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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
HIV-1 Infection of Macrophages Dysregulates Innate Immune Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Inhibition of Interleukin-10.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) both target macrophages, which are key cells in inflammatory responses and their resolution. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 may modulate macrophage responses to coinfection with Mtb. HIV-1 caused exaggerated proinflammatory responses to Mtb that supported enhanced virus replication, and were associated with deficient stimulus-specific induction of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 and attenuation of mitogen-activated kinase signaling downstream of Toll-like receptor 2 and dectin-1 stimulation. Our in vitro data were mirrored by lower IL-10 and higher proinflammatory IL-1? in airway samples from HIV-1-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis compared with those with non-tuberculous respiratory tract infections. Single-round infection of macrophages with HIV-1 was sufficient to attenuate IL-10 responses, and antiretroviral treatment of replicative virus did not affect this phenotype. We propose that deficient homeostatic IL-10 responses may contribute to the immunopathogenesis of active tuberculosis and propagation of virus infection in HIV-1/Mtb coinfection.
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Diagnosis and subtyping of de novo and relapsed mediastinal lymphomas by endobronchial ultrasound needle aspiration.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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The current management of lymphoma requires accurate diagnosis and subtyping of de novo lymphoma and of relapsed or refractory lymphoma in known cases. The role of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in the clinical management of lymphomas is unclear.
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No impact of rifamycin selection on tuberculosis treatment outcome in HIV coinfected patients.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Rifabutin has been substituted for rifampicin when treating tuberculosis (TB)/HIV coinfection. However, despite reports of anti-TB treatment failure and acquired rifamycin resistance, long-term clinical outcome data are lacking. Observational analyses performed in a UK TB/HIV cohort demonstrated no difference in severe adverse events, anti-TB treatment completion, relapse frequency or subsequent rifamycin resistance when rifampicin and rifabutin were compared, using different combinations of antiretroviral therapy. Our data support the wider use of rifabutin in TB/HIV coinfection.
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Utility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in patients with tuberculous intrathoracic lymphadenopathy: a multicentre study.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has emerged as an important tool for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer but its role in the diagnosis of tuberculous intrathoracic lymphadenopathy has not been established. The aim of this study was to describe the diagnostic utility of EBUS-TBNA in patients with intrathoracic lymphadenopathy due to tuberculosis (TB).
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Screening for EGFR and KRAS mutations in endobronchial ultrasound derived transbronchial needle aspirates in non-small cell lung cancer using COLD-PCR.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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EGFR mutations correlate with improved clinical outcome whereas KRAS mutations are associated with lack of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is being increasingly used in the management of NSCLC. Co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (COLD-PCR) is a sensitive assay for the detection of genetic mutations in solid tumours. This study assessed the feasibility of using COLD-PCR to screen for EGFR and KRAS mutations in cytology samples obtained by EBUS-TBNA in routine clinical practice. Samples obtained from NSCLC patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA were evaluated according to our standard clinical protocols. DNA extracted from these samples was subjected to COLD-PCR to amplify exons 18-21 of EGFR and exons two and three of KRAS followed by direct sequencing. Mutation analysis was performed in 131 of 132 (99.3%) NSCLC patients (70F/62M) with confirmed lymph node metastases (94/132 (71.2%) adenocarcinoma; 17/132 (12.8%) squamous cell; 2/132 (0.15%) large cell neuroendocrine; 1/132 (0.07%) large cell carcinoma; 18/132 (13.6%) NSCL-not otherwise specified (NOS)). Molecular analysis of all EGFR and KRAS target sequences was achieved in 126 of 132 (95.5%) and 130 of 132 (98.4%) of cases respectively. EGFR mutations were identified in 13 (10.5%) of fully evaluated cases (11 in adenocarcinoma and two in NSCLC-NOS) including two novel mutations. KRAS mutations were identified in 23 (17.5%) of fully analysed patient samples (18 adenocarcinoma and five NSCLC-NOS). We conclude that EBUS-TBNA of lymph nodes infiltrated by NSCLC can provide sufficient tumour material for EGFR and KRAS mutation analysis in most patients, and that COLD-PCR and sequencing is a robust screening assay for EGFR and KRAS mutation analysis in this clinical context.
