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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Apicidin sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine by epigenetically regulating MUC4 expression.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Mucin 4 (MUC4) has been linked to resistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to assess whether epigenetic control of MUC4 expression can sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine treatment.
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Can new inflammatory markers improve the diagnosis of acute appendicitis?
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The diagnosis of appendicitis is difficult and resource consuming. New inflammatory markers have been proposed for the diagnosis of appendicitis, but their utility in combination with traditional diagnostic variables has not been tested. Our objective is to explore the potential of new inflammatory markers for improving the diagnosis of appendicitis.
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Protein deep sequencing applied to biobank samples from patients with pancreatic cancer.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is commonly detected at advanced stages when the tumor is no longer amenable to surgical resection. Therefore, finding biomarkers for early stage disease is urgent. Here, we show that high-definition mass spectrometry (HDMS(E)) can be used to identify serum protein alterations associated with early stage pancreatic cancer.
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Analysis of MUC4 expression in human pancreatic cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Mucin 4 (MUC4) is a cell surface glycoprotein that is overexpressed in most pancreatic tumors. The aim of the present study was to characterize MUC4 expression in experimental pancreatic cancer in order to clarify the correlation between MUC4 and pancreatic cancer histology in vivo.
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Conditionally immortalized human pancreatic stellate cell lines demonstrate enhanced proliferation and migration in response to IGF-I.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a key role in the dense desmoplastic stroma associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Studies on human PSCs have been minimal due to difficulty in maintaining primary PSC in culture. We have generated the first conditionally immortalized human non-tumor (NPSC) and tumor-derived (TPSC) pancreatic stellate cells via transformation with the temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase (hTERT). These cells proliferate at 33°C. After transfer to 37°C, the SV40LT is switched off and the cells regain their primary PSC phenotype and growth characteristics. NPSC contained cytoplasmic vitamin A-storing lipid droplets, while both NPSC and TPSC expressed the characteristic markers ?SMA, vimentin, desmin and GFAP. Proteome array analysis revealed that of the 55 evaluated proteins, 27 (49%) were upregulated ?3-fold in TPSC compared to NPSC, including uPA, pentraxin-3, endoglin and endothelin-1. Two insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) were inversely expressed. Although discordant IGFBP-2 and -3 levels, IGF-I was found to stimulate proliferation of both NPSC and TPSC. Both basal and IGF-I stimulated motility was significantly enhanced in TPSC compared to NPSC. In conclusion, these cells provide a unique resource that will facilitate further study of the active stroma compartment associated with pancreatic cancer.
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Novel anti-adhesive barrier Biobarrier reduces growth of colon cancer cells.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Postoperative peritoneal carcinomatosis together with adhesion formation are considered as two major clinical complications after resection of malignant abdominal tumors, jeopardizing the beneficial effect of the curative surgery. Biobarrier is a novel anti-adhesive barrier fulfilling the criteria for a good adhesion preventive agent, possessing biochemical properties that may enable it to function as a dual efficient device, reducing both adhesion and tumor development. This study aims to evaluate the effect of novel anti-adhesive device Biobarrier on intra-abdominal tumor progression.
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hENT1 expression is predictive of gemcitabine outcome in pancreatic cancer: a systematic review.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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High human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1)-expression has shown a survival benefit in pancreatic cancer patients treated with gemcitabine in several studies. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the results and try to assess the predictive value of hENT1 for determining gemcitabine outcome in pancreatic cancer. Relevant articles were obtained from PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases. Studies evaluating hENT1-expression in pancreatic tumor cells from patients treated with gemcitabine were selected. Outcome measures were overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), toxicity and response rate. The database searches identified 10 studies that met the eligibility criteria, and a total of 855 patients were included. Nine of 10 studies showed a statistically significant longer overall survival in univariate analyses in patients with high hENT1-expression compared to those with low expression. In the 7 studies that reported DFS as an outcome measure, 6 had statistically longer DFS in the high hENT1 groups. Both toxicity and response rate were reported in only 2 articles and it was therefore hard to draw any major conclusions. This review provides evidence that hENT1 is a predictive marker for pancreatic cancer patients treated with gemcitabine. Some limitations of the review have to be taken into consideration, the majority of the included studies had a retrospective design, and there was no standardized scoring protocol for hENT1-expression.
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Intervention on toll-like receptors in pancreatic cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a devastating disease with pronounced morbidity and a high mortality rate. Currently available treatments lack convincing cost-efficiency determinations and are in most cases not associated with relevant success rate. Experimental stimulation of the immune system in murine PDA models has revealed some promising results. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pillars of the immune system that have been linked to several forms of malignancy, including lung, breast and colon cancer. In humans, TLRs are expressed in the pancreatic cancer tissue and in several cancer cell lines, whereas they are not expressed in the normal pancreas. In the present review, we explore the current knowledge concerning the role of different TLRs associated to PDA. Even if almost all known TLRs are expressed in the pancreatic cancer microenvironment, there are only five TLRs suggested as possible therapeutic targets. Most data points at TLR2 and TLR9 as effective tumor markers and agonists could potentially be used as e.g. future adjuvant therapies. The elucidation of the role of TLR3 in PDA is only in its initial phase. The inhibition/blockage of TLR4-related pathways has shown some promising effects, but there are still many steps left before TLR4 inhibitors can be considered as possible therapeutic agents. Finally, TLR7 antagonists seem to be potential candidates for therapy. Independent of their potential in immunotherapies, all existing data indicate that TLRs are strongly involved in the pathophysiology and development of PDA.
