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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded glomeruli suggests depletion of glomerular filtration barrier proteins in two-kidney one-clip hypertensive rats.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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It is well known that hypertension may cause glomerular damage, but the molecular mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood.
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Fibroblast ?11?1 integrin regulates tensional homeostasis in fibroblast/A549 carcinoma heterospheroids.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have previously shown that fibroblast expression of ?11?1 integrin stimulates A549 carcinoma cell growth in a xenograft tumor model. To understand the molecular mechanisms whereby a collagen receptor on fibroblast can regulate tumor growth we have used a 3D heterospheroid system composed of A549 tumor cells and fibroblasts without (?11+/+) or with a deletion (?11-/-) in integrin ?11 gene. Our data show that ?11-/-/A549 spheroids are larger than ?11+/+/A549 spheroids, and that A549 cell number, cell migration and cell invasion in a collagen I gel are decreased in ?11-/-/A549 spheroids. Gene expression profiling of differentially expressed genes in fibroblast/A549 spheroids identified CXCL5 as one molecule down-regulated in A549 cells in the absence of ?11 on the fibroblasts. Blocking CXCL5 function with the CXCR2 inhibitor SB225002 reduced cell proliferation and cell migration of A549 cells within spheroids, demonstrating that the fibroblast integrin ?11?1 in a 3D heterospheroid context affects carcinoma cell growth and invasion by stimulating autocrine secretion of CXCL5. We furthermore suggest that fibroblast ?11?1 in fibroblast/A549 spheroids regulates interstitial fluid pressure by compacting the collagen matrix, in turn implying a role for stromal collagen receptors in regulating tensional hemostasis in tumors. In summary, blocking stromal ?11?1 integrin function might thus be a stroma-targeted therapeutic strategy to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy.
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Arterial damage precedes the development of interstitial damage in the nonclipped kidney of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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The progression of damage in the renal cortex has not been investigated in the nonclipped kidney of the two-kidney, one-clip model of renal hypertension. In other hypertensive models, damage has been found to progress from the juxtamedullary cortex (JMC) and outward, which has been attributed to early vascular effects.
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Corticotropin-releasing factor reduces tumor volume, halts further growth, and enhances the effect of chemotherapy in 4T1 mammary carcinoma in mice.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The present study examines the effect of the endogenous neuroendoccrine factor, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), alone or in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), on 4T1 mammary tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. CRF has been detected in breast cancer tissues; however, the biological effects reported in the literature are sparse and variable. We found that exogenously administered CRF significantly reduced tumor growth without influencing angiogenesis or cell death. Furthermore, CRF reduced tumor interstitial fluid pressure (Pif) and potentiated the effect of 5-FU. These results show that CRF has antitumor effect on mammary carcinoma in mice.
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Single-channel blind estimation of arterial input function and tissue impulse response in DCE-MRI.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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Multipass dynamic MRI and pharmacokinetic modeling are used to estimate perfusion parameters of leaky capillaries. Curve fitting and nonblind deconvolution are the established methods to derive the perfusion estimates from the observed arterial input function (AIF) and tissue tracer concentration function. These nonblind methods are sensitive to errors in the AIF, measured in some nearby artery or estimated by multichannel blind deconvolution. Here, a single-channel blind deconvolution algorithm is presented, which only uses a single tissue tracer concentration function to estimate the corresponding AIF and tissue impulse response function. That way, many errors affecting these functions are reduced. The validity of the algorithm is supported by simulations and tests on real data from mouse. The corresponding nonblind and multichannel methods are also presented.
