZP had fewer mitochondria in the neuropil as compared to NCs, but not the SZU. The numbers of mitochondria per synapse in both the SZP and the SZU groups were similar to each other and fewer than that of NCs. A decrease in mitochondrial density in the neuropil distinguishes the SZP from the SZU subgroup, which could be associated with the symptoms of paranoia and/or could represent a protective mechanism against some of the symptoms that are less pronounced in this subtype than in the SZU subgroup such as cognitive and emotional deficits.
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Proinflammatory cytokines in the prefrontal cortex of teenage suicide victims.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Teenage suicide is a major public health concern, but its neurobiology is not well understood. Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in stress and in the pathophysiology of depression-two major risk factors for suicide. Cytokines are increased in the serum of patients with depression and suicidal behavior; however, it is not clear if similar abnormality in cytokines occurs in brains of suicide victims. We therefore measured the gene and protein expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-? in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 24 teenage suicide victims and 24 matched normal control subjects. Our results show that the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? were significantly increased in Brodmann area 10 (BA-10) of suicide victims compared with normal control subjects. These results suggest an important role for IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and that proinflammatory cytokines may be an appropriate target for developing therapeutic agents.
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Responses to antipsychotic therapy among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and either predominant or prominent negative symptoms.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Patients with schizophrenia who have predominant negative symptoms are often considered less responsive to treatment. This analysis of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder compares changes in symptom severity between those with predominant versus merely prominent negative symptoms. Prominent negative symptoms were defined by a baseline score of ?4 on at least 3, or ?5 on at least 2, of the 7 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale items. Predominant negative symptoms were defined by the foregoing plus a PANSS positive score of <19, a Barnes Akathisia score of <2, a Simpson-Angus score of <4, and a Calgary Depressive Scale score of <9. Adult patients with schizophrenia (n=227) or schizoaffective disorder (n=116) received either olanzapine (10-20mg/day, n=169) or quetiapine (300-700mg/day, n=174) for up to 24weeks. Data for both medications were pooled. Of the 343 patients enrolled in the study, 34.7% met the criteria for predominant negative symptoms, the remaining 65.3% being characterized only by their prominent negative symptoms. Changes in the severity of negative symptoms in both patient types largely followed similar trajectories during treatment, as reflected both in Marder PANSS negative subscale scores and in the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms total and domain scores. Patients with either predominant or prominent negative symptoms therefore appear to respond similarly to atypical antipsychotic treatment. This distinction, incorporating an evaluation of the presence of positive, affective, and extrapyramidal symptoms, may therefore not have prognostic implications for the responsiveness of patients negative symptoms to treatment.
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Identification of early changes in specific symptoms that predict longer-term response to atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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To identify a simple decision tree using early symptom change to predict response to atypical antipsychotic therapy in patients with (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revised) chronic schizophrenia.
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Cost-effectiveness of olanzapine long-acting injection in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia in the United States: a micro-simulation economic decision model.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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To compare, from the perspective of third-party payers in the United States health care system, the cost-effectiveness of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI, depot) with alternative antipsychotic agents including risperidone-LAI, paliperidone-LAI, haloperidol-LAI, and oral olanzapine, in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia who have been non-adherent or partially adherent with oral antipsychotics.
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Decline in hospitalization risk and health care cost after initiation of depot antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Clinicoecon Outcomes Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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To assess change in hospitalization and cost of care from 6 months pre- to 6 months post-initiation on any depot antipsychotic among schizophrenia patients.