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Early activation of pulmonary TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling in mice with acute pancreatitis-associated acute lung injury.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Acute lung injury is caused by many factors including acute pancreatitis. There is no specific therapy directed at underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for acute lung injury. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is involved in the resolution of lung injury in later phases of the disease. Some evidence exists demonstrating that TGF-? not only is involved in the late stages, but also contributes to lung injury early on in the progress of the disease. Acute pancreatitis was induced using ductal ligation in mice. TGF-?1, 2, and 3, T?RII, ALK-5, Smad2, 3, 4, and 7, and P-Smad2 expression in the lungs were analyzed at 9 and 24?h. We demonstrate that TGF- ?1 levels in the lungs of mice with acute pancreatitis increase as early as 9?h after induction. We observed an increased expression of ALK-5 in acute pancreatitis at both 9 and 24?h. Inhibitory Smad7 expression was transiently increased at 9?h in acute pancreatitis, but reduced later at 24?h, with a concomitant increased nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad2. Our findings demonstrate activation of TGF-? signaling in the lungs as early as 24?h after acute pancreatitis, suggesting that TGF-? may represent a potential therapeutic candidate in acute pancreatitis-induced acute lung injury.
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Tumour-educated macrophages display a mixed polarisation and enhance pancreatic cancer cell invasion.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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At the time of diagnosis, almost 80% of pancreatic cancer patients present with new-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) or impaired glucose tolerance. T2D and pancreatic cancer are both associated with low-grade inflammation. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have a key role in cancer-related inflammation, immune escape, matrix remodelling and metastasis. In this study, the interplay between tumour cells and immune cells under the influence of different glucose levels was investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed in vitro to conditioned medium from BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells, in normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose levels. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that tumour-derived factors stimulated differentiation of macrophages, with a mixed classical (M1-like) and alternatively activated (M2-like) phenotype polarisation (CD11c(+)CD206(+)). High-glucose conditions further enhanced the tumour-driven macrophage enrichment and associated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 cytokine levels. In addition, hyperglycaemia enhanced the responsiveness of tumour-educated macrophages to lipopolysaccharide, with elevated cytokine secretion compared with normal glucose levels. Tumour-educated macrophages were found to promote pancreatic cancer cell invasion in vitro, which was significantly enhanced at high glucose. The anti-diabetic drug metformin shifted the macrophage phenotype polarisation and reduced the tumour cell invasion at normal, but not high, glucose levels. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that pancreatic cancer cells stimulate differentiation of macrophages with pro-tumour properties that are further enhanced by hyperglycaemia. These findings highlight important crosstalk between tumour cells and TAMs in the local tumour microenvironment that may contribute to disease progression in pancreatic cancer patients with hyperglycaemia and T2D.
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The role of quantitative mass spectrometry in the discovery of pancreatic cancer biomarkers for translational science.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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In the post-genomic era, it has become evident that genetic changes alone are not sufficient to understand most disease processes including pancreatic cancer. Genome sequencing has revealed a complex set of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer such as point mutations, chromosomal losses, gene amplifications and telomere shortening that drive cancerous growth through specific signaling pathways. Proteome-based approaches are important complements to genomic data and provide crucial information of the target driver molecules and their post-translational modifications. By applying quantitative mass spectrometry, this is an alternative way to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and personalized medicine. We review the current quantitative mass spectrometric technologies and analyses that have been developed and applied in the last decade in the context of pancreatic cancer. Examples of candidate biomarkers that have been identified from these pancreas studies include among others, asporin, CD9, CXC chemokine ligand 7, fibronectin 1, galectin-1, gelsolin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1, stromal cell derived factor 4, and transforming growth factor beta-induced protein. Many of these proteins are involved in various steps in pancreatic tumor progression including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, metastasis, immune response and angiogenesis. These new protein candidates may provide essential information for the development of protein diagnostics and targeted therapies. We further argue that new strategies must be advanced and established for the integration of proteomic, transcriptomic and genomic data, in order to enhance biomarker translation. Large scale studies with meta data processing will pave the way for novel and unexpected correlations within pancreatic cancer, that will benefit the patient, with targeted treatment.
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Regional arterial infusion with lipoxin A4 attenuates experimental severe acute pancreatitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Investigate the therapeutic effect of regional arterial infusion (RAI) with Aspirin-Triggered Lipoxin A4 (ATL) in experimental severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats.
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Pancreaticoduodenectomy - the transition from a low- to a high-volume center.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Abstract Objective. Previous studies have identified a significant volume-outcome relationship for hospitals performing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). However, scant information exists concerning the effects of increased caseload of PD within the same hospital. Here, we describe the effects of becoming a high-volume provider of PD. Material and methods. The study group comprised 221 patients who underwent PD between 2000 and 2012. Hospital volume was allocated into three groups: low-volume (<10 PDs/year), years 2000-2004, n = 25; medium-volume (10-24 PDs/year), years 2005-2009, n = 86; and high-volume (?25 PDs/year), years 2010-2012, n = 110. Results. The annual number of PDs increased from 5 in 2000 to 39 in 2012. The median operative duration decreased over the volume categories (p < 0.001). Intraoperative blood loss dropped (p < 0.001). The need for intraoperative blood transfusion was reduced (p < 0.001). Increasing hospital volume was associated with fewer reoperations (p = 0.041) and shorter postoperative length of stay (p = 0.010). There was a tendency toward reduced mortality: 4.0% for the low-volume period, 2.3% for the medium-volume period, and 0% for the high-volume period (p = 0.066). Conclusions. The transition from a low- to a high-volume center resulted in optimized outcomes for PD and 0% operative mortality, favoring the continued centralization of this high-risk operation.
