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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Protective effects and mechanism of congguiyishen capsules on diabetic nephropathy rats].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To study the curative and protective effects of Congguiyishen Capsules on the diabetic nephropathy (DN) model rats.
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[Protective effect and action mechanism of petroleum ether extracts from Saussurea involucrate on brain tissues of hypoxia rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To investigate the protective effect and action mechanism of petroleum ether extracts from Saussurea involucrate on brain tissues of hypoxia rats under constant pressure and closed conditions.
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[Effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics and activity of antioxidant enzymes in continuous-cropped cucumber seedlings].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The effects of spraying exogenous silicon (Si) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mmol L(-1)) on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics and activity of antioxidant enzymes in continuous-cropped 'Jinyan No. 4' cucumber seedlings were studied. The results showed that with the application of 1-3 mmol x L(-1) Si, electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves were significantly decreased, while the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoids (Car), chlorophyll (a+b) and photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves were significantly improved, the activities of superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) were significantly increased, and the plant height, stem diameter and dry mass accumulation of cucumber seedlings were promoted. Compared with the low Si concentrations, excessive Si (4-5 mmol x L(-1)) resulted in higher EL and MDA, which were still lower than that in control, decreased the antioxidant enzymes activity and photosynthesis, and inhibited the growth of cucumber seedlings. These findings indicated that exogenous Si could enhance the capacity of scavenging active oxygen species and improve photosynthesis, protect cucumber seedlings from the lipid peroxidation, and increase the resistance to continuous-cropped cucumber obstacle. The optimal silicon concentration was 2 mmol x L(-1).
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[Levels distribution and risk assessment of the indicator and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in ten different species of marine fish of Bohai Bay, China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly lipohilic compounds with high metabolic persistence and toxicity. PCBs tend to accumulate in the aquatic food chain and make fish a source of various environmental toxicants to humans. Industries in the Bohai Bay include iron and steel smelting, cement manufacturing and waste incineration, which are potential emission sources of PCBs. In this study, risks and potential effects of PCBs in the Bohai Bay were assessed. Twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and seven indicator PCBs in marine fish samples were analyzed by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The concentrations of dl-PCBs in marine fishes ranged from 28.9 pg x g(-1) to 1067.6 pg x g(-1) wet weight. The concentrations of indicator PCBs were between 185.5 pg x g(-1) and 8 371.7 pg x g(-1) wet weight. PCB-118 and PCB-105 were the major congeners of the dl-PCBs congeners, which contributed 41% - 56% and 15% - 21%, respectively. The predominant indicator PCBs were PCB-153 and PCB-138, which contributed 27% and 22%, respectively. The concentrations of dl-PCBs and indicator PCBs were relatively low as compared with those in other studies.
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Synthesis and antitumor activity of feruloyl and caffeoyl derivatives.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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We developed two efficient protocols for the synthesis of feruloyl and caffeoyl derivatives from commercial vanillin and veratraldehyde. Pharmacological activities were assessed against a panel of human cancer cell lines in vitro. Most synthesized compounds demonstrated attractive cytotoxicity. Several new compounds demonstrated significant antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities against HeLa and Bewo tumor cell lines. In particular, 5-nitro caffeic adamantyl ester showed broad spectrum of tumor inhibition in 10 cell lines, and reduced tumor weight by 36.7% in vivo when administered at a dose of 40 mg kg(-1).
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[Effect of ethanol extract from Saussurea involucrata on biochemical indicators of simulated high-altitude hypoxia induced mice].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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To estimate the effect of ethanol extract from Saussurea involucrata (EES) on biochemical indicators of simulated high-altitude hypoxia induced mice and its mechanism.
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MAPK and NF-?B Pathways Are Involved in Bisphenol A-Induced TNF-? and IL-6 Production in BV2 Microglial Cells.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Microglial activation has been reported to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane), known as a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is reported to perform both mimic- and anti-estrogen properties; however, whether it affects cytokine production or immune response in central nervous system remains unclear. The present study was aimed to explore whether BPA was involved in inflammatory action and to investigate the potential mechanisms in microglial cells. BV2, the murine microglial cell line, was used in the present work as the cell model. BPA-associated morphologic changes, cytokine responses, and signaling events were examined using immunofluorescence analysis, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot. Our results indicated that BPA increased BV2 cells activation and simultaneously elevated tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin 6 expression, which could be partially reversed by estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI182780. In addition, the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125), rather than ERK1/2 blocker (PD98059), displayed anti-inflammatory properties on BPA-elicited cytokine responses. Moreover, the inflammatory transcription factor NF-?B was specifically activated by BPA as well. These results, taken together, suggested that BPA may have functional effects on the response of microglial cell activation via, in part, the estrogen receptor, JNK, ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-?B signaling pathways with its subsequent influence on pro-inflammatory action.