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Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition attenuates plasma volume loss and transvascular exchange in volume-expanded mice.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) with rolipram to increase vascular endothelial cAMP and stabilize the endothelial barrier would attenuate the action of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to increase vascular permeability to the plasma protein albumin after an acute plasma volume expansion. After rolipram pretreatment (8 mg (kg body wt)(-1), intraperitoneal, 30 min) more than 95% of the peak increase in plasma volume after volume expansion (4.5% bovine serum albumin, 114 ?l (g body wt)(-1) h(-1), 15 min) remained in the vascular space 75 min after the end of infusion, whereas only 67% of the fluid was retained in volume-expanded animals with no rolipram pretreatment. Rolipram significantly decreased 30 min fluorescently labelled albumin clearance (?l (g dry wt)(-1)) relative to untreated volume-expanded controls in skin (e.g. back, 10.4 ± 1.6?vs. 19.5 ± 3.6,?P?= 0.04), muscle (e.g. hamstring, 15.0 ± 1.9?vs.?20.8 ± 1.4,?P?= 0.04) and in colon, caecum, and rectum (average reduction close to 50%). The mass of muscle and skin tissue accounted for 70% of volume-expansion-dependent albumin shifts from plasma to interstitium. The results are consistent with observations that the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram attenuates ANP-induced increases in vascular permeability after infusion of exogenous ANP and observations of elevated central venous pressure after a similar volume expansion in mice with selective deletion of the endothelial ANP receptor. These observations may form the basis for new strategies to retain intravenous fluid containing macromolecules.
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Targeting the NG2/CSPG4 proteoglycan retards tumour growth and angiogenesis in preclinical models of GBM and melanoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Aberrant expression of the progenitor marker Neuron-glia 2 (NG2/CSPG4) or melanoma proteoglycan on cancer cells and angiogenic vasculature is associated with an aggressive disease course in several malignancies including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and melanoma. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of NG2 mediated malignant progression and its potential as a therapeutic target in clinically relevant GBM and melanoma animal models. Xenografting NG2 overexpressing GBM cell lines resulted in increased growth rate, angiogenesis and vascular permeability compared to control, NG2 negative tumours. The effect of abrogating NG2 function was investigated after intracerebral delivery of lentivirally encoded shRNAs targeting NG2 in patient GBM xenografts as well as in established subcutaneous A375 melanoma tumours. NG2 knockdown reduced melanoma proliferation and increased apoptosis and necrosis. Targeting NG2 in two heterogeneous GBM xenografts significantly reduced tumour growth and oedema levels, angiogenesis and normalised vascular function. Vascular normalisation resulted in increased tumour invasion and decreased apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that NG2 promotes tumour progression by multiple mechanisms and represents an amenable target for cancer molecular therapy.
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Longitudinal investigation of permeability and distribution of macromolecules in mouse malignant transformation using PET.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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We apply positron emission tomography (PET) to elucidate changes in nanocarrier extravasation during the transition from premalignant to malignant cancer, providing insight into the use of imaging to characterize early cancerous lesions and the utility of nanoparticles in early disease.
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Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition attenuates atrial natriuretic peptide-induced vascular hyperpermeability and loss of plasma volume.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2010
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Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) to increase endothelial cAMP and stabilize the endothelial barrier attenuates acute inflammatory increases in vascular permeability.We extended this approach to attenuate physiological increases in vascular permeability in response to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which acts with the kidney to regulate plasma volume. We measured blood-to-tissue albumin clearance and changes in plasma volume in isoflurane-anaesthetized mice (C57BL/6J) pre-treated with rolipram (8 mg kg(-1) I.P., 30 min). Rolipram significantly reduced albumin permeability, measured using a dual-label fluorescence method, in skin and skeletal muscle compared with ANP alone (500 ng kg(-1) min(-1)). Skin and muscle tissue accounted for 70% of the reduction in whole body albumin clearance taking into account albumin clearance in gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, heart and kidney. The action of ANP and rolipram to modify albumin clearances in duodenum and jejunum could be accounted for by local increases in vascular perfusion to increase surface area for exchange. ANP increased haematocrit from 40.6% to 46.8%, corresponding to an average loss of 22% plasma fluid volume (227 ?l), and this was almost completely reversed with rolipram. Renal water excretion accounted for less than 30% of plasma fluid loss indicating that reduced albumin permeability and reduced filtration into vasodilated GI tissue were the predominant actions of PDE4 inhibition. Similar fluid retention was measured in mice with endothelial-restricted deletion of the guanylyl cyclase-A receptor for ANP. Stabilizing the endothelial barrier to offset ANP-induced increases in vascular permeability may be part of a strategy to maintain plasma volume.