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Surgical stress response after colorectal resection.
Int Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Abstract The human bodys response to surgery is correlated with the extent of tissue damage. The aim of the present study was to, over time, map out parameters concerning inflammation, metabolism, nutrition, breathing function, muscle strength, and well-being in elective colorectal surgery. Eighteen patients were prospectively included: colon resection (n = 9) and rectum resection/amputation (n = 9). Postoperative interleukin 10 (IL-10) rose more in the rectum surgery group on day 0 (P = 0.007) and day 3 (P = 0.025). Furthermore, significant differences between groups were detected regarding albumin, prealbumin, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). For albumin and TIBC, this difference was seen even on day 7. C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-8, glucose, cortisol, insulin, pain, fatigue, nausea, grip strength, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second did not show any differences. No correlation was revealed between measured parameters and postoperative complications. Postoperative levels of IL-10, albumin, prealbumin, and TIBC may be used as determinants of surgical stress after colorectal surgery.
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Randomized, Multicenter, Phase II Study of CO-101 Versus Gemcitabine in Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Including a Prospective Evaluation of the Role of hENT1 in Gemcitabine or CO-101 Sensitivity.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Gemcitabine requires transporter proteins to cross cell membranes. Low expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1) may result in gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). CO-101, a lipid-drug conjugate of gemcitabine, was rationally designed to enter cells independently of hENT1. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether CO-101 improved survival versus gemcitabine in patients with metastatic PDAC (mPDAC) with low hENT1. The study also tested the hypothesis that gemcitabine is more active in patients with mPDAC tumors with high versus low hENT1 expression.
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Short and long-term mortality after appendectomy in Sweden 1987 to 2006. Influence of appendectomy diagnosis, sex, age, co-morbidity, surgical method, hospital volume, and time period. A national population-based cohort study.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Avoiding mortality is the ultimate goal when managing patients with suspected appendicitis. Previous studies have shown high mortality after negative appendectomy. This national cohort study analyzes short- and long-term mortality after appendectomy in relation to appendectomy diagnosis, age, co-morbidity, surgical method, hospital volume, and time period.
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Acute pancreatitis - costs for healthcare and loss of production.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Abstract Objective. Severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) can vary from a mild to a fulminant disease with high morbidity and mortality. Cost analysis has, however, hitherto been sparse. The aim of this study was to calculate the cost of acute pancreatitis, both including hospital costs and costs due to loss of production. Material and methods. All adult patients treated at Skane University Hospital, Lund, during 2009-2010, were included. A severity grading was conducted and cost analysis was performed on an individual basis. Results. Two hundred and fifty-two patients with altogether 307 admissions were identified. Mean age was 60 ± 19 years, and 121 patients (48%) were men. Severe AP (SAP) was diagnosed in 38 patients (12%). Thirteen patients (5%) died. Acute biliary pancreatitis was more costly than alcohol induced AP (p < 0.001). Total costs for treating mild AP (MAP) in patients ?65 years old was lower (p = 0.001) and costs for SAP was higher (p = 0.024), as compared to older patients. The overall hospital cost and cost for loss of production was per person in mean €5,100 ± 2,400 for MAP and €28,200 ± 38,100 for SAP (p < 0.001). The costs for treating AP during the two-year-long study period were in mean €9,762 ± 19,778 per patient. Extrapolated to a national perspective, the annual financial burden for AP in Sweden would be ? €38,500,000; corresponding to €4,100,000 per million inhabitants. Conclusions. The costs of treating AP are high, especially in severe cases with a long ICU stay. These results highlight the need to optimize care and continue the identification and focus on SAP, in order to try to limit organ failure and infectious complications.
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Comparison of MUC4 expression in primary pancreatic cancer and paired lymph node metastases.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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OBJECTIVE. Mucin 4 (MUC4) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but not in normal pancreatic tissue. MUC4 has a proposed role in pancreatic tumor progression and metastasis. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate MUC4 expression during PDAC metastasis by comparing the expression in the primary tumor and paired lymph node metastases from the same patient. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Surgical specimens from 17 cases of primary PDAC and paired lymph node metastases were immunohistochemically analyzed for MUC4 expression. The modified histochemical score (H-score) was used for staining assessment. RESULTS. Positive staining for MUC4 was detected in most primary and metastatic PDAC tumors (15/17 vs. 14/17). The concordance for MUC4 expression in primary tumors and corresponding lymph node metastases was 82%. In two cases, the primary tumor was MUC4-positive and the lymph node metastases were negative, while in one patient with a MUC4-negative primary tumor, the lymph node metastasis was positive. The distribution of H-score for expression of MUC4 significantly correlated (r = 0.615; p = 0.009) between primary tumors and paired metastatic lesions.