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Predictive value of early changes in triglycerides and weight for longer-term changes in metabolic measures during olanzapine, ziprasidone or aripiprazole treatment for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder post hoc analyses of 3 randomized, controll
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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The objective of this study was to determine if early changes in triglycerides and weight may be useful in predicting longer-term changes in weight and other metabolic parameters. Data were from three 24- to 28-week randomized, controlled studies comparing olanzapine to ziprasidone or aripiprazole for treatment of schizophrenia. Analyses were restricted to completers with fasting laboratory data at all protocol specified time points. Analyses were primarily descriptive and included mean changes and categorical outcomes. In all treatment groups, participants who did not experience a 20 mg/dL or greater increase in triglycerides at early time points were unlikely to experience a change of 50 mg/dL or more in triglycerides after 6 months. Negative predictive values were 83% to 95%. However, early change in triglycerides was not useful for predicting later change in glucose, cholesterol, or weight. Similarly, early weight change gave robust negative predictive values for longer-term weight change (?10 kg), but not for change in glucose or cholesterol. Lack of early elevation in triglyceride concentrations was predictive of later lack of substantial increase in triglycerides in olanzapine-, ziprasidone-, and aripiprazole-treated participants. Lack of early elevation in weight was predictive of later lack of substantial increase in weight in all 3 treatment groups. Early monitoring of triglyceride concentrations and weight may help clinicians assess risk that individuals will experience significant increase in triglycerides or weight gain, allowing assessments of potential risks and benefits earlier in treatment. Clinical monitoring is advised throughout treatment for all patients.
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Impact of race on efficacy and safety during treatment with olanzapine in schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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To examine potential differences in efficacy and safety of treatment with olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia of white and black descent.
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Mitochondria in the striatum of subjects with schizophrenia.
World J. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2010
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Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that manifests pathology in many brain regions, including the striatum. Among the abnormalities in schizophrenia are those related to mitochondria. The present study sought to determine whether the number of mitochondria was affected at the level of the synapse.
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Adjunctive risperidone for partially responsive people with schizophrenia treated with clozapine.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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The large numbers of partial clozapine responders represent a major therapeutic challenge. Unfortunately, there are no clear data to support how best to treat these patients. This study examines the efficacy and safety of adjunctive risperidone in a well-defined treatment-resistant population optimally treated with clozapine. A total of 69 inpatients and outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder entered a 16-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Of them, 33 participants were randomized to risperidone and 36 were randomized to placebo. There was no significant group difference in the predefined response criteria. There were modest group differences for Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) positive symptoms, which were significant in the completer analysis (F=5.70; df=1,?70.3; p=0.02; ES=0.27) but not the intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses (F=3.01; df=1,?77.5; p=0.09; ES=0.19). A similar pattern was found for the BPRS total score, with the completer analysis showing a significant improvement in the risperidone group (F=5.21; df=1,?64.9; p=0.03; ES=0.27), whereas the ITT analysis was not significant (F=3.52; df=1,?71.3; p=0.06; ES=0.22). In addition, there was a small, but significant, group difference for negative symptoms, as measured by the SANS total score, which favored the risperidone group (F=5.67; df=1,?78.7; p=0.02; ES=0.24). There were no significant group differences on safety measures, including neuropsychological test and extrapyramidal symptom scores. A significant elevation of prolactin in the risperidone group was observed. The study results suggest that adjunctive risperidone may have a modest benefit for treatment-resistant clozapine patients. The study results are discussed in the context of previous double-blind studies of adjunctive risperidone. (clinicaltrials.gov, trial number: NCT00056498).
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Molecular imaging of activated von Willebrand factor to detect high-risk atherosclerotic phenotype.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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We hypothesized that noninvasive molecular imaging of activated von Willebrand factor (vWF) on the vascular endothelium could be used to detect a high-risk atherosclerotic phenotype.
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Modulation in activation and expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten, Akt1, and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1: further evidence demonstrating altered phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in postmortem brain of suicide subject
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling plays a crucial role in neuronal growth and plasticity. Recently, we demonstrated that suicide brain is associated with decreased activation and expression of selective catalytic and regulatory subunits of PI3-K. The present investigation examined the regulation and functional significance of compromised PI3-K in suicide brain at the level of upstream phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome ten (PTEN) and downstream substrates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and Akt.
