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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
FADD is upregulated in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.
Neuroimmunomodulation
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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To elucidate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor signal transduction in multiple sclerosis (MS).
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Major cardiac surgery induces an increase in sex steroids in prepubertal children.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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While the neuroprotective benefits of estrogen and progesterone in critical illness are well established, the data regarding the effects of androgens are conflicting. Surgical repair of congenital heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but there are scant data regarding the postoperative metabolism of sex steroids in this setting. The objective of this prospective observational study was to compare the postoperative sex steroid patterns in pediatric patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (MCS) versus those undergoing less intensive non-cardiac surgery. Urinary excretion rates of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen metabolites (?g/mmol creatinine/m(2) body surface area) were determined in 24-h urine samples before and after surgery using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 29 children undergoing scheduled MCS and in 17 control children undergoing conventional non-cardiac surgery. Eight of the MCS patients had Downs syndrome. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the groups. Seven patients from the MCS group showed multi-organ dysfunction after surgery. Before surgery, the median concentrations of 17?-estradiol, pregnanediol, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were (control/MCS) 0.1/0.1 (NS), 12.4/11.3 (NS), 4.7/4.4 (NS), and 2.9/1.1 (p=0.02). Postoperatively, the median delta 17?-estradiol, delta pregnanediol, delta DHT, and delta DHEA were (control/MCS) 0.2/6.4 (p=0.0002), -3.2/23.4 (p=0.013), -0.6/3.7 (p=0.0004), and 0.5/4.2 (p=0.004). Postoperative changes did not differ according to sex. We conclude that MCS, but not less intensive non-cardiac surgery, induced a distinct postoperative increase in sex steroid levels. These findings suggest that sex steroids have a role in postoperative metabolism following MCS in prepubertal children.
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Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone on proopiomelanocortin derivatives and monocytic HLA-DR expression in patients with septic shock.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Little is known about interactions between immune and neuro-endocrine systems in patients with septic shock. We therefore evaluated whether the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and/or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derivatives [ACTH, ?-endorphin (?-END), ?-lipotropin (?-LPH), ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) or N-acetyl-?-END (Nac-?-END)] have any influences on monocyte deactivation as a major factor of immunosuppression under septic shock conditions. Sixteen patients with septic shock were enrolled in a double-blind, cross-over and placebo controlled clinical study; 0.5?g/(kgbodyweighth) CRH (or placebo) were intravenously administered for 24h. Using flow cytometry we investigated the immunosuppression in patients as far as related to the loss of leukocyte surface antigen-DR expression on circulating monocytes (mHLA-DR). ACTH, ?-END immunoreacive material (IRM), ?-LPH IRM, ?-MSH and Nac-?-END IRM as well as TNF-? and mHLA-DR expression were determined before, during and after treatment with CRH (or placebo). A significant correlation between plasma concentration of ?-MSH and mHLA-DR expression and an inverse correlation between mHLA-DR expression and TNF-? plasma level were found. Additionally, a significant increase of mHLA-DR expression was observed 16h after starting the CRH infusion; 8h later, the mHLA-DR expression had decreased again. Our results indicate that the up-regulation of mHLA-DR expression after CRH infusion is not dependent on the release of POMC derivatives. From the correlation between plasma concentration of ?-MSH and mHLA-DR expression, we conclude that in patients with septic shock the down-regulation of mHAL-DR expression is accompanied by the loss of monocytic release of ?-MSH into the cardiovascular compartment.
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TRAF2 is upregulated in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Neuroimmunomodulation
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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To elucidate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor signal transduction in multiple sclerosis (MS).