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Lipoxin A4 attenuation of endothelial inflammation response mimicking pancreatitis-induced lung injury.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Lipoxins (LXs) and their analogues are known to display potent anti-inflammatory actions. Previously, we reported that lipoxin A4 (LXA4) possessed powerful anti-inflammatory properties in acute pancreatitis in rats and that it may ameliorate the concomitant acute lung injury by reducing cytokine generation and inhibiting neutrophil activation. Considering that the vascular endothelium plays an important role during adherence, migration and activation of leukocytes, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of LXA4 on the inflammatory response induced by tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) and explore the potential mechanisms involved in these processes. We found that LXA4 markedly down-regulated the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), E-selectin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA, as well as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in TNF-?-exposed HPMECs. Moreover, LXA4 inhibited the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-?B/p65 (NF-?B/p65) and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in HPMECs following TNF-? stimulation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme, was up-regulated by LXA4 in both non- and TNF-?-stimulated HPMECs. In conclusion, the protective effects of LXA4 to ALI may be executed through inhibition inflammation pathways of NF-?B and p38 MAPK and up-regulation of cytoprotective HO-1.
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The role of antibiotic therapy in the management of acute appendicitis.
Curr Infect Dis Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Nonsurgical treatment with antibiotics has recently been proposed as the first line of treatment for noncomplicated appendicitis. This has met with considerable interest, illustrated by the number of reviews and meta-analyses, which exceed the number of original reports of the issue. The results in these studies are seriously biased due to inclusion of patients with resolving appendicitis. At a time when we need to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics in the struggle against the increasing rate of antibiotics resistance, there must be strong requirements of a proven effect and an improved cost-benefit ratio before antibiotics treatment is introduced for a new group of patients. These requirements have not yet been met for nonsurgical treatment with antibiotics for assumed uncomplicated appendicitis. Due to the high rate of spontaneous resolution, a randomized placebo-controlled trial is needed that can compare the efficiency of antibiotics treatment and expectant management in this group of patients. Antibiotics treatment, however, remains indicated for treatment of perforated appendicitis with localized abscess or phlegmone and in selected surgical high-risk patients.
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Gene polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase-12 and -13 and association with colorectal cancer in Swedish patients.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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It has been widely reported that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have fundamental roles in pathological processes in cancer through degradation of basal membranes and extracellular matrix. For MMP12 and MMP13, a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been detected -82A ?G (rs2276109) and -77A ?G (rs2252070), respectively. These SNPs are suggested to have an influence on different diseases. The present study evaluated the association between these SNPs in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and healthy controls.
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Epidemiology and trends of necrotizing enterocolitis in Sweden: 1987-2009.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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To investigate temporal, seasonal, and geographic variations in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and its relation to early infant survival in the Swedish population and in subgroups based on gestational age, birth weight, and gender.
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Metformin-mediated growth inhibition involves suppression of the IGF-I receptor signalling pathway in human pancreatic cancer cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Epidemiological studies have shown direct associations between type 2 diabetes and obesity, both conditions associated with hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia, and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Up to 80% of pancreatic cancer patients present with either new-onset type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance at the time of diagnosis. Recent population studies indicate that the incidence of pancreatic cancer is reduced among diabetics taking metformin. In this study, the effects of exposure of pancreatic cancer cells to high glucose levels on their growth and response to metformin were investigated.
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Experimental studies on treatment of pancreatic cancer with double-regulated duplicative adenovirus AdTPHre-hEndo carrying human endostatin gene.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Gene-virus targeted therapy is a promising new method of treating pancreatic cancer. To increase the efficacy and decrease the side-effect, we constructed a conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) expressing human endostatin, with a human Telomoerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) promoter for the regulation of the early stage of adenovirus expression of gene E1a and a Hypoxia Response Element (HRE) promoter to regulate the gene E1b.
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Artificial neural networks predict survival from pancreatic cancer after radical surgery.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are nonlinear pattern recognition techniques that can be used as a tool in medical decision making. The objective of this study was to develop an ANN model for predicting survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
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The efficiency of continuous regional intra-arterial infusion in the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Our aim was to investigate the efficiency of continuous regional intra-arterial infusion (CRAI) with antisecretory agents and antibiotics in the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis.
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CODUSA--customize optimal donor using simulated annealing in heart transplantation.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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In heart transplantation, selection of an optimal recipient-donor match has been constrained by the lack of individualized prediction models. Here we developed a customized donor-matching model (CODUSA) for patients requiring heart transplantations, by combining simulated annealing and artificial neural networks. Using this approach, by analyzing 59,698 adult heart transplant patients, we found that donor age matching was the variable most strongly associated with long-term survival. Female hearts were given to 21% of the women and 0% of the men, and recipients with blood group B received identical matched blood group in only 18% of best-case match compared with 73% for the original match. By optimizing the donor profile, the survival could be improved with 33 months. These findings strongly suggest that the CODUSA model can improve the ability to select optimal match and avoid worst-case match in the clinical setting. This is an important step towards personalized medicine.
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Controversial role of toll-like receptors in acute pancreatitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common clinical condition with an incidence of about 300 or more patients per million annually. About 10%-15% of patients will develop severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and of those, 10%-30% may die due to SAP-associated complications. Despite the improvements done in the diagnosis and management of AP, the mortality rate has not significantly declined during the last decades. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that seem to play a major role in the development of numerous diseases, which make these molecules attractive as potential therapeutic targets. TLRs are involved in the development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, a potentially lethal complication in SAP. In the present review, we explore the current knowledge about the role of different TLRs that have been described associated with AP. The main candidate for targeting seems to be TLR4, which recognizes numerous damage-associated molecular patterns related to AP. TLR2 has also been linked with AP, but there are only limited studies that exclusively studied its role in AP. There is also data suggesting that TLR9 may play a role in AP.