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Early response to antipsychotic therapy as a clinical marker of subsequent response in the treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Early response to antipsychotic medication has been shown to accurately predict later response to continued use of the same treatment in patients with chronic schizophrenia. This study examines whether this predictive pattern exists for patients with first-episode psychosis. We used a data-driven threshold for early response of ? 26.2% improvement from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS(0-6)) Total score to determine whether response at Week 2 of treatment may predict response at Week 12 in a randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine versus haloperidol for treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis (N=225). Later response was defined as a ? 40% and ? 50% improvement in PANSS Total(0-6) score and as remission. At Week 2, 43% (97/225) of patients were identified as early responders. At a threshold for later response of ? 50% improvement in PANSS(0-6) Total score, early non-response most strongly predicted later non-response, demonstrating high specificity (74%) and high negative predictive value (80%). As had been seen in the treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia, early non-response was a robust predictor of subsequent non-response in the treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis.
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Cardiovascular disease mortality in patients with chronic schizophrenia treated with clozapine: a retrospective cohort study.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in schizophrenia is more frequent than in the general population. Whether second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase risk of CVD morbidity and mortality has yet to be determined.
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The cost of relapse and the predictors of relapse in the treatment of schizophrenia.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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To assess the direct cost of relapse and the predictors of relapse during the treatment of patients with schizophrenia in the United States.
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The burden of depressive symptoms in people with schizophrenia.
Psychiatr. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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People with schizophrenia and concurrent depressive symptoms have poorer long-term functional outcomes compared with the nondepressed. Their poorer quality of life, greater use of mental health services, and higher risk of involvement with law enforcement agencies underscore a need for special treatment interventions. Treatment of the nonpsychotic dimensions of schizophrenia is a critical part of recovery. In a 3-year study, the depressed cohort was significantly more likely than the nondepressed to use relapse-related mental health services (emergency psychiatric services, sessions with psychiatrists); to be a safety concern (violent, arrested, victimized, or suicidal); to have greater substance-related problems; and to report poorer life satisfaction, quality of life, mental functioning, family relationships, and medication adherence. Furthermore, changes in depressed status were associated with changes in functional outcomes.
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Effect of sex difference on platelet adhesion, spreading and aggregate formation under flow.
Thromb. Haemost.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2009
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There are clear but poorly understood differences in the etiology and prognosis of thrombotic diseases in men and women. Due to the fact that platelets play a central role in the formation of occlusive thrombi in atherosclerotic coronary arteries, previous studies have examined whether sex differences exist for platelets, and have obtained conflicting results. Additionally, due to the increased use of genetically modified mouse models to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying platelet activation and thrombotic disorders, it is critical to determine if sex is a confounding variable. Our study of the role of sex differences in platelet function was designed to utilise purified platelets from inbred paired female/male littermates in order to minimise genetic and environmental variability. In the current study, we demonstrate that platelet adhesion to and spreading on immobilised fibrinogen, thrombin or collagen was equivalent for both female and male mouse platelets. The ability of the soluble agonist thrombin or convulxin to potentiate platelet P-selectin exposure, fibrinogen binding, or adhesion and spreading on immobilised fibrinogen was equivalent for both female and male mouse platelets. Our data show that an equivalent degree of platelet adhesion and aggregation on collagen or fibrinogen under shear flow was observed for both female and male mouse platelets. In conclusion, our data would argue against an intrinsic difference for female mouse platelets in regulating the major functional platelet responses: platelet adhesion, spreading, or aggregation under flow.
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Aberrant extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signalling in suicide brain: role of ERK kinase 1 (MEK1).
