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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A de novo transcriptomic analysis to reveal functional genes in Apolygus lucorum.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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The widespread planting of genetically engineered cotton producing the Cry1Ac toxin has led to significantly reduced pesticide applications since 1997. However, consequently, the number of green mirid bug (GMB), Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) has increased. So far the GMB, instead of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), has become the major pest in transgenic Bt cotton field and influenced cotton yield. Disproportionately, only a few studies on GMB at a molecular level have been reported. Libraries from both third instar nymph and adult were sequenced using Illumina technology, producing more than 106 million short reads and assembled into 63 029 unigenes of mean length 597 nt and N50 813 nt, ranging from 300 nt to 9771 nt. BLASTx analysis against Nr, Swissprot, GO and COG was performed to annotate these unigenes. As a result, 26 478 unigenes (42.01%) matched to known proteins and 107 immune-related, 320 digestive-related and 53 metamorphosis-related genes were detected in these annotated unigenes. Additionally, we profiled gene expression using mapping based differentially expressed genes (DEGs) strategy between the two developmental stages: nymph and adult. The results demonstrated that thousands of genes were significantly differentially expressed at different developmental stages. The transcriptome and gene expression data provided comprehensive and global gene resources of GMB. This transcriptome would improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of various underlying biological characteristics, including development, digestion and immunity in GMB. Therefore, these findings could help elucidate the intrinsic factors of the GMB resurgence, offering novel pest management targets for future transgenic cotton breeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Attenuated plaque is associated with plaque prolapse accompanied by cardiac enzyme elevation after drug-eluting stent implantation.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between grayscale intravascular ultrasound-attenuated plaque (AP) and poststenting plaque prolapse (PP) as well as their influence on creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) elevation after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation.
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Intestinal epithelial vitamin D receptor deletion leads to defective autophagy in colitis.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) appear to be important immunological regulators of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Defective autophagy has also been implicated in IBD, where interestingly, polymorphisms of genes such as ATG16L1 have been associated with increased risk. Although vitamin D, the microbiome and autophagy are all involved in pathogenesis of IBD, it remains unclear whether these processes are related or function independently.
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Role of serum and induced sputum surfactant protein D in predicting the response to treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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This study was designed to determine the expression of serum and sputum surfactant protein D (SP-D) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its association with treatment response. Sixty-five treatment-naive patients with COPD and 26 normal control subjects were recruited in the study. The concentrations of serum and sputum SP-D were measured, and the associations of SP-D with pulmonary function and the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC) and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores before and after three months of treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting ?2-agonist were analyzed. The concentrations of serum and sputum SP-D in the COPD group (45.46±37.78 and 173.23±186.93 ng/ml, respectively) were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (31.68±12.04 and 89.59±70.29 ng/ml, respectively). After three months of treatment, serum SP-D levels were reduced to 30.7±13.9 ng/ml and were significantly lower than the baseline levels (t=2.217, P=0.031). However, no significant reduction in sputum SP-D levels was observed following the treatment (P>0.05). A significant association between baseline sputum SP-D and change in SGRQ activity scores (r=-0.652, P=0.012) was observed; however no association was established with the changes in other clinical profiles following the treatment (P>0.05). This result suggested that an increased baseline sputum SP-D may be a weak predictive indicator of response to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting ?2-agonists in patients with COPD.
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The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) closely interacts with large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels and inhibits their activity independent of G-protein activation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Angiotensin II (ANG-II) and BK channels play important roles in the regulation of blood pressure. In arterial smooth muscle, ANG-II inhibits BK channels, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we first investigated whether ANG-II utilizes its type 1 receptor (AT1R) to modulate BK activity. Pharmacological, biochemical, and molecular evidence supports a role for AT1R. In renal arterial myocytes, the AT1R antagonist losartan (10 ?M) abolished the ANG-II (1 ?M)-induced reduction of whole cell BK currents, and BK channels and ANG-II receptors were found to co-localize at the cell periphery. We also found that BK inhibition via ANG-II-activated AT1R was independent of G-protein activation (assessed with 500 ?M GDP?S). In BK-expressing HEK293T cells, ANG-II (1 ?M) also induced a reduction of BK currents, which was contingent on AT1R expression. The molecular mechanisms of AT1R and BK channel coupling were investigated in co-transfected cells. Co-immunoprecipitation showed formation of a macromolecular complex, and live immunolabeling demonstrated that both proteins co-localized at the plasma membrane with high proximity indexes as in arterial myocytes. Consistent with a close association, we discovered that the sole AT1R expression could decrease BK channel voltage sensitivity. Truncated BK proteins revealed that the voltage-sensing conduction cassette is sufficient for BK-AT1R association. Finally, C-terminal yellow and cyan fluorescent fusion proteins, AT1R-YFP and BK-CFP, displayed robust co-localized Förster resonance energy transfer, demonstrating intermolecular interactions at their C termini. Overall, our results strongly suggest that AT1R regulates BK channels through a close protein-protein interaction involving multiple BK regions and independent of G-protein activation.
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Bone marrow stromal cells protect acute myeloid leukemia cells from anti-CD44 therapy partly through regulating PI3K/Akt-p27(Kip1) axis.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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The anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody (mAb) A3D8 induces differentiation or apoptosis in vitro in various subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) via p27(Kip1) upregulation. Bone marrow (BM) stromal cells play a vital role in the development of chemoresistance in AML cells attached to the stroma. To investigate the effect of BM stroma adhesion induced AML resistance to A3D8, we developed a co-culture system composed of an AML-derived cell line (NB4) cultured with either a human BM stroma cell line (HS-5) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We found that NB4 cells adhered to HS-5 cells or MSCs developed resistance against the anti-proliferative effects of A3D8, and this action is caused by the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling following p27(Kip1) down-regulation and cytoplasmic re-localization. The stromal co-culture-induced resistance can be partially abolished by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Such findings were confirmed in two additional AML-derived cell lines as well as in primary AML cells. Our results suggest that BM stroma can induce A3D8 resistance in part via the PI3K/Akt-p27(Kip1) axis, and blocking PI3K/Akt pathway maybe necessary for anti-CD44 treatment on AML in BM microenvironment. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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MicroRNA-218 inhibits the proliferation of human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cell line by targeting Fbxw8.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous 19-25 nucleotide noncoding single-stranded RNAs that regulate gene expression by blocking the translation or decreasing the stability of mRNAs. In this study, we showed that miR-218 expression levels were decreased while Fbxw8 expression levels were increased in human choriocarcinoma cell lines, and identified Fbxw8 as a novel direct target of miR-218. Overexpression of miR-218 inhibited cell growth arrest at G2/M phase, suppressed the protein levels of cyclin A and up-regulated the expression levels of p27 through decreasing the levels of Fbxw8. On the other hand, forced expression of Fbxw8 partly rescued the effect of miR-218 in the cells, attenuated cell proliferation decrease the percentage of cells at G2/M phase, induced cyclin A protein expression and suppressed the protein level of p27 through up-regulating the levels of Fbxw8. Taken together, these findings will shed light the role to mechanism of miR-218 in regulating JEG-3 cells proliferation via miR-218/Fbxw8 axis, and miR-218 may serve as a novel potential therapeutic target in human choriocarcinoma in the future.