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[Optimization of processing technology for xanthii fructus by UPLC fingerprint technique and contents of toxicity ingredient].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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The experiment's aim was to optimize the processing technology of Xanthii Fructus which through comparing the difference of UPLC fingerprint and contents of toxicity ingredient in water extract of 16 batches of processed sample. The determination condition of UPLC chromatographic and contents of toxicity ingredient were as follows. UPLC chromatographic: ACQUITY BEH C18 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 microm) eluted with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acidwater in gradient mode, the flow rate was 0.25 mL x min(-1) and the detection wavelength was set at 327 nm. Contents of toxicity ingredient: Agilent TC-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm), mobile phase was methanol-0.01 mol x L(-1) sodium dihydrogen phosphate (35: 65), flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), and detection wavelength was 203 nm. The chromatographic fingerprints 16 batches of samples were analyzed in using the similarity evaluation system of chromatographic, fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine, SPSS16.0 and SIMCA13.0 software, respectively. The similarity degrees of the 16 batches samples were more than 0.97, all the samples were classified into four categories, and the PCA showed that the peak area of chlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid were significantly effect index in fingerprint of processed Xanthii Fructus sample. The outcome of determination showed that the toxicity ingredient contents of all samples reduced significantly after processing. This method can be used in optimizing the processing technology of Xanthii Fructus.
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[Complete genome phylogenetic analysis of five H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry flocks in Qinghai lake region].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Five H9N2 avian influenza virus strains were isolated from the environmental samples in live poultry market in Qinghai Lake region from July to September, 2012. To evaluate the phylogenetic characteristics of these H9N2 isolates, the eight gene segments were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The phylogenetic and molecular characteristics of the five strains were analyzed. The results showed that the HA genes of five strains shared 93. 2%-99. 1% nucleotide identities with each other, and the NA genes shared 94. 5%-99. 8% nucleotide identities. The HA cleavage site sequence of the A/environment/qinghai/ 017/2012 isolate was PSKSSRGLF, and the HA cleavage site sequences of the other four strains were all PSRSSRGLF. The HA receptor-binding site had the Q226L mutation. The M1 gene segment had the N30D and T215A mutations. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the five strains were similar to the virus A/chicken/Hunan/5260/2005 (H9N2) isolated in Hunan Province, China and were reassortant genotype viruses; the HA, NA, and NS genes belonged to the Y280-like lineage; the MP gene belonged to the G1-like lineage; the NP, PB1, PB2, and PA genes belonged to the F98-like lineage.
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Effects of estradiol on voltage-gated potassium channels in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons.
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Voltage-gated potassium channels are regulators of membrane potentials, action potential shape, firing adaptation, and neuronal excitability in excitable tissues including in the primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). In this study, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, the effect of estradiol (E2) on voltage-gated total outward potassium currents, the component currents transient "A-type" current (I A) currents, and "delayed rectifier type" (I KDR) currents in isolated mouse DRG neurons was examined. We found that the extracellularly applied 17?-E2 inhibited voltage-gated total outward potassium currents; the effects were rapid, reversible, and concentration-dependent. Moreover, the membrane impermeable E2-BSA was as efficacious as 17?-E2, whereas 17?-E2 had no effect. 17?-E2-stimulated decrease in the potassium current was unaffected by treatment with ICI 182780 (classic estrogen receptor antagonist), actinomycin D (RNA synthesis inhibitor), or cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor). We also found that I A and I KDR were decreased after 17?-E2 application. 17?-E2 significantly shifted the activation curve for I A and I KDR channels in the hyperpolarizing direction. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that E2 inhibited voltage-gated K(+) channels in mouse DRG neurons through a membrane ER-activated non-genomic pathway.
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A novel reassortant H2N3 influenza virus isolated from China.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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To analyze the genetic composition of a novel H2N3 virus isolate identified from a duck cage swab in a live poultry market (LPM) in 2009 in Guangdong province of China.
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Involvement of CaM-CaMKII-ERK in bisphenol A-induced Sertoli cell apoptosis.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most prevalent chemicals for daily use, has been reported as a xenoestrogen to induce reproductive toxicity, but its mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether CaM-CaMKII-ERK1/2 signaling pathway was involved in BPA-induced Sertoli cells injury via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. TM4 cells were cultured with 0, 0.02, 0.2, 2.0, 20?M BPA, and cell viability, mitochondrial function and CaM-CaMKII-ERK1/2 signal pathway were examined. With the MTT assay, BPA was found to suppress cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, mitochondrial mass loss, membrane potential decrease, cytochrome c release, Bcl-2 family members down-regulation and caspases-3 up-regulation were obviously observed when the TM4 cells were exposed to BPA. Additionally, the expression of calmodulin (CaM) and phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) significantly increased, and pretreatment with 10?M antagonist of CaM (W-7) or CaMKII (KN62) prevented cell damage through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In parallel, ERK1/2 pathway was proved to participate in BPA-induced cell damage, since W-7 and KN62 partially suppressed ERK1/2 activation, and PD98059, the ERK1/2 antagonist, significantly attenuated BPA-induced cell damage. These data, taken together, indicated that CaM-CaMKII-ERK axis might transmit apoptotic signals to the mitochondria during BPA-induced cell apoptosis. By exploring the mechanisms of the Ca(2+) homeostasis and the corresponding proteins, our study provides new insight into BPA-induced reproductive toxicity.