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signalling plays a critical role in synaptic and structural plasticity. Recent preclinical and human brain studies suggest that depression and suicidal behaviour are associated with aberrant ERK1/2 signalling. MEK, is a dual-specificity kinase, which is the immediate upstream regulator of ERK1/2. Two isoforms of MEK (MEK1 and MEK2) exist. By phosphorylating at Ser and Thr residues, MEK activates ERK1/2, which then phosphorylates cytoplasmic and nuclear substrates. On the other hand, MEK itself is regulated through phosphorylation by upstream Raf kinases. Recently, we demonstrated that activation of ERK1/2 and B-Raf was attenuated in the brains of suicide subjects. To further investigate the regulation of ERK1/2 signalling, we examined the expression and activation of MEKs, the interaction of MEK with ERKs, MEK-mediated activation of ERK1/2, and ERK1/2-mediated activation of nuclear substrate Elk-1 in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of suicide subjects. In addition, in order to investigate whether MEK is regulated by B-Raf, we examined the B-Raf and MEK interaction. No significant changes were observed in expression levels of MEK1 or MEK2; however, the catalytic activity of only MEK1 (not MEK2) was decreased in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of suicide subjects. The interaction of MEK1 with ERK1 and ERK2 was increased along with decreased phosphorylation and catalytic activity of ERK1/2. In addition, we found decreased phosphorylation of MEK1 and less interaction of B-Raf with MEK1. Our results demonstrate abnormalities in MEK1 at multiple levels and suggest that these abnormalities in MEK1 are crucial for aberrant ERK1/2 signalling in suicide brain.
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The effects of galantamine on psychopathology in chronic stable schizophrenia.
Clin Neuropharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2009
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Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and an allosteric modulator of the alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic receptors. There are several case reports describing the potential benefits of galantamine for negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia. This secondary analysis describes the effects of galantamine on psychopathology in people with schizophrenia.
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Nonresponse to clozapine and premorbid functioning in treatment of refractory schizophrenia.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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It is recognized that early treatment can improve outcomes and generally improve recovery potential for those with schizophrenia. Data suggest that poor premorbid functioning has been found to be related to more severe symptoms and poor antipsychotic response; however, little is known about premorbid functioning in patients who have no response to clozapine treatment.
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Elevated cerebrospinal fluid lactate concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: implications for the mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Evidence is accumulating that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of lactate, a product of extra-mitochondrial glucose metabolism, is commonly elevated in individuals with mitochondrial disorders, especially those with neuropsychiatric symptoms. We tested the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia would, on average, have elevated CSF lactate concentrations compared with healthy control subjects.
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Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female suicide victims.
Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty acids) and concentrations (micromol/g) were determined in the postmortem PFC (Brodmann area 10) of male and female adolescent (aged 13-20 years) suicide victims (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=20) by gas chromatography. None of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids including the principle brain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), monounsaturated fatty acids, or saturated fatty acids differed significantly between adolescent suicide victims and controls before or after segregation by gender. The arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6): DHA ratio and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) composition were negatively correlated with age at death in controls but not in suicides, and males exhibited a greater AA:DHA ratio irrespective of cause-of-death. These results demonstrate that adolescent male and female suicide victims do not exhibit DHA deficits in the postmortem PFC relative to age-matched controls, and suggest that suicide victims do not exhibit the normal age-related decrease in adrenic acid composition and the AA:DHA ratio.
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Neurotrophin receptor activation and expression in human postmortem brain: effect of suicide.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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The physiological functions of neurotrophins occur through binding to two receptors: pan75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and a family of tropomyosin receptor kinases (Trks A, B, and C). We recently reported that expression of neurotrophins and TrkB were reduced in brains of suicide subjects. This study examines whether expression and activation of Trk receptors and expression of p75(NTR) are altered in brain of these subjects.
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A randomized double-blind trial of atomoxetine for cognitive impairments in 32 people with schizophrenia.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Currently available antipsychotic medications offer only modest, if any, effects on cognitive performance in people with schizophrenia. Treatments that would improve these impairments could lead to better functional outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In animals, it has been shown to increase extracellular levels of acetylcholine and dopamine in cortical and hippocampal regions.