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Teaghrelins, unique acylated flavonoid tetraglycosides in Chin-shin oolong tea, are putative oral agonists of the ghrelin receptor.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Chin-shin oolong tea, a popular tea in Taiwan, was empirically perceived to induce hunger and accelerate gastric emptying in a manner similar to the physiological effects of ghrelin, an endogenous acylated peptide known as the hunger hormone. Two unique acylated flavonoid tetraglycosides previously identified in Chin-shin oolong tea were demonstrated to induce hunger of rats in a food intake assay and, thus, named teaghrelin-1 and teaghrelin-2. Similar to GHRP-6, a synthetic analogue of ghrelin, teaghrelin-1 stimulated growth hormone secretion of rat primary anterior pituitary cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the stimulation was inhibited by [D-Arg(1),D-Phe(5),D-Trp(7,9),Leu(11)]-substance P, an antagonist of the ghrelin receptor. While teaghrelin-2 remained unmodified, a meta-O-methylated metabolite of teaghrelin-1 was detected in bile of rats after intravenous injection. Presumably, teaghrelins are promising oral agonists of the ghrelin receptor.
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Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of cartilage repair after microfracture (MF) treatment for adult unstable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in the ankle: correlations with clinical outcome.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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To quantitatively evaluate cartilage repair after microfracture (MF) for ankle osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) using MRI and analyse correlations between MRI and clinical outcome.
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Angiopoietins promote ovarian cancer progression by establishing a procancer microenvironment.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Despite decades of research, the survival rate of ovarian cancer patients is largely unchanged. Current chemotherapeutic drugs are effective only transiently because patients with advanced disease eventually develop resistance. Thus, there is a pressing need for identifying novel therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. Mounting evidence suggests that angiopoietins (Angpts) may play an essential role in cancer progression; however, the expression profiles and biological effects of Angpts on ovarian cancer remain largely unknown. Here, we show that, compared with their normal counterparts, expressions of Angpt1, Angpt2, and Angpt4 are increased in ovarian cancer cells and tissues and that human ovarian cancer cells also express the Angpt receptor Tie-2-receptor tyrosine kinase. We show that increased expression of Angpt1, Angpt2, or Angpt4 promotes intraperitoneal growth of ovarian cancers and shortens survival of the experimental mice. We further show, for the first time, that Angpts promote accumulation of cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumor angiogenesis in the ovarian cancer microenvironment, as well as enhance ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vivo. In addition, we establish a novel function of Angpts in promoting proliferation and invasion and inducing Tie-2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in ovarian cancer-associated fibroblasts. Taken together, these data suggest that the Angpt-Tie-2 functional axis is an important player in ovarian cancer progression and an attractive target for ovarian cancer therapy.
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HIV infection accelerates gastrointestinal tumor outgrowth in NSG-HuPBL mice.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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HIV infection is a risk factor for the tumorigenesis including non-AIDS-defining cancers such as those of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the mechanisms underlying such cancer outgrowth are still unknown. Furthermore, combined HIV/cancer studies are difficult to evaluate using primate models or in the clinical patient setting. To understand the mechanisms of tumor outgrowth in the context of HIV infection, we adopted a humanized mouse model permissive to infection and cancer as well as an in vivo humanized mouse challenge with colon cancer in the context of HIV infection. Immunodeficient NOD SCID IL-2R(-/-) mice were immunologically reconstituted by adoptive transfer of 10(7) HIV-negative donor peripheral blood leukocytes and challenged with 10(6) HCT116 human colon cancer cells. A group of mice was treated with antiretroviral therapy. Tumor microenvironment and epithelial tissues in the context of HIV infection were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. We demonstrate that HIV-infected humanized mice develop significantly larger tumors than uninfected mice (p<0.05). Epithelial cell proliferation in HIV-infected mice is significantly enhanced in comparison to proliferation in uninfected mice (p<0.01). Moreover, the activation of ?-catenin, an important step in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, is elevated in the tumors of HIV-infected mice (p<0.0001). Importantly, antiretroviral therapy reverses these pathological processes independently of CD4(+) T cell return. These findings model the ability of HIV infection to result in tumor outgrowth that is evident in HIV-positive patients and lend insight into previously unrecognized mechanisms that may underlie this pathology.
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Correlation of pulmonary function indexes determined by low-dose MDCT with spirometric pulmonary function tests in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The objective of our study was to evaluate the correlation between pulmonary function indexes determined by low-dose MDCT and those obtained from routine spirometric pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Ultrasound elastography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant cervical lesions.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of ultrasound elastography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant cervical lesions and to compare the accuracy of the elasticity score and strain ratio in differentiating cervical lesions.
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HPLC/QTOF-MS/MS application to investigate phenolic constituents from Ficus pandurata H. aerial roots.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Ficus pandurata H. aerial roots are used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of uarthritis, indigestion and hyperuricemia. However, the bioactive constituents responsible for the pharmacological effects of F. pandurata H. are unclear. A simple and efficient HPLC/QTOF-MS/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry) method was established to detect and identify active constituents in the n-butanol extract of F. pandurata H. aerial roots. Chemical constituents were separated and investigated by HPLC/QTOF-MS/MS in the negative-ion mode. Thirty-seven compounds, including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroquinone glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, etc., were identified or tentatively characterized in the n-butanol extract of F. pandurata H. aerial roots by comparing the UV spectra, accurate mass spectra and fragmentation pathways and retrieving the reference literatures. Moreover, the flavonoid trisaccharides and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives were tentatively characterized in F. pandurata H. for the first time. The analytical tool used here is very valuable in the rapid separation and identification of the multiple and minor constituents in the n-butanol extract of F. pandurata H. aerial roots. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Identification and localization of two sensory neuron membrane proteins from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), which are located on the dendritic membrane of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), are proposed to be associated with odor reception in insects. Recent studies have demonstrated that SNMP1 is essential for electrophysiological responses of OSNs to the sex pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) in Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the function of Lepidoptera SNMPs, we cloned two SNMP genes, SlituSNMP1 and SltiuSNMP2, from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that both genes bear the general characteristics of SNMPs, including six conserved cysteine residues and two transmembrane domains. Further expression profile experiments showed that SlituSNMP1 is mainly expressed in the antenna, while SlituSNMP2 is broadly expressed in various tissues. By in situ hybridization experiments, it was found that SlituSNMP1 expressing cells are surrounded by the SlituSNMP2 expressing cells in the pheromone sensitive sensilla, suggesting different functions of the two SNMPs in insect olfaction.
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Evaluating the response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for treatment of breast cancer: are tumor biomarkers and dynamic contrast enhanced MR images useful predictive tools?