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Transcapillary exchange: role and importance of the interstitial fluid pressure and the extracellular matrix.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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This review will summarize current knowledge on the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in general and on the interstitial fluid pressure (P(if)) in particular with regard to their importance in transcapillary exchange. The fluid volume in the interstitial space is normally regulated within narrow limits by automatic re-adjustment of the interstitial hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures in response to perturbations in capillary filtration and by the lymphatics. Contrary to this commonly accepted view, P(if) can become an active force and create a fluid flux across the capillaries in several inflammatory reactions and trauma situations rather than limit the changes occurring. The molecular mechanisms involved in the lowering of P(if) include the release of cellular tension exerted on the collagen and microfibril networks in the connective tissue via the collagen-binding beta(1)-integrins, thereby allowing the glycosaminoglycan ground substance, which is normally underhydrated, to expand and take up fluid. Several growth factors and cytokines, including the platelet-derived growth factor BB, are able to reverse a lowering of P(if) and restore the normal compaction of the ECM. The magnitude of the lowering of P(if) varies with the inflammatory response. In several inflammatory reactions, a lowering of P(if) to -5 to -10 mmHg is seen, which will increase capillary filtration by 10-20 times since the normal capillary filtration pressure is usually 0.5-1 mmHg (skin and skeletal muscle). Unless this lowering of P(if) is taken into account, the enhanced solute flux resulting from an inflammatory response will be ascribed to an increased capillary permeability.
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Atrial natriuretic peptide modulation of albumin clearance and contrast agent permeability in mouse skeletal muscle and skin: role in regulation of plasma volume.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) via its guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor participates in regulation of arterial blood pressure and vascular volume. Previous studies demonstrated that concerted renal diuretic/natriuretic and endothelial permeability effects of ANP cooperate in intravascular volume regulation. We show that the microvascular endothelial contribution to the hypovolaemic action of ANP can be measured by the magnitude of the ANP-induced increase in blood-to-tissue albumin transport, measured as plasma albumin clearance corrected for intravascular volume change, relative to the corresponding increase in ANP-induced renal water excretion. We used a two-tracer method with isotopically labelled albumin to measure clearances in skin and skeletal muscle of: (i) C57BL6 mice; (ii) mice with endothelium-restricted deletion of GC-A (floxed GC-A x tie2-Cre: endothelial cell (EC) GC-A knockout (KO)); and (iii) control littermates (floxed GC-A mice with normal GC-A expression levels). Comparison of albumin clearances in hypervolaemic EC GC-A KO mice with normovolaemic littermates demonstrated that skeletal muscle albumin clearance with ANP treatment accounts for at most 30% of whole body clearance required for ANP to regulate plasma volume. Skin microcirculation responded to ANP similarly. Measurements of permeability to a high molecular mass contrast agent (35 kD Gadomer) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) enabled repeated measures in individual animals and confirmed small increases in muscle and skin microvascular permeability after ANP. These quantitative methods will enable further evaluation of the contribution of ANP-dependent microvascular beds (such as gastro-intestinal tract) to plasma volume regulation.
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Mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthesis enzyme EXT1 influences growth factor signaling and fibroblast interactions with the extracellular matrix.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
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Heparan sulfate (HS) chains bind and modulate the signaling efficiency of many ligands, including members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and platelet-derived growth factor families. We previously reported the structure of HS synthesized by embryonic fibroblasts from mice with a gene trap mutation of Ext1 that encodes a glycosyltransferase involved in HS chain elongation. The gene trap mutation results in low expression of Ext1, and, as a consequence, HS chain length is substantially reduced. In the present study, Ext1 mutant and wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts were analyzed for the functional consequences of the Ext1 mutation for growth factor signaling and interaction with the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in response to FGF2 stimulation was markedly decreased in the Ext1 mutant fibroblasts, whereas neither PDGF-BB nor FGF10 signaling was significantly affected. Furthermore, Ext1 mutants displayed reduced ability to attach to collagen I and to contract collagen lattices, even though no differences in the expression of collagen-binding integrins were observed. Reintroduction of Ext1in the Ext1 mutant fibroblasts rescued HS chain length, FGF2 signaling, and the ability of the fibroblasts to contract collagen. These data suggest that the length of the HS chains is a critical determinant of HS-protein interactions and emphasize the essential role of EXT1 in providing specific binding sites for growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins.