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Modelling the benefits of early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer using a biomarker signature.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival of 3-4%. This is mainly due to late diagnosis because of diffuse symptoms, where 80-85% of the patients are inoperable. Consequently, early diagnosis would be of significant benefit, resulting in a potential 5-year survival of 30-40%. However, new technologies must be carefully evaluated concerning effectiveness and healthcare costs. We have developed a framework for modelling cost and health effects from early detection of PC, which for the first time allowed us to analyse its cost-effectiveness. A probabilistic cohort model for estimating costs and quality adjusted life-years (QALY) arising from screening for PC, compared to a "wait-and-see"-approach, was designed. The test accuracy, Swedish survival and costs by tumour stage, expected life gain from early detection and pretest probabilities in risk groups, were retrieved from previous investigations. In a cohort of newly diagnosed diabetic patient (incidence 0.71%) the incremental cost per QALY gained (ICER) was €13,500, which is considered cost-effective in Europe. Results were mainly sensitive to the incidence with the ICER ranging from €315 to €204,000 (familial PC 35% and general population 0.046%, respectively). This is the first study focusing on clinical implementation of advanced testing and what is required for novel technologies in cancer care to be cost-effective. The model clearly demonstrated the potential of multiplexed proteomic-testing of PC and also identified the requirements for test accuracy. Consequently, it can serve as a model for assessing the possibilities to introduce advanced test platforms also for other cancer indications.
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Limiting factors for liver regeneration after a major hepatic resection for colorectal cancer metastases.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Chemotherapy before resection of colorectal metastases in the liver is extensively used and has been shown to induce histopathological changes in the liver parenchyma, although little is known about the effect of chemotherapy on liver regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine if pre-operative chemotherapy influences the regenerated liver volume after a major liver resection.
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Single-institution experience with solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2011
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Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare clinical entity. The objective of this study was to review a single institutions experience with this uncommon tumor, as well as review the literature.
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Fast-track programmes for hepatopancreatic resections: where do we stand?
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Fast-track (FT) programmes represent a series of multimodal concepts that may reduce surgical stress and speed up convalescence after surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate FT programmes for patients undergoing hepatopancreatic surgery.
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Establishment and assessments of a new model for the postoperative fatigue syndrome by major small intestinal resection in rats.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Postoperative fatigue syndrome (POFS) is a general and main complication after surgery. However, there is no stable and standardized animal model for POFS. The aim of the present study was to establish a rodent model of POFS by small intestinal resection, with POFS evaluated by acknowledged physical and behavioral methods.
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Pancreatic cancer, healthcare cost, and loss of productivity: a register-based approach.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Despite the fact that pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death, there is little empirical evidence on its direct healthcare costs and, especially, its indirect costs due to loss of production.
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The role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. It is characterized by a rapid disease progression, a highly invasive tumor phenotype, and frequently resistance to chemotherapy. Despite significant advances in diagnosis, staging, and surgical management of the disease during the past decade, prognosis of pancreatic cancer is still dismal.
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Causes of short-term mortality after appendectomy: a population-based case-controlled study.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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This case control study is a detailed analysis of the causes of death and the risk factors of short-term mortality after appendectomy.
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Proteome-based biomarkers in pancreatic cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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Pancreatic cancer, as a highly malignant cancer and the fourth cause of cancer-related death in world, is characterized by dismal prognosis, due to rapid disease progression, highly invasive tumour phenotype, and resistance to chemotherapy. Despite significant advances in treatment of the disease during the past decade, the survival rate is little improved. A contributory factor to the poor outcome is the lack of appropriate sensitive and specific biomarkers for early diagnosis. Furthermore, biomarkers for targeting, directing and assessing therapeutic intervention, as well as for detection of residual or recurrent cancer are also needed. Thus, the identification of adequate biomarkers in pancreatic cancer is of extreme importance. Recently, accompanying the development of proteomic technology and devices, more and more potential biomarkers have appeared and are being reported. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of proteome-based biomarkers in pancreatic cancer, including tissue, serum, juice, urine and cell lines. We also discuss the possible mechanism and prospects in the future. That information hopefully might be helpful for further research in the field.
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TLR4 dependent heparan sulphate-induced pancreatic inflammatory response is IRF3-mediated.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Degraded extracellular matrix can stimulate the innate immune system via the Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR4). In the pancreas, syndecan-anchored heparan sulphate (HS) on the ductal epithelium can be cleaved off its protein cores by the proteases (trypsin and elastase) and potentially activate TLR4 signalling.
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Prediction of severe acute pancreatitis at admission to hospital using artificial neural networks.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are non-linear pattern recognition techniques, which can be used as a tool in medical decision-making. The aim of this study was to construct and validate an ANN model for early prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP).
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Cystic pancreatic lesions: current evidence for diagnosis and treatment.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are detected at an increasing frequency due to an increased use and quality of abdominal imaging. There are well known differential diagnostic difficulties concerning these lesions. The aim is to review current literature on the diagnostic options and the following treatment for cystic lesions in the pancreas focusing on serous cystadenomas, primary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas and mucinous cystadenocarcinomas, as well as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, starting with excluding pseudocysts. A conservative approach is feasible in patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of an asymptomatic serous cystadenoma. Surgical management, as well as follow-up, is discussed for each of the types of neoplastic lesions, including an uncharacterized cyst, based on patient data, symptoms, serum analysis, cyst fluid analysis and morphological features. Aspects for future diagnostics and management of these neoplasia are commented upon.