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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In order to evaluate the therapeutic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer, this research focused on the changes in expression of tumor biomarkers and the correlations associated with changes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pre- and post-NAC. We also compared the accuracy of MRI and pathology in terms of residual tumor extent after NAC.
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N?-carboxymethyllysine-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress promotes endothelial cell injury through Nox4/MKP-3 interaction.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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N(?)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) is an important driver of diabetic vascular complications and endothelial cell dysfunction. However, how CML dictates specific cellular responses and the roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases and ERK phosphorylation remain unclear. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization of MAPK phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is critical in regulating ERK inactivation and promoting NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) activation in CML-induced endothelial cell injury. We demonstrated that serum CML levels were significantly increased in type 2 diabetes patients and diabetic animals. CML induced ER stress and apoptosis, reduced ERK activation, and increased MKP-3 protein activity in HUVECs and SVECs. MKP-3 siRNA transfection, but not that of MKP-1 or MKP-2, abolished the effects of CML on HUVECs. Nox4-mediated activation of MKP-3 regulated the switch to ERK dephosphorylation. CML also increased the integration of MKP-3 with ERK, which was blocked by silencing MKP-3. Exposure of antioxidants abolished CML-increased MKP-3 activity and protein expression. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of both MKP-3 and CML was increased, but phospho-ERK staining was decreased in the aortic endothelium of streptozotocin-induced and high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice. Our results indicate that an MKP-3 pathway might regulate ERK dephosphorylation through Nox4 during CML-triggered endothelial cell dysfunction/injury, suggesting that therapeutic strategies targeting the Nox4/MKP-3 interaction or MKP-3 activation may have clinical implications for diabetic vascular complications.
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Discriminating cellular heterogeneity using microwell-based RNA cytometry.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Discriminating cellular heterogeneity is important for understanding cellular physiology. However, it is limited by the technical difficulties of single-cell measurements. Here we develop a two-stage system to determine cellular heterogeneity. In the first stage, we perform multiplex single-cell RNA cytometry in a microwell array containing over 60,000 reaction chambers. In the second stage, we use the RNA cytometry data to determine cellular heterogeneity by providing a heterogeneity likelihood score (HLS). Moreover, we use Monte-Carlo simulation and RNA cytometry data to calculate the minimum number of cells required for detecting heterogeneity. We apply this system to characterize the RNA distributions of ageing-related genes in a highly purified mouse haematopoietic stem cell population. We identify genes that reveal novel heterogeneity of these cells. We also show that changes in expression of genes such as Birc6 during ageing can be attributed to the shift of relative portions of cells in the high-expressing subgroup versus low-expressing subgroup.
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Islet-1 promotes the cardiac-specific differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through the regulation of histone acetylation.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Islet-1 on the process of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into cardiomyocyte-like cells and to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved. Lentiviral vectors expressing Islet-1 (Lenti-Islet-1) were constructed and used for C3H10T1/2 cell transfection. Cell morphology was observed. Cardiac-related genes and proteins were detected by qPCR and western blot analysis. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was used as an inhibitor of acetylated histone H3 (AcH3). AcH3 was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Cells overexpressing Islet-1 tended to change into fibroblast-like cells and were arranged in the same direction. The enhanced expression of GATA binding protein 4 (Gata4), NK2 homeobox 5 (Nkx2.5), myocyte enhancer factor 2C (Mef2c) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) was observed in the cells overexpressing Islet-1 following transfection with Lenti-Islet-1. However, the expression of hepatocyte-, bone- and neuronal-specific markers was not affected by Islet-1. The AcH3 relative amount increased following transfection with Lenti-Islet-1, which was associated with the enhanced expression of Gata4, Nkx2.5 and Mef2c in these cells. The expression of Gata4, Nkx2.5 and Mef2c in the C3H10T1/2 cells transfected with Lenti-Islet-1 and treated with EGCG was reduced following treatment with EGCG. The data presented in this study indicate that Islet-1 specifically induces the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells, and one of the mechanisms involved is the regulation of histone acetylation.
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Clonal tracking of rhesus macaque hematopoiesis highlights a distinct lineage origin for natural killer cells.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Analysis of hematopoietic stem cell function in nonhuman primates provides insights that are relevant for human biology and therapeutic strategies. In this study, we applied quantitative genetic barcoding to track the clonal output of transplanted autologous rhesus macaque hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells over a time period of up to 9.5 months. We found that unilineage short-term progenitors reconstituted myeloid and lymphoid lineages at 1 month but were supplanted over time by multilineage clones, initially myeloid restricted, then myeloid-B clones, and then stable myeloid-B-T multilineage, long-term repopulating clones. Surprisingly, reconstitution of the natural killer (NK) cell lineage, and particularly the major CD16(+)/CD56(-) peripheral blood NK compartment, showed limited clonal overlap with T, B, or myeloid lineages, and therefore appears to be ontologically distinct. Thus, in addition to providing insights into clonal behavior over time, our analysis suggests an unexpected paradigm for the relationship between NK cells and other hematopoietic lineages in primates.
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Gramella planctonica sp. nov., a zeaxanthin-producing bacterium isolated from surface seawater, and emended descriptions of Gramella aestuarii and Gramella echinicola.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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A Gram-stain negative, strictly aerobic, zeaxanthin-producing, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strain which is motile by gliding, designated CC-AMWZ-3(T), was isolated from surface seawater off coastal Kending, Taiwan. Strain CC-AMWZ-3(T) was found to share 93.3 % and 96.0-92.4 % pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gramella echinicola KMM 6050(T) and other Gramella species, respectively, and formed distinct phyletic lineage during phylogenetic analysis. The major fatty acids were identified as C16:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, C16:1 ?6c and/or C16:1 ?7c and iso-C17:1 ?9c and/or C16:0 10-methyl. Polar lipids were found to include phosphatidylethanolamine, six unidentified lipids and three unidentified aminolipids. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 40.6 mol%. Menaquinone-6 was the sole respiratory quinone identified and triamine-sym-homospermidine was the predominant polyamine. Based on the polyphasic characteristics that are in line with those of Gramella species, in addition to distinguishing phylogenetic and phenotypic features, strain CC-AMWZ-3(T) appears to represent a novel species of the genus Gramella, for which the name Gramella planctonica sp. nov. (type strain CC-AMWZ-3(T) = JCM 18807(T) = BCRC 80553(T)) is proposed. In addition, emended descriptions of the species Gramella aestuarii and Gramella echinicola are also proposed.
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Detecting metabolites of different transition metal-lithospermate B complexes after intravenous injection in rats.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Lithospermate B (LSB) isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) is an effective Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor and used to treat congestive heart failure. The inhibition of LSB on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is potentiated by forming complexes with transition metal ions. Here we investigated the safety and metabolites of different transition metal-LSB complexes in rats.
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Bacteriological characterization of a Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum strain isolated from a Chinese pneumonia patient.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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A Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum strain was isolated from a pneumonia patient-the first such reported case from China. The bacteriological characteristics of the strain were determined.