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Combined anti-angiogenic therapy targeting PDGF and VEGF receptors lowers the interstitial fluid pressure in a murine experimental carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Elevation of the interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) of carcinoma is an obstacle in treatment of tumors by chemotherapy and correlates with poor drug uptake. Previous studies have shown that treatment with inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling lowers the IFP of tumors and improve chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of PDGFR and VEGFR inhibitors could further reduce the IFP of KAT-4 human carcinoma tumors. The tumor IFP was measured using the wick-in-needle technique. The combination of STI571 and PTK/ZK gave an additive effect on the lowering of the IFP of KAT-4 tumors, but the timing of the treatment was crucial. The lowering of IFP following combination therapy was accompanied by vascular remodeling and decreased vascular leakiness. The effects of the inhibitors on the therapeutic efficiency of Taxol were investigated. Whereas the anti-PDGF and anti-VEGF treatment did not significantly inhibit tumor growth, the inhibitors enhanced the effect of chemotherapy. Despite having an additive effect in decreasing tumor IFP, the combination therapy did not further enhance the effect of chemotherapy. Simultaneous targeting of VEGFR and PDGFR kinase activity may be a useful strategy to decrease tumor IFP, but the timing of the inhibitors should be carefully determined.
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Hyperoxia increases the uptake of 5-fluorouracil in mammary tumors independently of changes in interstitial fluid pressure and tumor stroma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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Hypoxia is associated with increased resistance to chemo- and radiation-therapy. Hyperoxic treatment (hyperbaric oxygen) has previously been shown to potentiate the effect of some forms of chemotherapy, and this has been ascribed to enhanced cytotoxicity or neovascularisation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether hyperoxia also enhances any actual uptake of 5FU (5-fluorouracil) into the tumor tissue and if this can be explained by changes in the interstitium and extracellular matrix.
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Edema and fluid dynamics in connective tissue remodelling.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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The review describes the role of loose connective tissues with focus on transcapillary exchange and edema formation with relevance for inflammation, fibrosis and tumors. Based on studies in these tissues, comparisons are made to the fibrotic processes in the heart.
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Hyperoxic treatment induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in a rat adenocarcinoma model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Tumor hypoxia is relevant for tumor growth, metabolism and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We report that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment induced mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in a dimethyl-alpha-benzantracene induced mammary rat adenocarcinoma model, and the MET was associated with extensive coordinated gene expression changes and less aggressive tumors. One group of tumor bearing rats was exposed to HBO (2 bar, pO(2) = 2 bar, 4 exposures à 90 minutes), whereas the control group was housed under normal atmosphere (1 bar, pO(2) = 0.2 bar). Treatment effects were determined by assessment of tumor growth, tumor vascularisation, tumor cell proliferation, cell death, collagen fibrils and gene expression profile. Tumor growth was significantly reduced (approximately 16%) after HBO treatment compared to day 1 levels, whereas control tumors increased almost 100% in volume. Significant decreases in tumor cell proliferation, tumor blood vessels and collagen fibrils, together with an increase in cell death, are consistent with tumor growth reduction and tumor stroma influence after hyperoxic treatment. Gene expression profiling showed that HBO induced MET. In conclusion, hyperoxia induced MET with coordinated expression of gene modules involved in cell junctions and attachments together with a shift towards non-tumorigenic metabolism. This leads to more differentiated and less aggressive tumors, and indicates that oxygen per se might be an important factor in the "switches" of EMT and MET in vivo. HBO treatment also attenuated tumor growth and changed tumor stroma, by targeting the vascular system, having anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects.
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Skin penetration time-profiles for continuous 810?nm and Superpulsed 904?nm lasers in a rat model.