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Hemodynamic actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin derivatives in septic patients.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derivatives and mRNA of POMC have been detected in cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Increased plasma levels of POMC derivatives have been found in septic patients during cardiovascular deregulation; therefore, we evaluated whether corticotroph-type (ACTH, ?-endorphin, ?-lipotropin) or melanotroph-type (?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and N-acetyl-?-END) POMC derivatives have influences on patients hemodynamics during sepsis. Seventeen septic patients were monitored by pulmonary artery catheter and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) tests were performed by intravenous administration of 100 ?g CRH. Before, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after CRH administration, hemodynamic variables were measured, and plasma concentrations of POMC derivatives were determined. After CRH administration, heart rate, cardiac index, and stroke index increased, and the systemic vascular resistance index decreased; moreover, a correlation between ACTH concentration and stroke index as well as an inverse correlation between (?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone concentration and systemic vascular resistance index was observed. CRH and ACTH may have opposite effects on the blood pressure (mean arterial pressure). Immediately after CRH injection mean arterial pressure decreased. ACTH (in contrast to ?-endorphin or ?-lipotropin), released into the cardiovascular compartment 15 minutes after CRH injection, might have raised mean arterial pressure as compatible with the correlation between ACTH levels and stroke index. (?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone appears to have a vasodilative effect during sepsis.
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Coronary stenting before coronary artery bypass graft surgery in diabetic patients does not increase the perioperative risk of surgery.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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A negative relationship between coronary stenting before coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and the perioperative mortality and morbidity has been shown in diabetic patients. We tried to assess this relationship in a 2-institution database.
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Impact of maintenance immunosuppressive regimens--balance between graft protective suppression of immune functions and a near physiological immune response.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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The Symphony study showed superior 1-year kidney graft outcome in patients on immunosuppression with tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (Tacr/MMF). To analyze whether differences in clinical outcome between maintenance regimens may be explained by their impact on clinically relevant immune parameters, we assessed CD4 helper activity, immunoglobulin-secreting cell (ISC) formation, neopterin, sCD30, and intracellular cytokine production in a prospective study in 77 renal transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine A/azathioprine (CsA/Aza), CsA/MMF, Tacr/Aza or Tacr/MMF at 2 years post-transplant. Tacr- compared with CsA-based immunosuppression was independently associated with increased IL-2 (P<0.0001, CD4 cells; P=0.014, CD8 cells) and CD4 cell IL-4 responses (P=0.046; stepwise logistic regression) resulting in physiological responses in Tacr/Aza patients as compared with 25 healthy controls. MMF versus Aza treatment was proven to be an independent variable associated with suppression of CD4 cell IL-10 responses (P=0.008), B-cell IL-6R expression (P<0.0001) and ISC formation [P=0.020, staphylococcus cowan strain I (SAC I); P=0.021, pokeweed mitogen (PWM)]. Our data suggest that Tacr/MMF had the most effective impact on graft protective Th2 responses (enhanced CD4 cell IL-4 by Tacr, decreased CD4 cell IL-10 responses by MMF) and suppression of B-cell functions (MMF), whereas Tacr/Aza was associated with physiological IL-2 and IL-4 and stronger humoral responses which may reduce the risk of infectious disease complications.
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Dose escalation improves therapeutic outcome: post hoc analysis of data from a 12-week, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group trial of trospium chloride in patients with urinary urge incontinence.
BMC Urol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Flexible dosing of anticholinergics used for overactive bladder (OAB) treatment is a useful strategy in clinical practice for achieving a maximum effective and maximum tolerated level of therapeutic benefit. In this post hoc analysis we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of trospium chloride treatment for urinary urge incontinence (UUI) with focus on flexible dosing.
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Safety and efficacy of sertaconazole nitrate cream 2% in the treatment of tinea pedis interdigitalis: a subgroup analysis.