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Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood.
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Pulmonary permeability assessed by fluorescent-labeled dextran instilled intranasally into mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Several different methods have been used to assess pulmonary permeability in response to acute lung injury (ALI). However, these methods often involve complicated procedures and algorithms that are difficult to precisely control. The purpose of the current study is to establish a feasible method to evaluate alterations in lung permeability by instilling fluorescently labeled dextran (FITC-Dextran) intranasally.
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Expert consensus on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the People's Republic of China.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease that severely threatens human health. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) is a major cause of disease progression and death, and causes huge medical expenditures. This consensus statement represents a description of clinical features of AECOPD in the People's Republic of China and a set of recommendations. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for community physicians, pulmonologists and other health care providers for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AECOPD.
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Macrolide therapy in adults and children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of macrolide therapy in adults and children with bronchiectasis.
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[A survey on knowledge of recommended heart failure guidelines among Chinese physicians].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To obtain the knowledge status on recommended heart failure (HF) guidelines among Chinese physicians.
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Merit of Anisodamine Combined with Opioid ?-Receptor Activation in the Protection against Myocardial Injury during Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR) injury easily occurrs during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in elderly patients. In an attempt to develop an effective strategy, we employed a pig model of MIR injury to investigate the maximum rate of change of left ventricular pressure, left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, and left intraventricular pressure. Coronary sinus cardiac troponin T (TnT) and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) content in myocardium were measured. The ultrastructures for MIR injury were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The role of ?-opioid receptor activation using D-Ala2, D-Leu5-enkephalin (DADLE) in both early (D1) and late (D2) phases of cardioprotection was identified. Also, the merit of cardioprotection by DADLE in combination with anisodamine, the muscarinic receptor antagonist (D+M), was evaluated. Glibenclamide was employed at the dose sufficient to block ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Significant higher cardiac indicators, reduced TnT and increased ATP contents, were observed in D1, D2, and D+M groups compared with the control group. DADLE induced protection was better in later phase of ischemia that was attenuated by glibenclamide. DADLE after the ischemia showed no benefit, but combined treatment with anisodamine showed a marked postischemic cardioprotection. Thus, anisodamine is helpful in combination with DADLE for postischemic cardioprotection.
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Effects of Tyroserleutide on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Abstract Tyroserleutide (YSL) is an active, low-molecular-weight polypeptide with in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells. In this study, we studied the effects of YSL on PI3K/AKT in the BEL-7402 cells to explore its anti-tumor mechanism. Results showed that YSL could up-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of tumor suppressor PTEN and increase their activities, meanwhile inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of oncogene AKT and decreased the kinase activities of AKT and PDK1. The resuming balance effect of YSL between PTEN and AKT could prevent the transmission of tumor cell proliferation signals in the PI3K/AKT pathway. Inhibition of AKT would change the status of downstream effectors in the PI3K/AKT pathway: (1) inhibition of AKT up-regulated expression of cell cycle regulatory factors of downstream - P21 and P27 which repressed cell cycle and inhibited proliferation of tumor cells. (2) Inhibition of AKT decreased the phosphorylation level of MDM2, and then increased the protein level of P53 which would accelerate death proceeding of tumor cells. (3) Inactivation of AKT removed its inhibition effect on phosphorylation of Bad, which might decrease protein level of apoptosis inhibitor Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, damaging mitochondria of tumor cells and inducing apoptosis.
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Twitch mouth pressure and disease severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have impaired respiratory muscle strength. Twitch mouth pressure (TwPM) in response to magnetic stimulation of the cervical nerve has been suggested to clinically reflect inspiratory muscle strength. However, studies on TwPM values and their relationship with disease severity are limited. Thus, we tested the TwPM values of COPD patients and investigated the relationship of these values with disease severity.
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Tetracycline-Related Transcriptional Regulation of the CTnDOT Mobilization Region.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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CTnDOT is a 65-kb conjugative transposon (CTn) in Bacteroides spp. that confers resistance to the antibiotics erythromycin and tetracycline (Tc). Conjugative transfer of CTnDOT is regulated upon exposure of cells to Tc. In the absence of Tc, no transfer is detectable; however, a cascade of regulatory events results in the conjugative transfer of CTnDOT upon Tc induction. Previous studies addressing regulation of CTnDOT conjugative transfer focused primarily on the 13-kb transfer (tra) operon, which encodes the proteins required for assembly of the mating apparatus. We report here that the mob operon that encodes the relaxase and coupling proteins required for mobilization of CTnDOT are regulated at the transcriptional level upon Tc induction. The Xis2d and Exc excision proteins are required for the upregulation of mob transcription upon Tc induction, and yet a deletion of xis2c has no effect. We also show preliminary evidence suggesting that the integrase, IntDOT, may play a regulatory role, as pLYL72 transfer is not detectable when intDOT is provided in trans.
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Chemical Constituents and Anticancer Activity of Yellow Camellias against MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Yellow camellia, with its golden yellow flowers, is rare in the world. Most studies of yellow camellia have focused on its ornamental properties; however, there are fewer published studies on its medical values. The purpose of this study was to define the chemical constituents and the biological potential of the water extract of leaves in six species of yellow camellia. The data showed that Camellia murauchii had significantly higher total catechins and total polyphenol content than others; Camellia euphlebia had the highest total amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid. The results indicated that Camellia tunghinensis exhibited the highest free radical scavenging capacity and showed potent anticancer activities. Camellia nitidissima had stronger inhibitory effect than other species on fatty acid synthesis. In addition to catechins, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were detected in C. tunghinensis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Taken together, yellow camellias possess biological activity and are worthy of continued study.
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[The effect of laryngoscopic surgery combined with nasal endoscopic system for the treatment of vocal cords benign lesions].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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To investigate the effect of laryngoscopic surgery combined with nasal endoscopic system for the treatment of vocal cords benign lesions.
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[Combination utility of phages GH15 and K against Staphylococcus aureus].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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In the present report, we compared the biological characteristic of staphylococci phage GH15 and K. We also determined the therapeutic potential of the combination utility of two phages.
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[Advances in studies on toxicity of aconite].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Aconite has the efficacy of reviving yang for resuscitation, dispelling cold and relieving pain, which is widely used in clinic, and shows unique efficacy in treating severe diseases. However, aconite has great toxicity, with obvious cardio-toxicity and neurotoxicity. Its toxicological mechanism main shows in the effect on voltage-dependent sodium channels, release of neurotransmitters and changes in receptors, promotion of lipid peroxidation and cell apoptosis in heart, liver and other tissues. Aconite works to reduce toxicity mainly through compatibility and processing. Besides traditional processing methods, many new modern processing techniques could also help achieve the objectives of detoxification and efficacy enhancement. In order to further develop the medicinal value of aconite and reduce its side effect in clinical application, this article gives comprehensive comments on aconites toxicity characteristics, mechanism and detoxification methods on the basis of relevant reports for aconites toxicity and the authors experimental studies.