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Tissue factor in predicted severe acute pancreatitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2010
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to study tissue factor (TF) in acute pancreatitis and evaluate the role of TF as a predictive marker of severity.
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Guidelenines in the management of obstructing cancer of the left colon: consensus conference of the world society of emergency surgery (WSES) and peritoneum and surgery (PnS) society.
World J Emerg Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2010
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Obstructive left colon carcinoma (OLCC) is a challenging matter in terms of obstruction release as well of oncological issues. Several options are available and no guidelines are established. The paper aims to generate evidenced based recommendations on management of OLCC.
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Soy isoflavone delays the progression of thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2010
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Our aim was to investigate the effect of soy isoflavone (SI) on liver fibrosis in a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced rat model.
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The handling of peripheral venous catheters--from non-compliance to evidence-based needs.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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To study nurses compliance to national guidelines (Sweden) for peripheral venous catheters and to establish the complication frequency connected to time in situ and bore size.
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Pancreatic function, quality of life and costs at long-term follow-up after acute pancreatitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2010
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To evaluate long-term endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, quality of life and health care costs after mild acute pancreatitis and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).
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The protective effects of Lipoxin A4 during the early phase of severe acute pancreatitis in rats.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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Our aim was to investigate the protective effects of a Lipoxin A(4) analogue (LXA4) in the early phase of acute pancreatitis in rats.
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Local administration of antibiotics by gentamicin-collagen sponge does not improve wound healing or reduce recurrence rate after pilonidal excision with primary suture: a prospective randomized controlled trial.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Excision and primary suture for pilonidal disease is associated with a high rate of wound infection and recurrences. This randomized, controlled study was designed to analyze the effect of local application of a gentamicin-containing collagen sponge (Collatamp(®)) in reducing the wound infection rate and recurrences after excision of pilonidal sinus and wound closure with primary midline suture.
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Fatal acute pancreatitis occurring outside of the hospital: clinical and social characteristics.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Mortality caused by acute pancreatitis in patients admitted to the hospital has been thoroughly investigated, but knowledge regarding outpatient fatalities is far from complete. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and clinical characteristics of patients who have died due to acute pancreatitis occurring outside the hospital.
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Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: diagnosis and management.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), characterized by intraductal papillary growth and thick mucin secretion, have increasingly been recognized. Despite modern preoperative evaluation, major difficulties still remain in distinguishing malignant invasive types from benign IPMNs. Following a PubMed database search, all relevant abstracts and articles on IPMN published in English and Chinese were reviewed. Main-duct and the mixed type IPMNs carry a higher risk of malignancy as compared with branch-duct type IPMNs. Treatment of branch-duct type IPMNs remains controversial. Once operation is indicated, intraoperative frozen section of margins plays an important role in the decision concerning the extent and type of surgery. Pancreatectomy, partly preserving both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, is advocated for most patients with IPMN, though total pancreatectomy may be necessary in some. Both for patients subjected to surgery and those only observed, IPMN patients need regular close follow-up to identify recurrence or progressive disease.
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Chronic pancreatitis: potential future interventions.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Chronic pancreatitis is a common disorder of which the underlying pathogenic mechanisms still are incompletely understood. In the last decade, increasing evidence has shown that activated pancreatic stellate cells play a key role in the fibrosis development associated with chronic pancreatitis as well as pancreatic cancer. During pancreatic injury or inflammation, quiescent stellate cells undergo a phenotypic transformation, characterized by smooth muscle alpha-actin expression and increased synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. Hitherto, specific therapies to prevent or reverse pancreatic fibrosis are unavailable. This review addresses current insights into pathological mechanisms underlying chronic pancreatitis and their applicability as concerns the development of potential future therapeutic approaches.
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Proposed protective mechanism of the pancreas in the rat.
J Inflamm (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Heparan sulphate is known to have various functions in the animal body, including surveillance of tissue integrity. Administered intraperitoneally, it induces a systemic inflammatory response syndrome and when given locally in the pancreas it initiates a protective inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms behind cell recruitment following intra-ductal infusion of heparan sulphate.
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Acute lung injury and ARDS in acute pancreatitis: mechanisms and potential intervention.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in acute pancreatitis still represents a substantial problem, with a mortality rate in the range of 30%-40%. The present review evaluates underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in both ALI and ARDS and potential clinical implications. Several mediators and pathophysiological pathways are involved during the different phases of ALI and ARDS. The initial exudative phase is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage, microvascular injury and influx of inflammatory cells. This phase is followed by a fibro-proliferative phase with lung repair, type II pneumocyte hypoplasia and proliferation of fibroblasts. Proteases derived from polymorphonuclear neutrophils, various pro-inflammatory mediators, and phospholipases are all involved, among others. Contributing factors that promote pancreatitis-associated ALI may be found in the gut and mesenteric lymphatics. There is a lack of complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms, and by improving our knowledge, novel tools for prevention and intervention may be developed, thus contributing to improved outcome.