Cutis
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Sertaconazole nitrate is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent indicated in the United States for the treatment of tinea pedis interdigitalis. The objective of this subgroup analysis was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sertaconazole nitrate cream 2%, specifically in participants with tinea pedis interdigitalis (ie, fungal skin disease of the toe web) of dermatophyte origin. A total of 92 participants were included in this analysis. The primary end points were eradication of the pathogen (confirmed by fungal culture results) and reduction in total clinical score (TCS) of at least 2 points. Secondary end points included reducing signs and symptoms and reporting adverse events (AEs). After 4 weeks of treatment, 88.8% (79/89) of evaluable participants achieved success on the primary end points. Most participants also demonstrated substantial improvement in signs and symptoms after 4 weeks of treatment: 63.7% (58/91) were free of erythema, 33.0% (30/91) were free of desquamation, and 91.2% (83/91) were free of itch. The rate of reported AEs was low (8.7% [8/92]), and none were considered serious. These findings indicate that sertaconazole nitrate cream 2% is highly safe and effective in the treatment of tinea pedis interdigitalis.
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Maturation of adrenal function determined by urinary glucocorticoid steroid excretion rates in preterm infants of more than 30 weeks of gestational age.
Neonatology
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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Data on the adrenal stress response of preterm infants between 30 and 36 weeks are inconsistent.
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Trospium chloride and oxybutynin hydrochloride in a german study of adults with urinary urge incontinence: results of a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, flexible-dose noninferiority trial.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2009
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The aims of this study were to determine whether oral trospium chloride is noninferior to oxy-butynin for urinary urge incontinence and to evaluate its efficacy, tolerability, and health-related quality of life parameters.
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The interleukin-4 -34TT and -590TT genotype is correlated with increased expression and protein production in aggressive periodontitis.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2009
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Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a severe periodontal disease characterized by rapid destruction of the tissues supporting the teeth in otherwise healthy individuals. The frequency of the interleukin-4 homozygous -34TT and -590TT genotype was increased in patients in comparison with controls. This study aimed to test the functional effect of this specific genotype in AgP patients by analyzing gene expression of IL-4 and STAT6, and protein concentration of IL-4, in activated CD4+ T cells. Results revealed an increased IL-4 and STAT6 expression and IL-4 production in the cells of the patients who were homozygous for the -34T and -590T alleles in comparison with the patients who were homozygous for the -34C and -590C alleles (p<0.05). These findings demonstrate that the IL-4 -34TT and -590TT genotype has a functional effect on T helper (Th) cells of patients with AgP, inducing increased expression of IL-4 and STAT6, and increased production of IL-4.
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Release of melanotroph- and corticotroph-type proopiomelanocortin derivatives into blood after administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone in patients with septic shock without adrenocortical insufficiency.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2009
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The aim of the study was to assess the adequacy of pituitary function by determining the plasma concentrations of corticotroph-type (corticotropin, beta-endorphin immunoreactive material [beta-END IRM], authentic beta-END, and beta-lipotropin IRM) as well as melanotroph-type (alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone [alpha-MSH] and N-acetyl-beta-END [Nac-beta-END] IRM) proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derivatives in patients under septic shock upon administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). The objectives were to assess whether an insufficient release of corticotroph- or melanotroph-type POMC derivatives from the pituitary into the cardiovascular compartment correlates with the 28-day mortality rate. Seventeen patients with septic shock but without adrenocortical insufficiency and 16 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study, and CRH stimulation tests were performed with an i.v. bolus injection of 100 microg human CRH. After treatment with CRH, plasma concentrations of corticotroph-type POMC derivatives increased in survivors and nonsurvivors, melanotroph-type POMC derivatives such as alpha-MSH or Nac-beta-END IRM increased only in survivors in contrast to nonsurvivors. The release of alpha-MSH and Nac-beta-END IRM was suppressed by dexamethasone in survivors but not in nonsurvivors. In patients with septic shock, the response of the pituitary to CRH stimulation in terms of alpha-MSH or Nac-beta-END IRM release was impaired in nonsurvivors compared with survivors or controls. Reduced responses of alpha-MSH or Nac-beta-END IRM to CRH and the invalid suppression by dexamethasone reflect a state of dysfunction of the melanotroph-type POMC system in nonsurvivors. Considering anticytokine and anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-MSH, this dysfunction may increase the risk of death in patients with septic shock.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.