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[Effects of buyang huanwu decoction on the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake in abdominal aortic constriction induced myocardial hypertrophic rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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objective: To investigate effects of buyang huanwu decoction (BYHWD) on the rats myocardial hypertrophic model induced by abdominal aortic constriction, and to clarify the molecular regulatory mechanisms for sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake.
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The Influence of Benign Essential Blepharospasm on Dry Eye Disease and Ocular Inflammation.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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To study the influence of blepharospasm on dry eye disease by analyzing the clinical features, tear cytokine and treatment response of patients with dry eye disease accompanied by benign essential blepharospasm.
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Taxifolin prevents diabetic cardiomyopathy in vivo and in vitro by inhibition of oxidative stress and cell apoptosis.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been increasingly recognized as an important cause of heart failure in diabetic patients. Excessive oxidative stress has been suggested to play a critical role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects and mechanisms of taxifolin on cardiac function of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and on hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac myoblasts. In vivo study revealed that taxifolin improved diastolic dysfunction, ameliorated myocardium structure abnormality, inhibited myocyte apoptosis and enhanced endogenous antioxidant enzymes activities. Interestingly, taxifolin reduced angiotensin II level in myocardium, inhibited NADPH oxidase activity, and increased JAK/STAT3 activation. In vitro investigation demonstrated that taxifolin inhibited 33mM glucoseinduced H9c2 cells apoptosis by decreasing intracellular ROS level. It also inhibited caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation, restored mitochondrial membrane potential, and regulated the expression of proteins related to the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, thus inhibiting the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. In conclusion, taxifolin exerted cardioprotective effects against diabetic cardiomyopathy by inhibiting oxidative stress and cardiac myocyte apoptosis and might be a potential agent in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
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Spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of common pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in mainland of China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Bacteria-induced respiratory infection has been long considered to be the major cause of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Therefore, a clear picture about the distribution and drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria in the lower airways should be helpful for treatment of the disease. So far, data on this topic among Chinese are lacking.
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[Fever monitoring program in areas with high incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Guizhou province].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To understand the incidence rates of both typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in the high prevalent areas of Guizhou province so as to provide evidence for the development of programs on comprehensive intervention and effectiveness evaluation.
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Ultrafast fluorescence quenching dynamics of Atto655 in the presence of N-acetyltyrosine and N-acetyltryptophan in aqueous solution: proton-coupled electron transfer versus electron transfer.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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We studied the ultrafast fluorescence quenching dynamics of Atto655 in the presence of N-acetyltyrosine (AcTyr) and N-acetyltryptophan (AcTrp) in aqueous solution with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. We found that the charge-transfer rate between Atto655 and AcTyr is about 240 times smaller than that between Atto655 and AcTrp. The pH value and D2O dependences of the excited-state decay kinetics of Atto655 in the presence of AcTyr and AcTrp reveal that the quenching of Atto655 fluorescence by AcTyr in aqueous solution is via a proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) process and that the quenching of Atto655 fluorescence by AcTrp in aqueous solution is via an electron-transfer process. With the version of the semiclassical Marcus ET theory, we derived that the electronic coupling constant for the PCET reaction between Atto655 and AcTyr in aqueous solution is 8.3 cm(-1), indicating that the PCET reaction between Atto655 and AcTyr in aqueous solution is nonadiabatic.
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MitoBK(Ca) is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, and a splicing sequence defines its mitochondrial location.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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The large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) channel (BK(Ca), MaxiK), which is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, is generally expressed at the plasma membrane of excitable and nonexcitable cells. However, in adult cardiomyocytes, a BK(Ca)-like channel activity has been reported in the mitochondria but not at the plasma membrane. The putative opening of this channel with the BK(Ca) agonist, NS1619, protects the heart from ischemic insult. However, the molecular origin of mitochondrial BK(Ca) (mitoBK(Ca)) is unknown because its linkage to Kcnma1 has been questioned on biochemical and molecular grounds. Here, we unequivocally demonstrate that the molecular correlate of mitoBK(Ca) is the Kcnma1 gene, which produces a protein that migrates at ?140 kDa and arranges in clusters of ?50 nm in purified mitochondria. Physiological experiments further support the origin of mitoBK(Ca) as a Kcnma1 product because NS1619-mediated cardioprotection was absent in Kcnma1 knockout mice. Finally, BKCa transcript analysis and expression in adult cardiomyocytes led to the discovery of a 50-aa C-terminal splice insert as essential for the mitochondrial targeting of mitoBK(Ca).
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Gut-lung crosstalk in pulmonary involvement with inflammatory bowel diseases.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction or hyper-reactivity occurs in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) more frequently than previously recognized. Emerging evidence suggests that subtle inflammation exists in the airways among IBD patients even in the absence of any bronchopulmonary symptoms, and with normal pulmonary functions. The pulmonary impairment is more pronounced in IBD patients with active disease than in those in remission. A growing number of case reports show that the IBD patients develop rapidly progressive respiratory symptoms after colectomy, with failure to isolate bacterial pathogens on repeated sputum culture, and often request oral corticosteroid therapy. All the above evidence indicates that the inflammatory changes in both the intestine and lung during IBD. Clinical or subclinical pulmonary inflammation accompanies the main inflammation of the bowel. Although there are clinical and epidemiological reports of chronic inflammation of the pulmonary and intestinal mucosa in IBD, the detailed mechanisms of pulmonary-intestinal crosstalk remain unknown. The lung has no anatomical connection with the main inflammatory site of the bowel. Why does the inflammatory process shift from the gastrointestinal tract to the airways? The clinical and subclinical pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction, or hyper-reactivity among IBD patients need further evaluation. Here, we give an overview of the concordance between chronic inflammatory reactions in the airways and the gastrointestinal tract. A better understanding of the possible mechanism of the crosstalk among the distant organs will be beneficial in identifying therapeutic strategies for mucosal inflammatory diseases such as IBD and allergy.
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The determination of flavonoids in Wikstroemia indica C. A. Mey. by liquid chromatography with photo-diode array detection and negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Flavonoids in the medicinal plant Wikstroemia indica C. A. Mey. are present in trace amounts and found in complex matrices. An efficient and sensitive method is necessary for the rapid identification of such biomolecules.