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MMP-1 drives immunopathology in human tuberculosis and transgenic mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis can cause lung tissue damage to spread, but the mechanisms driving this immunopathology are poorly understood. The breakdown of lung matrix involves MMPs, which have a unique ability to degrade fibrillar collagens at neutral pH. To determine whether MMPs play a role in the immunopathology of tuberculosis (TB), we profiled MMPs and their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with TB and symptomatic controls. MMP-1 concentrations were significantly increased in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients with TB, while TIMP concentrations were lower in HIV-negative TB patients. In primary human monocytes, M. tuberculosis infection selectively upregulated MMP1 gene expression and secretion, and Ro32-3555, a specific MMP inhibitor, suppressed M. tuberculosis-driven MMP-1 activity. Since the mouse MMP-1 ortholog is not expressed in the lung and mice infected with M. tuberculosis do not develop tissue destruction equivalent to humans, we infected transgenic mice expressing human MMP-1 with M. tuberculosis to investigate whether MMP-1 caused lung immunopathology. In the MMP-1 transgenic mice, M. tuberculosis infection increased MMP-1 expression, resulting in alveolar destruction in lung granulomas and significantly greater collagen breakdown. In summary, MMP-1 may drive tissue destruction in TB and represents a therapeutic target to limit immunopathology.
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Impaired antigen-specific CD4(+) T lymphocyte responses in cavitary tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
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The clinical outcome in tuberculosis is determined by the host-pathogen interaction. Successful immune responses result in granulomas and curtailment of disease, whilst cavitation indicates a failing immune response. We sought to investigate the mechanisms involved in these processes. Fourteen patients with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis underwent bronchoalveolar lavage with washings from areas of cavitation, or pulmonary infiltrates and also from the contra-lateral radiologically normal lung. Flow cytometry was utilised to determine both the leukocyte populations and the Mycobacterium antigen-specific T cell component of the response. Cavitation was associated with local neutrophilia and relative lymphopenia, whereas lymphocytosis and lower levels of granulocytes were detected from areas of pulmonary infiltrates and also from radiologically unaffected lobes. The Mycobacterium-specific T cell response from cavitary sites was significantly lower when compared to the radiologically normal lobes in the same individuals (p=0.003). By contrast, the Mycobacterium-specific T cell responses from areas of infiltrates were remarkably similar to paired responses from the radiologically unaffected lung (p=0.45). These results confirm the selective accumulation of Mycobacterium-specific lymphocytes in the lung in general though they also demonstrate that this is diminished in cavities. It remains unclear whether neutrophilia is a cause, or a result of cavitation in pulmonary tuberculosis.
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Unmasked tuberculosis and tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory disease: a disease spectrum after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has beneficial effects on mortality and lowers the incidence of diseases caused by opportunistic infections, such as tuberculosis (TB). Although ART has sustained long-term benefits, the risk of TB is high during the first 3 months after ART initiation. Among cases of ART-associated TB, we define "unmasked TB" as that which occurs in patients with reactivation disease who develop clinically recognizable TB after ART with the restoration of previously acquired TB antigen-specific functional immune responses. TB cases with clinical evidence of an inflammatory syndrome are a subset of these unmasked cases, which we define as "unmasked TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome." With more widespread use of ART in areas with a high prevalence of TB, unmasked TB will likely become more common. TB diagnostics with improved sensitivity and specificity are urgently needed to detect subclinical TB before it is unmasked.
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Lung infections in the HIV-infected adult.
Curr Opin Pulm Med
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This review describes current epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of adult HIV-related lung infections using evidence published within the past 2 years.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.