Photomed Laser Surg
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the rat skin penetration abilities of two commercially available low-level laser therapy (LLLT) devices during 150?sec of irradiation.
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Fibroblast EXT1-levels influence tumor cell proliferation and migration in composite spheroids.
PLoS ONE
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Stromal fibroblasts are important determinants of tumor cell behavior. They act to condition the tumor microenvironment, influence tumor growth, support tumor angiogenesis and affect tumor metastasis. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans, present both on tumor and stromal cells, interact with a large number of ligands including growth factors, their receptors, and structural components of the extracellular matrix. Being ubiquitously expressed in the tumor microenvironment heparan sulfate proteoglycans are candidates for playing central roles in tumor-stroma interactions. The objective of this work was to investigate the role of heparan sulfate expressed by stromal fibroblasts in modulating the growth of tumor cells and in controlling the interstitial fluid pressure in a 3-D model.
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Increased fibrosis and interstitial fluid pressure in two different types of syngeneic murine carcinoma grown in integrin ?3-subunit deficient mice.
PLoS ONE
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Stroma properties affect carcinoma physiology and direct malignant cell development. Here we present data showing that ?(V)?(3) expressed by stromal cells is involved in the control of interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), extracellular volume (ECV) and collagen scaffold architecture in experimental murine carcinoma. IFP was elevated and ECV lowered in syngeneic CT26 colon and LM3 mammary carcinomas grown in integrin ?(3)-deficient compared to wild-type BALB/c mice. Integrin ?(3)-deficiency had no effect on carcinoma growth rate or on vascular morphology and function. Analyses by electron microscopy of carcinomas from integrin ?(3)-deficient mice revealed a coarser and denser collagen network compared to carcinomas in wild-type littermates. Collagen fibers were built from heterogeneous and thicker collagen fibrils in carcinomas from integrin ?(3)-deficient mice. The fibrotic extracellular matrix (ECM) did not correlate with increased macrophage infiltration in integrin ?(3)-deficient mice bearing CT26 tumors, indicating that the fibrotic phenotype was not mediated by increased inflammation. In conclusion, we report that integrin ?(3)-deficiency in tumor stroma led to an elevated IFP and lowered ECV that correlated with a more fibrotic ECM, underlining the role of the collagen network for carcinoma physiology.
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Ultrasound increases nanoparticle delivery by reducing intratumoral pressure and increasing transport in epithelial and epithelial-mesenchymal transition tumors.
Cancer Res.
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Acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) tumor phenotype is associated with impaired chemotherapeutic delivery and a poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the application of therapeutic ultrasound methods available in the clinic to increase nanotherapeutic particle accumulation in epithelial and EMT tumors by labeling particles with a positron emission tomography tracer. Epithelial tumors were highly vascularized with tight cell-cell junctions, compared with EMT tumors where cells displayed an irregular, elongated shape with loosened cell-cell adhesions and a reduction in E-cadherin and cytokeratins 8/18 and 19. Without ultrasound, the accumulation of liposomal nanoparticles administered to tumors in vivo was approximately 1.5 times greater in epithelial tumors than EMT tumors. When ultrasound was applied, both nanoaccumulation and apparent tumor permeability were increased in both settings. Notably, ultrasound effects differed with thermal and mechanical indices, such that increasing the thermal ultrasound dose increased nanoaccumulation in EMT tumors. Taken together, our results illustrate how ultrasound can be used to enhance nanoparticle accumulation in tumors by reducing their intratumoral pressure and increasing their vascular permeability.
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Gene expression in tumor cells and stroma in dsRed 4T1 tumors in eGFP-expressing mice with and without enhanced oxygenation.
BMC Cancer
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The tumor microenvironment is pivotal in tumor progression. Thus, we aimed to develop a mammary tumor model to elucidate molecular characteristics in the stroma versus the tumor cell compartment by global gene expression. Secondly, since tumor hypoxia influences several aspects of tumor pathophysiology, we hypothesized that hyperoxia might have an inhibitory effect on tumor growth per se. Finally, we aimed to identify differences in gene expression and key molecular mechanisms, both in the native state and following treatment.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.