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Effective removal of Microcystis aeruginosa and microcystin-LR using nanosilicate platelets.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Drinking water safety has been threatened by increasing harmful algal blooms (HABs) in water sources. HABs are closely associated with eutrophication in freshwater lakes, e.g. Lake Tai in China, and marine environments as well, e.g. Baltic Sea in Europe. Among all HABs, Microcystis aeruginosa attracted much attention due to its easy proliferation and potent toxins, microcystins. Most of the current control technologies can result in immediate release of microcystins which are hard to remove by drinking water treatment processes. Here we propose to simultaneously remove M. aeruginosa and its toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), using nanosilicate platelet (NSP) derived from natural clay mineral. In this study, NSP showed strong selective growth inhibition and good settling enhancing effects on M. aeruginosa and highly efficient removal of MC-LR. NSP can inhibit the growth of M. aeruginosa (initial cell concentration at 3.00×10(6)cellmL(-1)) with a LC50 at 0.28ppm after 12h exposure. At the dosage of 100ppm, NSP can enhance settling of suspended M. aeruginosa. Bacterial growth inhibition tests showed NSP had very mild growth inhibition effects on Escherichia coli at high dosage but promoted the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus halodurans. For MC-LR removal, at an initial concentration of 100?gL(-1), NSP achieved higher than 99% removal. Thus, the results suggest that NSP could be an excellent candidate for controlling M. aeruginosa-related HABs in water bodies.
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Use of twitch mouth pressure to assess diaphragm strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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This study was undertaken to determine whether twitch mouth pressure (TwPmo) can reliably assess diaphragm strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using fully automatic trigger techniques. Fifteen patients with COPD were recruited. TwPmo, twitch oesophageal pressure (TwPes) and twitch transdiaphragmtic pressure (TwPdi) were generated by phrenic nerve stimulation and were measured using an inspiratory flow trigger (40 ml/s, Experiment 1) using an inspiratory pressure trigger (-5 cmH2O, Experiment 2) and using no trigger at functional residual capacity (Experiment 3). The correlation between TwPmo and TwPes was as follows: r=0.832; P<0.0001 (Experiment 1), r=0.900; P<0.0001 (Experiment 2); there was no significant correlation in Experiment 3. A Bland-Altman plot of the difference between TwPmo and TwPes showed the limits of agreement in Experiment (1) bias (range) 0.18 cmH2O (-2.05 to 2.41) and Experiment (2) bias (range) 0.32 cmH2O (-1.69 to 2.32). Measuring TwPmo using a fully automatic technique is a simple and convenient method for assessing diaphragm strength.
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Association between awareness of harmful effects of smoking and smoking cessation advice provided by hospital chest physicians in Guangzhou, China: a multi-institutional cross-sectional survey.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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It is unknown which factors are associated with smoking cessation interventions initiated by hospital chest physicians in China. We examined physicians awareness of negative effects of smoking on smoking cessation advice given.
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Sphingomicrobium astaxanthinifaciens sp. nov., an astaxanthin-producing glycolipid-rich bacterium isolated from surface seawater and emended description of the genus Sphingomicrobium.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, flagellated and non-spore-forming marine bacterium designated strain CC-AMO-30B(T) was isolated from coastal surface seawater, Taiwan. Strain CC-AMO-30B(T) synthesized astaxanthin [40 µg (g dry weight)(-1)] and formed reddish-orange-coloured colonies on marine agar (Difco 2216). The strain showed highest pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Sphingomicrobium lutaoense CC-TBT-3(T) (96.4%) followed by other members of the family Sphingomonadaceae (<94%) and established a discrete phyletic lineage associated with the former. The polar lipid profile constituted a remarkable number of unidentified glycolipids (GL1-8), in addition to diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingoglycolipid and two unidentified lipids (L1-2). The major fatty acids (>5% of total fatty acids) were C(18:1)?7c/C(18:1)?6c (summed feature 8), C(16:1)?7c/C(16:1)?6c (summed feature 3), C(18:1) 2-OH, methyl C(18:1)?7c, C(17:1)?6c and C(16?:?0). DNA G+C content was 70.6%; major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10; predominant polyamine was the triamine sym-homospermidine. Chemotaxonomic evidence including characteristic glycolipid profile, presence of significant amounts of C(18:1) 2-OH and absence of typical hydroxylated fatty acids such as C(14:0) 2-OH, C(15:0) 2-OH and C(16:0) 2-OH in considerable amounts, accompanied by phylogenetic distinctiveness and several other phenotypic features support the classification of strain CC-AMO-30B(T) as a representative of a novel species within the genus Sphingomicrobium for which the name Sphingomicrobium astaxanthinifaciens sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CC-AMO-30B(T) (?=JCM 18551(T)?=BCRC 80465(T)).
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Fluopsin C induces oncosis of human breast adenocarcinoma cells.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Fluopsin C, an antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas jinanesis, has shown antitumor effects on several cancer cell lines. In the current study, the oncotic cell death induced by fluopsin C was investigated in human breast adenocarcinoma cells in vitro.
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Fine structure and primary sensory projections of sensilla located in the labial-palp pit organ of Helicoverpa armigera (Insecta).
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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The fine structure and primary sensory projections of sensilla located in the labial-palp pit organ of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Insecta, Lepidoptera) are investigated by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The pit organ located on the third segment of the labial palp is about 300 ?m deep with a 60-?m-wide opening, each structure containing about 1200 sensilla. Two sensillum types have been found, namely hair-shaped and club-shaped sensilla, located on the upper and lower half of the pit, respectively. Most sensilla possess a single dendrite. The dendrite housed by the club-shaped sensilla is often split into several branches or becomes lamellated in the outer segment. As reported previously, the sensory axons of the sensilla in the labial pit organ form a bundle entering the ipsilateral side of the subesophageal ganglion via the labial palp nerve and project to three distinct areas: the labial pit organ glomerulus in each antennal lobe, the subesophageal ganglion and the ventral nerve cord. In the antennal lobe, the labial pit organ glomerulus is innervated by sensory axons from the labial pit organ only; no antennal afferents target this unit. One neuron has been found extending fine processes into the subesophageal ganglion and innervating the labial palp via one branch passing at the base of the labial palp nerve. The soma of this assumed motor neuron is located in the ipsilateral cell body layer of the subesophageal ganglion. Our results provide valuable knowledge concerning the neural circuit encoding information about carbon dioxide and should stimulate further investigations directed at controlling pest species such as H. armigera.
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Development of an LC/MS/MS method in order to determine arctigenin in rat plasma: its application to a pharmacokinetic study.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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In this study, a simple and sensitive LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of arctigenin in rat plasma. The MS detection was performed using multiple reaction monitoring at the transitions of m/z 373.2???137.3 for arctigenin and m/z 187.1???131.0 for psoralen (internal standard) with a Turbo IonSpray electrospray in positive mode. The calibration curves fitted a good linear relationship over the concentration range of 0.2-500?ng/mL. It was found that arctigenin is not stable enough at both room temperature and -80?°C unless mixed with methanol before storage. The validated LC/MS/MS method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic study of arctigenin in rats. After intravenous injection of 0.3?mg/kg arctigenin injection to rats, the maximum concentration, half-life and area under the concentration-time curve were 323?±?65.2?ng/mL, 0.830?±?0.166 and 81.0?±?22.1?h?ng/mL, respectively.
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Effects of nebulized high-dose budesonide on moderate-to-severe acute exacerbation of asthma in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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The efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthma exacerbation are yet to be clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of nebulized ICS in children with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbation of asthma in an emergency room setting in order to elucidate the potential use of ICS as the first-line therapy in the management of acute exacerbation of asthma.