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Biophysical properties of intrinsically disordered p130Cas substrate domain--implication in mechanosensing.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Mechanical stretch-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in the proline-rich 306-residue substrate domain (CasSD) of p130Cas (or BCAR1) has eluded an experimentally validated structural understanding. Cellular p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylation is shown to function in areas without internal actomyosin contractility, sensing force at the leading edge of cell migration. Circular dichroism shows CasSD is intrinsically disordered with dominant polyproline type II conformations. Strongly conserved in placental mammals, the proline-rich sequence exhibits a pseudo-repeat unit with variation hotspots 2-9 residues before substrate tyrosine residues. Atomic-force microscopy pulling experiments show CasSD requires minimal extension force and exhibits infrequent, random regions of weak stability. Proteolysis, light scattering and ultracentrifugation results show that a monomeric intrinsically disordered form persists for CasSD in solution with an expanded hydrodynamic radius. All-atom 3D conformer sampling with the TraDES package yields ensembles in agreement with experiment when coil-biased sampling is used, matching the experimental radius of gyration. Increasing ?-sampling propensities increases the number of prolate conformers. Combining the results, we conclude that CasSD has no stable compact structure and is unlikely to efficiently autoinhibit phosphorylation. Taking into consideration the structural propensity of CasSD and the fact that it is known to bind to LIM domains, we propose a model of how CasSD and LIM domain family of transcription factor proteins may function together to regulate phosphorylation of CasSD and effect machanosensing.
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Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-?B activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia.
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TLR4 induces tumor growth and inhibits paclitaxel activity in MyD88-positive human ovarian carcinoma in vitro.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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In ovarian cancer patients, chemotherapy resistance is the principal factor restricting long-term treatment. Paclitaxel (Pac) has been previously reported to be a ligand to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). It was determined that TLR4 signaling is divided into the following two pathways: Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent and MyD88-independent. The present study investigated the effect of TLR4 ligation by Pac in MyD88-positive (MyD88(+)) and MyD88-negative (MyD88(-)) human ovarian cancer cell lines. An RNA interference expression vector was specifically constructed to target TLR4 mRNA, which was stably transfected into the human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3, OVCAR3, A2780 and 3AO). Cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, were detected. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in the cells transfected with scramble control and TLR4 shRNA to explore the possible functions of TLR4 in ovarian cancer cell growth. It was found that lipopolysaccharide and Pac significantly increase the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 in the SKOV3 cell line. Similarly, Pac resulted in a significant upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8 in OVCAR3 cells, but not in A2780 and 3AO cells. These results suggested that in MyD88(+) ovarian cancer cell lines, TLR4 depletion shows increased sensitivity to Pac treatment in inhibiting cell proliferation compared with in cells without TLR4 knockdown. On the contrary, such changes were not found in MyD88(-) cells (A2780 and 3AO). TLR4 negatively regulates Pac chemotherapy, particularly in terms of cell proliferation, and TLR4 may be a novel treatment target in Pac-resistant ovarian cancer.
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Interleukin-6 signal transduction and its role in hepatic lipid metabolic disorders.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Hepatic lipid dysregulation can lead to spectrum of metabolic disease conditions including metabolic syndrome (MS), fatty liver and diabetes. Liver lipids are regulated by a complex set of extra-hepatic and intra-hepatic factors including cellular cross-talk with variety of cells, inducing various cytokines. Interleukin 6(IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that exerts both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects on hepatic system through either JNK/STAT or ERK/MAPK signaling. Although, IL-6 has shown to protect the liver from fat storage in both rodent and human models and various IL-6(-/-) studies have supported this notion yet a question remains over its deleterious pro-inflammatory effects on hepatocytes. IL-6 ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently disturb the hepatic lipid balance has created a conundrum. Furthermore, IL-6 has shown to behave differently under different disease states within hepatocytes and hence, modulating the hepatic lipids accordingly. This review deals with the role of IL-6 on hepatic lipid metabolism and analyzes various data presented on this topic.
