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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Extended interval dosing of natalizumab: a two-center, 7-year experience.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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The enthusiasm for natalizumab, a highly efficacious agent in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), has been tempered by the risks of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with its use, and strategies to minimize those risks are of great interest. Extended interval dosing (EID) has been proposed as a way to maintain the efficacy of natalizumab while reducing exposure to it. We reviewed a cohort of patients who received natalizumab at 6-8-week intervals instead of the typical infusions every 4 weeks with the goal to assess if patients on EID had an increase in clinical relapses.
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Identification of extracellular miRNA in human cerebrospinal fluid by next-generation sequencing.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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There has been a growing interest in using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to profile extracellular small RNAs from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neurological diseases, CNS tumors, or traumatic brain injury for biomarker discovery. Small sample volumes and samples with low RNA abundance create challenges for downstream small RNA sequencing assays. Plasma, serum, and CSF contain low amounts of total RNA, of which small RNAs make up a fraction. The purpose of this study was to maximize RNA isolation from RNA-limited samples and apply these methods to profile the miRNA in human CSF by small RNA deep sequencing. We systematically tested RNA isolation efficiency using ten commercially available kits and compared their performance on human plasma samples. We used RiboGreen to quantify total RNA yield and custom TaqMan assays to determine the efficiency of small RNA isolation for each of the kits. We significantly increased the recovery of small RNA by repeating the aqueous extraction during the phenol-chloroform purification in the top performing kits. We subsequently used the methods with the highest small RNA yield to purify RNA from CSF and serum samples from the same individual. We then prepared small RNA sequencing libraries using Illuminas TruSeq sample preparation kit and sequenced the samples on the HiSeq 2000. Not surprisingly, we found that the miRNA expression profile of CSF is substantially different from that of serum. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the small RNA fraction from CSF has been profiled using next-generation sequencing.
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Head tremor secondary to MS resolved with rituximab.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with a 2-month history of worsening head tremor. The medical evaluation led to the new diagnosis of MS and the MRI of brain demonstrated prominently active disease. Intravenous rituximab was started according to the HERMES trial, and significant improvement was noted. She has received additional rituximab dosing approximately every 6 months, and at the 2-year follow-up the tremor has not recurred. The resolution of head tremor likely resulted from the complete suppression of MS disease activity, which must have allowed restoration of normal neural circuitry. In agreement with a growing body of evidence that supports early control of MS disease activity to prevent accumulation of fixed disability, this case advocates for aggressive immunological therapy at the onset of tremor in MS patients.
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A review of cases of neuromyelitis optica.
Neurologist
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Under the therapeutic point of view, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) poses major challenges. Patients with NMO manifest severe disability from recurrent demyelinating lesions and the therapies are only partially effective. We performed a retrospective analysis of the records of patients followed at our institution and provide suggestions for management of acute relapses and preventive therapy.
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Antibody to ?4 integrin suppresses natural killer cells infiltration in central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
J. Neuroimmunol.
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Natalizumab inhibits the influx of leukocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) via blockade of alpha-4 subunit of very late activation antigen (VLA)-4. The association of natalizumab therapy with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) suggests a disturbance of CNS immune surveillance in a small percentage of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients exposed to the medication. Natural killer (NK) cells are known to play an important role in modulating the evolution of different phases of this lymphocyte mediated disease, and we investigated the effects of natalizumab on the NK cell phenotype and infiltration in the CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of MS. Our data show that both resting (from naïve mice) and activated (from EAE mice) NK cells express high levels of VLA-4, and anti-VLA-4 antibody treatment significantly decreases NK cells frequency in the CNS of EAE mice. Moreover, we find that anti-VLA-4 possibly impairs NK cells migratory potential, since unblocked VLA-4 expression levels were downregulated on those NK cells that penetrate the CNS. These data suggest that treatment with antibody to VLA-4 may alter immune surveillance of the CNS by impacting NK cell functions and might contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms leading to the development of PML in some MS patients.
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From injection therapies to natalizumab: views on the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord
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Discoveries of the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis have been acquired at an impressive rate over the last few decades and, as a consequence, a growing number of treatments are becoming available for this disease. This review first analyzes the experience from the early stages of the disease-modifying therapies, then, expanding on the concept of early treatment for improved outcomes, it focuses on natalizumab and its major complication, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. We offer views on the risks associated with the use of natalizumab by underscoring the importance of the JC virus serology and by providing preliminary data on our experience with the extended interval dosing of natalizumab. This approach, which advocates individualized treatment plans, raises the question of the minimum effective natalizumab dose. Extended interval dosing suggests efficacy can be maintained while providing advantages of costs and convenience over regular monthly dosing. More data examining this strategy are necessary.
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Interleukin-10 producing-B cells and their association with responsiveness to rituximab in myasthenia gravis.
Muscle Nerve
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Introduction: A subset of regulatory B cells in humans and mice has been defined functionally by their ability to produce interleukin (IL)-10. We characterized IL-10-producing B (B10) cells in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients and correlated them with disease activity and responsiveness to rituximab therapy. Methods: Frequencies of B10 cells from MG patients and healthy controls were monitored by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Results: MG patients had fewer B10 cells than controls, which was associated with more severe disease status. Moreover, patients who responded well to rituximab therapy exhibited rapid repopulation of B10 cells, whereas in patients who did not respond well to rituximab, B10 cell repopulation was delayed. The kinetics of B10 cells were related to the responsiveness to rituximab in MG. Conclusion: We have characterized a specific subset of B10 cells in MG patients which may serve as a marker for MG activity and responsiveness to immune therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.