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TIMP-1 promotes accumulation of cancer associated fibroblasts and cancer progression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Treatment options for late stage prostate and colon cancer are limited and there is an urgent need to develop more effective and targeted novel therapies, which starts with identification and validation of novel therapeutic targets. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) levels are elevated in cancer patient plasma and elevated TIMP-1 levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, it is unknown whether TIMP-1 serves merely as a biomarker of cancer progression or has a functional role in promoting cancer progression and can serve as a cancer therapeutic target, which is the main objective of this study. Here, we show that stroma of human prostate and colon cancer express higher levels of TIMP-1 compared to their normal counterparts and increased expression of TIMP-1 promotes in vivo growth of both cancer types. We demonstrate for the first time that increased TIMP-1 expression stimulates accumulation of cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) within prostate and colon cancer tissues and that TIMP-1 enhances prostate CAF proliferation and migration in vitro and promotes ERK1/2 kinase activation in these CAF cells. Our results establish the novel promotive effects of TIMP-1 on cancer progression and on accumulation of CAFs that in turn provides a pro-tumor microenvironment. Together, these results establish the potential of TIMP-1 as a novel target for cancer therapy and the mechanism underlying the pro-tumor activity of TIMP-1.
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Structural heterogeneity in the collision complex between organic dyes and tryptophan in aqueous solution.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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The heterogeneity on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) kinetics between a labeled fluorophore and an amino acid residue has been extensively studied in biopolymers. However in aqueous solutions, the heterogeneity on PET kinetics between a fluorophore and a quencher has rarely been reported. Herein, we selected four commonly used fluorophores, such as tetramethylrhodamine (TMR), Rhodamine B (RhB), Alexa fluor 546 (Alexa546), and Atto655, and studied their respective PET kinetics in 50 mM tryptophan solutions with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to explore the structural heterogeneity in their corresponding collision complexes. We measured the decay of the first excited electronic state of respective fluorophore with and without 50 mM tryptophan in aqueous solutions, and derived the charge separation rate in their corresponding collision complexes. We found that the PET process of all selected fluorophores in 50 mM tryptophan solutions has two charge separation rates, which indicates that the relevant states in the collision complex between respective fluorophore and tryptophan have strong structural heterogeneity. These femtosecond PET measurements are in agreement with Vaianas molecular dynamics simulation (J. Am. Chem. Soc.2003, 125, 14564). In addition, with the obtained PET kinetic parameters, we derived the relative brightness of the collision complex between respective fluorophore and tryptophan, which are important parameters for the PET based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy study involving these fluorophores in biopolymers.
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[Incidence of coronary artery disease and outcome of patients with left ventricular noncompaction].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To analyze the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and outcome of patients with left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC).
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Folic acid supplementary reduce the incidence of adenocarcinoma in a mouse model of colorectal cancer: microarray gene expression profile.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Whether Folic acid is a potential drug that may prevent the progression of colorectal carcinoma and when to use are important healthy issues we focus on. Our study is to examine the effect of folic acid on the development of the CRC and the optimal time folic acid should be provided in a mouse-ICR model induced by 1, 2-Dimethylhydrazine. Also, we investigated the gene expression profile of this model related to folic acid.
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Photophysics and locations of IR125 and C152 in AOT reverse micelles.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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Many fluorescent chromophores have been employed to investigate the nature and dynamics of the water confined in reverse micelles (RMs). However, some questions remain as to the location of a probe in a RM and the diameter of the RM at which the physical characteristic of the water inside RMs becomes similar to that of bulk water. In this work, we systematically studied the photophysics of IR125 and C152 in AOT RMs at different w(0) by means of static absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We obtained the absorption maxima, fluorescence emission maxima, fluorescence lifetime, and reorientation time of IR125 and C152 in AOT RMs at corresponding w(0). We found that all obtained photophysical parameters of IR125 and C152 in AOT RMs as a function of w(0) have a distinct changeover point around w(0) = 8, indicating that there is a dramatic change in the nature of the water confined in AOT RMs around w(0) = 8. The observed changeover point around w(0) = 8 is well in agreement with the Satpatis report (ChemPhysChem, 2009, 10, 2966). In addition, we observed that the measured reorientation time of IR125 in AOT RMs increases with the increase of w(0), which is opposite to the trend of change in the measured reorientation time of C152 in AOT RMs with the increase of w(0). We found that IR125 prefers to reside in the water pool of AOT RMs and that C152 prefers to reside in the outer side of the interfacial region or the nonpolar n-heptane phase of AOT RMs. Furthermore, we found that the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of IR125 in smaller w(0) AOT RMs primarily measures the reorientation of RMs and the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of IR125 in larger w(0) AOT RMs measures the reorientation of IR125 in the water pool confined in RMs. This work demonstrated that IR125 is an excellent probe to study the nature and dynamics of the water confined in AOT RMs.
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Quadriceps strength assessed by magnetic stimulation of femoral nerve in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Skeletal muscle dysfunction is one of important systemic manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with mortality in patients with COPD, thus quantifying its strength is of great clinical interest and of particular value. Quadriceps maximal volitional contraction (MVC) is often used for the routine measurements of this muscles strength; while twitch tension (TwQ) evoked by magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve has been employed for measurement of quadriceps strength non-volitionally. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and severity of skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD patients by measurement of quadriceps strength with volitional and non-volitional techniques, and to probe into some methodological issues.
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Kaempferol protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo and in vitro.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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The long-term clinical usefulness of doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline with potent antitumor activity, is limited by DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Kaempferol, one of the most common dietary flavonoids, is known to have anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of kaempferol against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated with DOX (3 mg/kg) every other day for a cumulative dose of 9 mg/kg. After 28 days, DOX caused retarded body and heart growth, oxidative stress, apoptotic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Bcl-2 expression disturbance. In contrast, kaempferol pretreatment (10 mg/kg i.p. before DOX administration) attenuated the DOX-induced apoptotic damage in heart tissues. In vitro studies also indicated that kaempferol may have used the mitochondrion-dependent pathway to counteract the DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. This counteraction was achieved by inhibiting p53 expression and its binding to the promoter region of the Bax proapoptotic gene, but not to the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic gene. Kaempferol also effectively suppressed DOX-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation, but had no effect on p38 and JNK. Therefore, kaempferol protected against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least, partially, by inhibiting the activation of p53-mediated, mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling, and by being involved in an ERK-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These findings elucidated the potential of kaempferol as a promising reagent for treating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and may have implications in the long-term clinical usefulness of DOX.