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Cost-effectiveness model comparing olanzapine and other oral atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Schizophrenia is often a persistent and costly illness that requires continued treatment with antipsychotics. Differences among antipsychotics on efficacy, safety, tolerability, adherence, and cost have cost-effectiveness implications for treating schizophrenia. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of oral olanzapine, oral risperidone (at generic cost, primary comparator), quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective of third-party payers in the U.S. health care system.
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Dopamine transporter polymorphism modulates oculomotor function and DAT1 mRNA expression in schizophrenia.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) deficit is an established schizophrenia endophenotype with a similar neurocognitive construct to working memory. Frontal eye field (FEF) neurons controlling SPEM maintain firing when visual sensory information is removed, and their firing rates directly correlate with SPEM velocity. We previously demonstrated a paradoxical association between a functional polymorphism of dopamine signaling (COMT gene) and SPEM. Recent evidence implicates the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) in modulating cortical dopamine and associated neurocognitive functions. We hypothesized that DAT1 10/10 genotype, which reduces dopamine transporter expression and increases extracellular dopamine, would affect SPEM. We examined the effects of DAT1 genotype on: Clinical diagnosis in the study sample (n = 418; 190 with schizophrenia), SPEM measures in a subgroup with completed oculomotor measures (n = 200; 87 schizophrenia), and DAT1 gene expression in FEF tissue obtained from postmortem brain samples (n = 32; 16 schizophrenia). DAT1 genotype was not associated with schizophrenia. DAT1 10/10 genotype was associated with better SPEM in healthy controls, intermediate SPEM in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia subjects, and worse SPEM in schizophrenia subjects. In the gene expression study, DAT1 10/10 genotype was associated with significantly reduced DAT1 mRNA transcript in FEF tissue from healthy control donors (P < 0.05), but higher expression in schizophrenia donors. Findings suggest regulatory effects of another gene(s) or etiological factor in schizophrenia, which modulate DAT1 gene function.
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Maintenance of response with atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: a post-hoc analysis of 5 double-blind, randomized clinical trials.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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How long an antipsychotic is effective in maintaining response is important in choosing the correct treatment for people with schizophrenia. This post-hoc analysis describes maintenance of response over 24 or 28 weeks in people treated for schizophrenia with olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole.
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GSK-3beta gene expression in human postmortem brain: regional distribution, effects of age and suicide.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3beta) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and schizophrenia. To examine its role in suicide, we determined GSK-3beta messenger RNA (mRNA) in human postmortem brain from suicide and normal control subjects using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. We found that GSK-3beta mRNA was highly abundant in almost all of the 12 brain areas we studied. We also found a significant age effect on GSK-3beta and that GSK-3beta mRNA level were significantly higher in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of teenage normal controls compared with adult normal controls and was significantly decreased in PFC of teenage suicide but not adult suicide victims compared with respective normal control subjects. The decrease observed in the mRNA levels in teenage suicide but not in adult suicide victims may represent a neurodevelopmentally associated decrease and may be important in the pathophysiology of teenage suicide.
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Dopaminergic synapses in the caudate of subjects with schizophrenia: relationship to treatment response.
Synapse
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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The typical symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ) are psychotic symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, disorders of thought or speech, grossly disorganized behavior) as well as cognitive impairments and negative symptoms. Not all patients respond to treatment and in those who do, only psychotic symptoms are usually improved. Imaging studies have shown that SZ subjects with high striatal dopamine release are far more responsive to antipsychotic drugs than those patients who have dopamine levels lower than or comparable to that of normal controls. In the present study we hypothesized that there was a link between psychosis and the number of dopaminergic synapses in the caudate nucleus in SZ. We examined dopaminergic synapses at the electron microscopic level in postmortem caudate from cases obtained from the Maryland Brain Collection. SZs were subdivided based on treatment response or resistance. The tissue was processed for the immunocytochemical localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the synthesizing enzyme for dopamine, and prepared for electron microscopy. The density of all TH labeled synapses was 43% greater in treatment responders than in controls and 62% greater in than in treatment resistant SZ. Axodendritic, but not axospinous, TH-labeled synapses showed this increase. TH-labeled axodendritic synapses in treatment responders were elevated in density (1.95 +/- 0.093/10 microm(3)) compared to treatment resistant SZ (0.04 +/- 0.017/10 microm(3)) and controls (0.11 +/- 0.044/10 microm(3)). The results of the present study suggest that one anatomical underpinning of good treatment response may be a higher density of dopaminergic synapses and support a biological basis to treatment response and resistance. Moreover, these data have important implications for linking specific neuropathology with particular symptoms.