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Pancreatic cancer: the role of pancreatic stellate cells in tumor progression.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive and highly lethal disease frequently characterized by a dense stromal or desmoplastic response. Accumulating evidence exists that tumor desmoplasia plays a central role in disease progression and that e.g. activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are responsible for the excess matrix production. The mechanisms underlying the tumor versus stroma interplay are complex. Pancreatic cancer cells release mitogenic and fibrogenic stimulants, such as transforming growth factor ?(1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), sonic hedgehog, galectin 3, endothelin 1 and serine protease inhibitor nexin 2, all of which may promote the activated PSC phenotype. Stellate cells in turn secrete various factors, including PDGF, stromal-derived factor 1, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, matrix metalloproteinases, small leucine-rich proteoglycans, periostin and collagen type I that mediate effects on tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. This review intends to shed light on the mechanisms by which PSCs in the stroma influence pancreatic cancer development. The increased understanding of this interaction will be of potential value in designing new modalities of targeted therapy. and IAP.
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Variation of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in eight strains of mice.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that genetic variations may play an important role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI models has been widely applied for pathophysiological and pharmacological research. In order to understand the variation of acute pulmonary reactions between mouse strains and find the optimal strain for target-oriented study, the present study investigated the alterations of acute lung hyperinflation, inflammation and injury in C57BL/6J, Balb/cJ, DBA/1J, CD-1, NMRI, DBA/2J, A/J and C3H/HeN mice after the intra-tracheal challenge with LPS. We found that LPS-induced ALI varied between measured variables, durations and strains. General score of LPS-induced acute lung hyperinflation, inflammation and edema followed the order CD-1, A/J, Balb/c, DBA/2J, C57BL/6J, DBA/1J, NMRI, C3H/HeN mice at 4h, and CD-1, C57BL/6J, Balb/c, C3H/HeN, NMRI, A/J, DBA/2J, DBA/1 mice at 24h. Thus, these data provide useful information to select sensitive or resistant strain mouse for understanding genetic variation of pathogenesis and screening of target-oriented drugs.
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Differentiated thyroid cancer in a Swedish county--long-term results and quality of life.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2010
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There is still no complete agreement about the proper treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
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Gastrointestinal complications after cardiac surgery - improved risk stratification using a new scoring model.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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Gastrointestinal (GI) complications are serious consequences of cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to develop, evaluate and validate a new risk score model for GI complications after cardiac surgery. The risk score model, named gastrointestinal complication score (GICS), was developed using prospectively collected data from 5593 patients who underwent 5636 cardiac surgical procedures between 1996 and 2001. The model was validated on 1031 cardiac surgery patients between 2005 and 2006. The scoring systems ability to predict GI complications was estimated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curves and Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Fifty GI complications were identified in 47 patients (0.8%) in the developmental data set and eight (0.8%) in the validation data set. The ROC area in the developmental data set was 0.81 with a good calibration estimated by Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P=0.89). In the validation data set, the area under the curve was 0.83. The estimated probability for the patient to develop a GI complication after cardiac surgery at a GICS >or=15 is >20% and at a GICS
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Systemic Th17-like cytokine pattern in gangrenous appendicitis but not in phlegmonous appendicitis.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2009
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Increasing circumstantial evidence suggests that not all patients with appendicitis will progress to perforation and that appendicitis that resolves may be a common event. Based on this theory and on indications of aberrant regulation of inflammation in gangrenous appendicitis, we hypothesized that phlegmonous and gangrenous appendicitis are different entities with divergent immunoregulation.
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Varying susceptibility of pulmonary cytokine production to lipopolysaccharide in mice.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model has been widely applied for pathophysiological and pharmacological research. The aim of present study is to understand the variation of acute pulmonary inflammation between mouse strains.
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Survey of the management of pancreatic pseudocysts in Sweden.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2009
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The management of pancreatic pseudocysts varies, based mainly on local traditions, resources and expertise. No prospective, randomized study has been done comparing different approaches to treatment. The aim of the present study was to identify current treatment strategies in Sweden.
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Non-operative management of blunt liver trauma: feasible and safe also in centres with a low trauma incidence.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
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Non-operative management (NOM) of blunt liver trauma is currently, if possible, the preferred treatment of choice. The present study evaluates the experience of blunt liver injury in adults in a Swedish university hospital.
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Potential effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activator on LPS-induced lung injury in rats.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Multiple factors contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), still requiring new therapeutic strategies and medications for the disease. The aim of the present study is to investigate the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic lung injury and hyperinflation and test therapeutic effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonist. Wister rats were challenged with intra-tracheal instillation of LPS at concentrations of 0.006, 0.060, 0.600, and 6.000 mg/ml per kg, twice a week, for 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. PPAR activator, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15D-PGJ2), or vehicle (PBS) was administered orally and daily at the dose of 1 and 10 mg/ml per kg in animals challenged with LPS or PBS at the dose of 0.060 mg/ml per kg body weight twice a week for 4 weeks. We found that intra-tracheal exposure of LPS resulted in a dose-dependent pattern of chronic lung hyperinflation and hypertrophy, increased alveolar enlargement, reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and elevated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and early changes of leukocyte influx and interferon (IFN)-gamma levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. PPAR-gamma agonist ameliorated these changes related with the dose used.LPS-induced lung disease model shows some similarities with human disease, and PPAR-gamma agonist maybe an alternative for COPD therapy.
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Treatment of acute pancreatitis: focus on medical care.
Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Acute pancreatitis has an incidence of about 300 per 1 million individuals per year, of which 10-15% of patients develop the severe form of the disease. Novel management options, which have the potential to improve outcome, include initial proper fluid resuscitation, which maintains microcirculation and thereby potentially decreases ischaemia and reperfusion injury. The traditional treatment concept in acute pancreatitis, fasting and parenteral nutrition, has been challenged and early initiation of enteral feeding in severe pancreatitis and oral intake in mild acute pancreatitis is both feasible and provides some benefits. There are at present no data supporting immunonutritional supplements and probiotics should be avoided in patients with acute pancreatitis. There is also no evidence of any benefits provided by prophylactic antibacterials in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis. A variety of specific medical interventions have been investigated (e.g. intense blood glucose monitoring by insulin) but none has become clinically useful. Lessons can probably be learned from critical care in general, but studies are needed to verify these interventions in acute pancreatitis.
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Appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and subsequent risk of ulcerative colitis: cohort studies in Sweden and Denmark.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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To determine whether the repeatedly observed low risk of ulcerative colitis after appendicectomy is related to the appendicectomy itself or the underlying morbidity, notably appendicitis or mesenteric lymphadenitis.
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Gemcitabine chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer: molecular mechanisms and potential solutions.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
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Ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma is associated with a very poor prognosis and most patients are given palliative care. Chemotherapy in the form of gemcitabine has been found to reduce disease-related pain, and the otherwise frequently occurring weight changes, to increase Karnofsky performance status and quality of life and has also resulted in a modest improvement in survival time. The intracellular uptake of gemcitabine is dependent on nucleoside transporters, predominantly human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT-1), which is over-expressed in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Cellular resistance to gemcitabine can be intrinsic or acquired during gemcitabine treatment. One of the mechanisms is a decrease in hENT-1 expression. Modifications of gemcitabine not rendering it dependent on the nucleoside transporter may be a successful future mode of chemotherapy treatment, and determination of the nucleoside receptor status at the time of diagnosis could potentially also contribute to a more targeted therapy in the future.
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Pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis: a comprehensive update and a look into the future.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Chronic pancreatitis is a relatively frequent condition usually caused by alcoholic abuse but also due to recurrent gallstone disease, metabolic endocrine disorders and haemochromatosis, among others. Specific types such as hereditary and autoimmune pancreatitis should be particularly kept in mind and emphasized, as they require specific treatment and attention. The possibility to identify gene mutations has also increased and this is likely to decrease the overall total number of "idiopathic" chronic pancreatitis cases. Pancreatic stellate cells have been identified as potential key players in the progression of chronic pancreatitis and the development of fibrogenesis, which are activated either during repeated attacks of necro-inflammation or directly by toxic factors. The inhibition or modulation of pancreatic stellate cells could represent a way of potential intervention in patients with chronic pancreatitis in the future.
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Pancreatic cancer - cost for overtreatment with gemcitabine.
Acta Oncol
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Gemcitabine has been the standard chemotherapeutic agent in pancreatic cancer. However, two-thirds of pancreatic tumors display low expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), which mediates cellular entry of the drug, and do not respond to gemcitabine therapy. The objective was to determine the costs of gemcitabine overtreatment and the cost-effectiveness of hENT1 testing using a Swedish pancreatic cancer cohort.
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Polysaccharide-K (PSK) increases p21(WAF/Cip1) and promotes apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.
Pancreatology
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Polysaccharide-K (PSK, Krestin(®)) is a natural remedy and one of the most commonly used medicinal mushroom extracts. It has been used as oral adjuvant treatment in cancer therapy in Japan and other Asian countries for more than 40 years. PSK is thought to be an immune modulator, however, its antitumor actions remain undefined. The aim of the present study was to investigate underlying mechanisms by which PSK exerts its antitumor effects on malignant epithelial cells.
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Positron emission tomography in malignancies of the liver, pancreas and biliary tract - indications and potential pitfalls.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
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Abstract Malignancies of the hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) system are relatively common and generally characterized by a dismal prognosis. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique that has emerged as an important modality in oncological decision-making. The principal radiopharmaceutical in PET imaging is the glucose analog (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, which is able to detect altered glucose metabolism in malignant tissue. PET is typically used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT), and previous studies have supported several uses of PET/CT in HPB malignancies, including staging, differential diagnostics and monitoring of treatment response and progress of disease. A review of PET/CT in the context of HPB malignancies will be presented, including indications and potential pitfalls.
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Enrichment of murine CD68+ CCR2+ and CD68+ CD206+ lung macrophages in acute pancreatitis-associated acute lung injury.
PLoS ONE
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Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the risk factors for developing this syndrome. Among the inflammatory cells, macrophages have a key role in determining the severity of the acute lung injury. In the lungs, macrophages constitute a heterogeneous cell population distributed in different compartments. Changes in not only the macrophage count, but also in their phenotype have been seen during the course of lung injury. A murine ductal ligation model of acute pancreatitis showed substantial morphological changes in the pancreas and lungs. Immunohistochemistry showed neutrophil recruitment into both organs after 9 hours and later on. F4/80(+) cells in the pancreas increased in the ligated animals, though there was not a significant difference in their number in the lungs as compared to sham operated animals. Flow cytometry analysis of lung macrophages demonstrated an enrichment of F4/80(-) CD68(+)CCR2(+) and F4/80(-) CD68(+)CD206(+) lung macrophages in ligated animals (AP) as compared to the sham operated group. The level of interleukin-6 in plasma increased 3 hours after ligation compared to the sham operated group, as a first indicator of a systemic inflammatory response.This study suggests a role for F4/80(-) CD68(+) macrophages in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in acute pancreatitis. Studying lung macrophages for different phenotypic markers, their polarization, activation and recruitment, in the context of acute lung injury, is a novel area to potentially identify interventions which may improve the outcome of acute lung injury.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.