A facile one-pot Stöber route is used to synthesize high-quality Ag, AgBr-silica-resorcinol formaldehyde polymer core-shell-shell nanospheres. The obtained core-shell-shell templates can be converted to Ag@carbon yolk-shell nanostructures with tunable dimensions.
We present the synthesis and multifunctional utilization of core-shell Fe3O4 polydopamine nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PDA NPs) to serve as the enabling platform for a range of applications including responsive drug delivery, recyclable catalyst support, and adsorbent. Magnetite Fe3O4 NPs formed in a one-pot process by the hydrothermal approach were coated with a polydopamine shell layer of ~20 nm in thickness. The as prepared Fe3O4@PDA NPs were used for the controlled drug release in a pH-sensitive manner via reversible bonding between catechol and boronic acid groups of PDA and the anticancer drug bortezomib (BTZ), respectively. The facile deposition of Au NPs atop Fe3O4@PDA NPs was achieved by utilizing PDA as both the reducing agent and the coupling agent. The nanocatalysts exhibited high catalytic performance for the reduction of o-nitrophenol. Furthermore, the recovery and reuse of the catalyst was demonstrated 10 times without any detectible loss in activity. Finally, the PDA layers were converted into carbon to obtain Fe3O4@C and used as an adsorbent for the removal of Rhodamine B from an aqueous solution. The synergistic combination of unique features of PDA and magnetic nanoparticles establishes these core-shell NPs as a versatile platform for multiple applications.
The effect of coumarin molecules on the formation of polymeric nanoparticles is examined using a model polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), functionalized with varying amounts of coumarin pendant groups (PCM). PCM nanoparticles are prepared in a continuous manner by Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP). PCM forms spherical nanoparticles in water, while the PMMA without coumarin functionality fails to form nanoparticles. As the amount of coumarin functionality increases, the nanoparticle size and size polydispersity are decreased and the nanoparticle stability in water is enhanced. In particular, well-isolated spherical nanoparticles are generated from PCM with 20 mol% coumarin side chain functionality. These results can be explained by an observed increase in the negative surface charge with increasing coumarin content in the polymer.
We have measured the glassy-state structural relaxation of aqueous suspended polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (the case of soft confinement) and the corresponding silica-capped PS nanoparticles (the case of hard confinement) via differential scanning calorimetry. Suspended and capped PS nanoparticles undergo physical aging under isobaric and isochoric conditions, respectively. With decreasing diameter, suspended and capped PS nanoparticles exhibited reduced and bulk glass transition temperatures (T(g)), respectively. To account for T(g) changes with confinement, all physical aging measurements were performed at a constant value of T(g) - T(a), where T(a) is the aging temperature. With decreasing diameter, aqueous suspended PS nanoparticles exhibited enhanced physical aging rates in comparison to bulk PS. Due to differences in thermodynamic conditions during aging and interfacial effects from nanoconfinement, at all values of T(g) - T(a) investigated, capped PS nanoparticles aged at reduced rates compared to the corresponding aqueous suspended PS nanoparticles. We captured the physical aging behavior of all nanoparticles via the Tool, Narayanaswamy, and Moynihan model of structural relaxation.
We present a novel procedure for the formation of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) derived from the supramolecular self-assembled structure of a cyclodextrin (CD)/Au salt complex (SCA) without the necessity for additional reducing or stabilizing agents. The SCA served as a solid template for the formation of gold seeds by solid-state thermal treatment within the confining environment of the ?-CD, i.e., the matrix of the SCA. Subsequently, thermally treated SCA, denoted as T-SCA, was placed (without further treatment) into an aqueous medium and gold seeds were nucleated for the formation of ?-CD-stabilized AuNPs at room temperature. The surface topology of SCA, as revealed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), consisted of flaky plate-like structures. Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) revealed that the surface topology of SCA resulted from a transformation in the crystalline structure of ?-CD from the cage-type to the hexagonally ordered channel-type. The structure transformation on the surface of SCA was attributed to the nucleated self-assembly of surface ?-CD molecules by Au salt. From combined FE-SEM, energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), WXRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, it was concluded that the thermal treatment of SCA led to the formation of gold seeds, attributed to the reduction and aggregation of some Au salt molecules, confined within the interface between the cage-type and channel type structure of the SCA. After placement of T-SCA into an aqueous solution, the growth and stabilization of AuNPs by ?-CD were verified by UV-vis spectroscopy. The formation of AuNPs, by this novel method, can be considered a one step seed-mediated growth process. The resulting AuNPs are spherical in morphology, narrowly size distributed and possesses excellent stability. Furthermore, the AuNPs size is tunable by simply controlling water content during nanoparticle growth.
Owing to the kinetic nature of the glass transition, the ability to significantly alter the properties of amorphous solids by the typical routes to the vitreous state is restricted. For instance, an order of magnitude change in the cooling rate merely modifies the value of the glass transition temperature (T(g)) by a few degrees. Here we show that matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) can be used to form ultrastable and nanostructured glassy polymer films which, relative to the standard poly(methyl methacrylate) glass formed on cooling at standard rates, are 40% less dense, have a 40 K higher T(g), and exhibit a two orders of magnitude enhancement in kinetic stability at high temperatures. The unique set of properties of MAPLE-deposited glasses may make them attractive in technologies where weight and stability are central design issues.
The ability to create aqueous suspended stable nanoparticles of the hydrophobic homopolymer poly(?-caprolactone) end-functionalized with coumarin moieties (CPCL) is demonstrated. Nanoparticles of CPCL are prepared in a continuous manner using nanoprecipitation. The resulting nanoparticles are spherical in morphology, about 40 nm in diameter, and possess a narrow size distribution and excellent stability over 4 months by repulsive surface charge. Nanoparticle size can be easily controlled by manipulating the concentration of CPCL in the solution. The interparticle assembly between the nanoparticles can be reversibly adjusted with photoirradiation due to photoinduced [2 + 2] cyclodimerization and cleavage between the coumarin molecules. In addition, the CPCL nanoparticles show significant cellular uptake without cytotoxicity, and the intrinsic fluorescence of the coumarin functional group permits the direct detection of cellular internalization.
Using a facile dialysis nanoprecipitation method, nanoparticles of several hundred nanometers have been successfully generated from a "traditional," non-biodegradable polymer, that is, polystyrene. The effect of initial polymer concentration inside the dialysis membrane, as well as the polymer/solvent system and the ionic strength (electrolyte concentration) of the dialysis solution, on nanoparticle size is examined. A nucleation-aggregation mechanism has been provided to explain the observed trends. Furthermore, we determine the zeta potential as a function of ionic strength for the generated nanoparticles and show that anionic charging may be present in the system.
A facile one-step Stöber route to synthesize high-quality core-shell-shell templates is reported for the fabrication of Au@carbon yolk-shell nanostructures. The converted Au@carbon yolk-shell nanostructures exhibited high catalytic performance as illustrated by the reduction reaction of o-nitrophenol.
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