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Pharmacogenomic associations with weight gain in olanzapine treatment of patients without schizophrenia.
J Clin Psychiatry
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Pharmacogenomic analyses of weight gain during treatment with second-generation antipsychotics have resulted in a number of associations with variants in ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1)/dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C) genes. These studies primarily assessed subjects with schizophrenia who had prior antipsychotic exposure that may have influenced the amount of weight gained from subsequent therapies. We assessed the relationships between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes with weight gain during treatment with olanzapine in a predominantly antipsychotic-naive population.
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Antipsychotic monotherapy among outpatients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine or risperidone in Japan: a health care database analysis.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
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Antipsychotic monotherapy is often recommended over antipsychotic polypharmacy because of fewer adverse events, reduced treatment complexity, and lower medication cost. This study compared the rate and the duration of antipsychotic monotherapy following initiation of olanzapine or risperidone in the treatment of outpatients with schizophrenia in Japan.
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Dopamine pathology in schizophrenia: analysis of total and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra.
Front Psychiatry
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Introduction: Despite the importance of dopamine neurotransmission in schizophrenia, very few studies have addressed anomalies in the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of dopamine, and a possible contributor to the anomalies in the dopaminergic neurotransmission observed in schizophrenia. Objectives: In this study, we had three objectives: (1) Compare TH expression (mRNA and protein) in the SN/VTA of schizophrenia and control postmortem samples. (2) Assess the effect of antipsychotic medications on the expression of TH in the SN/VTA. (3) Examine possible regional differences in TH expression anomalies within the SN/VTA. Methods: To achieve these objectives three independent studies were conducted: (1) A pilot study to compare TH mRNA and TH protein levels in the SN/VTA of postmortem samples from schizophrenia and controls. (2) A chronic treatment study was performed in rodents to assess the effect of antipsychotic medications in TH protein levels in the SN/VTA. (3) A second postmortem study was performed to assess TH and phosphorylated TH protein levels in two types of samples: schizophrenia and control samples containing the entire rostro-caudal extent of the SN/VTA, and schizophrenia and control samples containing only mid-caudal regions of the SN/VTA. Results and Conclusion: Our studies showed impairment in the dopaminergic system in schizophrenia that could be mainly (or exclusively) located in the rostral region of the SN/VTA. Our studies also showed that TH protein levels were significantly abnormal in schizophrenia, while mRNA expression levels were not affected, indicating that TH pathology in this region may occur posttranscriptionally. Lastly, our antipsychotic animal treatment study showed that TH protein levels were not significantly affected by antipsychotic treatment, indicating that these anomalies are an intrinsic pathology rather than a treatment effect.
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Cost-effectiveness of several atypical antipsychotics in orally disintegrating tablets compared with standard oral tablets in the treatment of schizophrenia in the United States.
J Med Econ
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Although the use of innovative drug delivery systems, like orally disintegrating antipsychotic tablets (ODT), may facilitate medication adherence and help reduce the risk of relapse and hospitalization, no information is available about the comparative cost-effectiveness of standard oral tablets (SOT) vs ODT formulations in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of olanzapine ODT and olanzapine SOT in the usual treatment of outpatients with schizophrenia from a US healthcare perspective. The study also compared olanzapine ODT with risperidone and aripiprazole, two other atypical antipsychotics available in both ODT and SOT formulations.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.