Race TTKSK of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt) threatens the production of wheat and barley worldwide because of its broad-spectrum virulence on many widely grown cultivars. Sources of resistance against race TTKSK were recently identified in several barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and wild barley accessions (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum). The objectives of this study were to characterize the inheritance of resistance to wheat stem rust race TTKSK in four barley landraces (Hv501, Hv545, Hv602, and Hv612) and two wild barley (WBDC213, and WBDC345) accessions, map the resistance gene(s), and determine the allelic relationships among the gene(s) in these accessions and the previously described rpg4/Rpg5 locus. Resistant accessions were crossed with the susceptible cultivar Steptoe and resulting F3 populations were evaluated for resistance to race TTKSK at the seedling stage. Segregation of F3 families in populations involving the resistance sources of Hv501, Hv545, Hv612, WBDC213, and WBDC345 fit a 1:2:1 ratio for homozygous resistant (HR) : segregating (SEG) : homozygous susceptible (HS) progenies (with ?(2) = 2.27 to 5.87 and P = 0.053 to 0.321), indicating that a single gene confers resistance to race TTKSK. Segregation of F3 families in cross Steptoe/Hv602 did not fit a 1:2:1 ratio (HR 20 : SEG 47 : HS 43 with ?(2) = 11.95 and P = 0.003), indicating that more than one gene is involved in imparting resistance to race TTKSK. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) using over 1,500 SNP markers positioned a resistance locus in all six populations on chromosome 5HL in very close proximity to the known location of the rpg4/Rpg5 complex locus. Allelism tests were conducted by making crosses among resistant accessions Hv501, Hv545 and Hv612 and also Q21861 with the rpg4/Rpg5 complex. No segregation was observed in F2 families inoculated with race TTKSK, demonstrating that all Hv lines carry the same allele for resistance and that it resides at or very near the rpg4/Rpg5 locus. Phenotype evaluations of the six barley accessions with wheat stem rust race QCCJ revealed resistant infection types (ITs) at low incubation temperature and susceptible ITs at high incubation temperature, similar to Q21861, which carries the temperature sensitive gene rpg4. The accessions also exhibited low ITs against the rye stem rust isolate 92-MN-90, suggesting they also carry Rpg5. This result was confirmed through molecular analysis, which revealed that all six barley accessions contain the STPK (serine/threonine protein kinase) domain that confers Rpg5 resistance. These results indicate that cultivated barley is extremely vulnerable to African stem rust races like TTKSK because even these diverse selections of landrace and wild barley accessions carry only one locus for resistance.
Barley net form net blotch (NFNB), caused by the necrotrophic fungus Pyrenophora teres f. teres, is a destructive foliar disease in barley-growing regions worldwide. Little is known about the genetic and molecular basis of this pathosystem. Here, we identified a small secreted proteinaceous necrotrophic effector (NE), designated PttNE1, from intercellular wash fluids of the susceptible barley line Hector after inoculation with P.?teres f. teres isolate 0-1. Using a barley recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed from a cross between the sensitive/susceptible line Hector and the insensitive/resistant line NDB 112 (HN population), sensitivity to PttNE1, which we have named SPN1, mapped to a common resistance/susceptibility region on barley chromosome 6H. PttNE1-SPN1 interaction accounted for 31% of the disease variation when the HN population was inoculated with the 0-1 isolate. Strong accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and increased levels of electrolyte leakage were associated with the susceptible reaction, but not the resistant reaction. In addition, the HN RIL population was evaluated for its reactions to 10 geographically diverse P.?teres f. teres isolates. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping led to the identification of at least 10 genomic regions associated with disease, with chromosomes 3H and 6H harbouring major QTLs for resistance/susceptibility. SPN1 was associated with all the 6H QTLs, except one. Collectively, this information indicates that the barley-P.?teres f. teres pathosystem follows, at least partially, an NE-triggered susceptibility (NETS) model that has been described in other necrotrophic fungal disease systems, especially in the Dothideomycete class of fungi.
The necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres causes the foliar disease net form net blotch (NFNB) on barley. To investigate the genetics of virulence in the barley- P. teres f. teres pathosystem, we evaluated 118 progeny derived from a cross between the California isolates 15A and 6A on the barley lines Rika and Kombar, chosen based on their differential reactions to isolates 15A and 6A for NFNB disease. Genetic maps generated with SNP, SSR, and AFLP markers were scanned for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with virulence in P. teres f. teres. Loci underlying two major QTL, VR1 and VR2, were associated with virulence on Rika barley, accounting for 35% and 20% of the disease reaction type variation, respectively. Two different loci, VK1 and VK2, were shown to underlie two major QTL associated with virulence on Kombar barley accounting for 26% and 19% of the disease reaction type variation, respectively. Progeny isolates harboring VK1, VK2, or VR2 alone were inoculated onto a Rika×Kombar recombinant inbred line mapping population and the susceptibility induced by each pathogen genotype corresponded to the same region on barley chromosome 6H as that identified for the parental isolates 15A and 6A. The data presented here indicate that the P. teres f. teres - barley interaction can at least partially be explained by pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) that interact with dominant barley susceptibility genes resulting in NE triggered susceptibility (NETS).
Two closely linked resistance genes, rpg4 and Rpg5, conferring resistance to several races of Puccinia graminis, were cloned and characterized. The Rpg5 gene confers resistance to an isolate of Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis (Pgs), while rpg4 confers resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Rpg5 is a novel gene containing nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat domains in combination with a serine threonine protein kinase domain. High-resolution mapping plus allele and recombinant sequencing identified the rpg4 gene, which encodes an actin depolymerizing factor-like protein (ADF2). Resistance against the Pgt races QCCJ, MCCF, TTKSK (aka Ug99) and RCRS requires both Rpg5 and rpg4, while Rpg5 alone confers resistance to Pgs isolate 92-MN-90. The dependency on the actin modifying protein ADF2 indicates cytoskeleton reorganization or redirection plays a role in pathogen-host interactions. Rpg5 may interact with ADF2 to activate or deactivate its function in the resistance response. Alternatively, Rpg5 could initiate signal transduction leading to resistance in response to detecting ADF2 protein modification. Pgt may redirect the actin cytoskeleton by inducing modifications of ADF2. The redirection of actin could possibly enable the pathogen to develop a haustoria-plant cell cytoskeleton interface for acquisition of nutrients.
Approaches utilizing microlinearity between related species allow for the identification of syntenous regions and orthologous genes. Within the barley Chromosome 7H(1) is a region of high recombination flanked by molecular markers cMWG703 and MWG836. We present the constructed physical contigs linked to molecular markers across this region using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the cultivar Morex. Barley expressed sequence tags (EST), identified by homology to rice chromosome 6 between the rice molecular markers C425A and S1434, corresponded to the barley syntenous region of Chromosome 7H(1) Bins 2-5 between molecular markers cMWG703-MWG836. Two hundred and thirteen ESTs were genetically mapped yielding 267 loci of which 101 were within the target high recombination region while 166 loci mapped elsewhere. The 101 loci were joined by 43 other genetic markers resulting in a highly saturated genetic map. In order to develop a physical map of the region, ESTs and all other molecular markers were used to identify Morex BAC clones. Seventy-four BAC contigs were formed containing 2-102 clones each with an average of 19 and a median of 13 BAC clones per contig. Comparison of the BAC contigs, generated here, with the Barley Physical Mapping Database contigs, resulted in additional overlaps and a reduction of the contig number to 56. Within cMWG703-MWG836 are 24 agriculturally important traits including the seedling spot blotch resistance locus, Rcs5. Genetic and physical analysis of this region and comparison to rice indicated an inversion distal of the Rcs5 locus. Three BAC clone contigs spanning the Rcs5 locus were identified.
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