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Subcellular location of antitumor tripeptide-tyroserleutide in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Tyroserleutide (YSL) is a tripeptide compound that exhibits potent antitumor activity in human tumor xenografts and tumor cell lines. However, the target of YSL on which it exerts its antitumor activity has yet to be identified. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the subcellular location of YSL in BEL-7402 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Using methods of fluorescent tracing and confocal colocalization, we provide evidence that when BEL-7402 cells are treated with YSL, YSL is distributed in the cytoplasm and colocalized with the mitochondria of cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed the effect of YSL on the isolated mitochondria. Using fluorescence spectrophotometry to monitor the ?? collapse of mitochondria isolated from BEL-7402 cells by reversion of the quenching of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), we found that the isolated mitochondria reversed the quenching of the fluorescence in the solution containing TMRM and YSL. This indicates that YSL decreases the ?? of the isolated mitochondria. Another photometry method was used to observe the effect on mitochondrial swelling when YSL acted directly on the isolated mitochondria. We reveal that YSL directly causes mitochondrial swelling in 60 min. In conclusion, this study encloses a preliminary facet of the pharmacological target of YSL, and we speculate that YSL may act directly on the mitochondria to exert its antitumor activity.
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Determination of chlorophenols in landfill leachate using headspace sampling with ionic liquid-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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A new microextraction technique based on ionic liquid solid-phase microextraction (IL-SPME) was developed for determination of trace chlorophenols (CPs) in landfill leachate. The synthesized ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)MIM][PF(6)]), was coated onto the spent fiber of SPME for extraction of trace CPs. After extraction, the absorbed analytes were desorbed and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The term of the proposed method is as ionic liquid-coated of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IL-SPME-GC/MS). No carryover effect was found, and every laboratory-made ionic liquids-coated-fiber could be used for extraction at least eighty times without degradation of efficiency. The chlorophenols studied were 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The best results of chlorophenols analysis were obtained with landfill leachate at pH 2, headspace extraction for 4 min, and thermal desorption with the gas chromatograph injector at 240°C for 4 min. Linearity was observed from 0.1 to 1000 ?g L(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 7% and recoveries were over 87%. The limit of detection (LOD) for pentachlorophenol was 0.008 ?g L(-1). The proposed method was tested by analyzing landfill leachate from a sewage farm. The concentrations of chlorophenols were detected to range from 1.1 to 1.4 ?g L(-1). The results demonstrate that the IL-SPME-GC/MS method is highly effective in analyzing trace chlorophenols in landfill leachate.
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Methodological reporting of randomized controlled trials in major hepato-gastroenterology journals in 2008 and 1998: a comparative study.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2011
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It was still unclear whether the methodological reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in major hepato-gastroenterology journals improved after the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement was revised in 2001.
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LysGH15B, the SH3b domain of staphylococcal phage endolysin LysGH15, retains high affinity to staphylococci.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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LysGH15, a phage endolysin, exhibits a particularly broad lytic spectrum against Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Sequence analysis reveals that this endolysin contains a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (SH3b), which causes the endolysin to bind to host strains. In this study, the substrate binding affinity of the SH3b domain (LysGH15B) was evaluated. A fusion protein of LysGH15B and green fluorescent protein (LysGH15B-GFP) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to detect the fluorescence of the treated cells irradiated at different excitation wavelengths and to determine the binding activity of LysGH15B-GFP and GFP. We found that LysGH15B-GFP not only generated green fluorescence, but, more importantly, also displayed specific affinity to staphylococcal isolates, especially MRSA. In contrast, the single GFP did not display any binding activity. The high affinity was attributed to the portion of LysGH15B and the binding activity of the fusion protein was specific to staphylococci. This study provides an insight into the SH3b domain of LysGH15. The specific binding activity may cause LysGH15B to serve as an anchoring device, and offer an alternative approach for cell surface attachment onto staphylococci.
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[Serum myostatin levels and malnutrition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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To investigate the prevalence and severity of malnutrition in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), analyze serum levels of myostatin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and C reactive protein (CRP), and investigate the relationship between serum myostatin and malnutrition in COPD.
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(Z)-4-[(2-Amino-anilino)(phen-yl)methyl-idene]-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2011
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The mol-ecule of the title compound, C(23)H(20)N(4)O, assumes a non-planar conformation in which the pyrazolone ring forms dihedral angles of 10.33?(11), 65.34?(11) and 63.52?(10)° with the three benzene rings. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked by inter-molecular N-H?N hydrogen bonds, generating chains parallel to the b axis. The secondary amino group is involved in an intra-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bond.
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2-{[2-(2-Hy-droxy-3-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)hydrazin-1-yl-idene]meth-yl}-6-meth-oxy-phenol.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2011
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The title compound, C(16)H(16)N(2)O(4), was obtained from the reaction of hydrazine hydrate and o-vanilin in absolute ethanol. The mol-ecule is almost planar (except for the methyl H atoms), with a mean deviation from the plane of 0.0259?Å. The mol-ecular structure also exhibits an approximate non-crystallographic twofold axis. Intra-molecular O-H?N hydrogen bonds occur. In the crystal, inter-molecular C-H?O hydrogen bonds generate mol-ecular zigzag sheets. The sheets stack through C-H?? inter-actions, leading to a three-dimensional-network.
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Distinct transcriptional regulation of human large conductance voltage- and calcium-activated K+ channel gene (hSlo1) by activated estrogen receptor alpha and c-Src tyrosine kinase.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) regulates gene transcription via "genomic" (binding directly or indirectly, typically via Sp1 or AP-1 sites, to target genes) and/or "nongenomic" (signaling) mechanisms. ER? activation by estrogen up-regulates the murine Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel ? subunit gene (mSlo1) via genomic mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether ER? also drives transcription of the human (hSlo1) gene. Consistent with this view, estrogen increased hSlo1 transcript levels in primary human smooth muscle cells. Promoter studies revealed that estrogen/hER?-mediated hSlo1 transcription was nearly 6-fold more efficient than for mSlo1 (EC(50), 0.07 versus 0.4 nM). Unlike the genomic transcriptional mechanism employed by mSlo1, hSlo1 exhibits a nongenomic hER?-mediated regulatory mechanism. This is supported by the following: 1) efficient hSlo1 transcription after disruption of the DNA-binding domain of hER? or knockdown of Sp1, and 2) lack of AP-1 sites in the hSlo1 promoter. Three nongenomic signaling pathways were explored: Src, Rho, and PI3K. Inhibition of Src with 10 ?M PP2, and reported downstream ERK with 25 ?M PD98059 did not prevent estrogen action but caused an increase in hSlo1 basal transcription; conversely, constitutively active c-Src (Y527F) decreased hSlo1 basal transcription even preventing its estrogen/hER?-mediated transcriptional activation. Rho inhibition by coexpressed Clostridium botulinum C3 transferase did not alter estrogen action. In contrast, inhibition of PI3K activity with 10 ?M LY294002 decreased estrogen-stimulated hSlo1 transcription by ?40%. These results indicate that the nongenomic PI3K signaling pathway plays a role in estrogen/hER?-stimulated hSlo1 gene expression; whereas c-Src activity leads to hSlo1 gene tonic repression independently of estrogen, likely through ERK activation.
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