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MiR-9 inhibits Schwann cell migration by targeting Cthrc1 following sciatic nerve injury.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The regulative effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on responses of Schwann cells to a nerve injury stimulus are not yet clear. In this study, we noted that the expression of eight miRNAs was downregulated at different time points following rat sciatic nerve transection, and found that 368 potential targets of these eight miRNAs were mainly involved in phenotypic modulation of Schwann cells. Of these miRNAs, miR-9 was identified as an important functional regulator of Schwann cell migration that was a crucial regenerative response of Schwann cells to nerve injury. In vitro, upregulated expression of miR-9 inhibited Schwann cell migration, whereas silencing of miR-9 promoted Schwann cell migration. Intriguingly, miR-9 exerted this regulative function by directly targeting collagen triple helix repeat containing protein 1 (CTHRC1), which in turn inactivated downstream Rac1 GTPase. Rac1 inhibitor reduced the promotive effects of anti-miR-9 on Schwann cell migration. In vivo, high expression of miR-9 reduced Schwann cell migration within a regenerative nerve microenvironment. Collectively, our results confirmed the role of miR-9 in regulating Schwann cell migration after nerve injury, thus offering a new approach to peripheral nerve repair.
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Asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation of ?-substituted ?-nitroacrylates: access to ?(2,2)-amino acids bearing indolic all-carbon quaternary stereocenters.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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A highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of indoles with acyclic ?-substituted ?-nitroacrylates is developed under the catalysis of Ni(ClO4)2-bisoxazoline complex at 1 mol % catalyst loading, affording chiral indolic ?-nitroesters bearing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters in excellent yields and ees of up to 97%. Transformation of one of the products to ?(2,2)-amino ester and tetrahydro-?-carboline through nitro reduction and sequential Pictet-Spengler cyclization was exemplified.
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Iodine-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition/oxidation/aromatization cascade with hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant: general route to pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolines.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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We report a novel molecular iodine-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition/oxidation/aromatization cascade process with hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant for the construction of pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolines. The product pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolines were obtained from reactions between simple, readily available dipolarophiles and tetrahydroisoquinolines in moderate to excellent yields without the need for a metal catalyst.
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Synthesis and broad-spectrum antiviral activity of some novel benzo-heterocyclic amine compounds.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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A series of novel unsaturated five-membered benzo-heterocyclic amine derivatives were synthesized and assayed to determine their in vitro broad-spectrum antiviral activities. The biological results showed that most of our synthesized compounds exhibited potent broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Notably, compounds 3f (IC50=3.21-5.06 ?M) and 3g (IC50=0.71-34.87 ?M) showed potent activity towards both RNA viruses (influenza A, HCV and Cox B3 virus) and a DNA virus (HBV) at low micromolar concentrations. An SAR study showed that electron-withdrawing substituents located on the aromatic or heteroaromatic ring favored antiviral activity towards RNA viruses.
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H5N1 Avian Influenza Pre-pandemic Vaccine Strains in China.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To prepare the 4 candidate vaccine strains of H5N1 avian influenza virus isolated in China.
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Determination of vessel cross-sectional area by thresholding in Radon space.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The cross-sectional area of a blood vessel determines its resistance, and thus is a regulator of local blood flow. However, the cross-sections of penetrating vessels in the cortex can be non-circular, and dilation and constriction can change the shape of the vessels. We show that observed vessel shape changes can introduce large errors in flux calculations when using a single diameter measurement. Because of these shape changes, typical diameter measurement approaches, such as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) that depend on a single diameter axis will generate erroneous results, especially when calculating flux. Here, we present an automated method--thresholding in Radon space (TiRS)--for determining the cross-sectional area of a convex object, such as a penetrating vessel observed with two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM). The thresholded image is transformed back to image space and contiguous pixels are segmented. The TiRS method is analogous to taking the FWHM across multiple axes and is more robust to noise and shape changes than FWHM and thresholding methods. We demonstrate the superior precision of the TiRS method with in vivo 2PLSM measurements of vessel diameter.
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Sirt1 deletion leads to enhanced inflammation and aggravates endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bacterial endotoxin has been known to induce excessive inflammatory responses and acute kidney injury. In the present study, we used a mouse model of endotoxemia to investigate the role of Sirt1 in inflammatory kidney injury. We examined molecular and cellular responses in inducible Sirt1 knockout (Sirt1-/-) mice and wild type littermates (Sirt1+/+) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced kidney injury. Our studies demonstrated that Sirt1 deletion caused aggravated kidney injury, which was associated with increased inflammatory responses including elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and increased ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Inflammatory signaling such as STAT3/ERK phosphorylation and NF-?B activation was markedly elevated in kidney tissues of Sirt1 knockout mice after LPS challenge. The results indicate that Sirt1 is protective against LPS-induced acute kidney injury by suppressing kidney inflammation and down-regulating inflammatory signaling.
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Effect of methamphetamine on the microglial damage: role of potassium channel Kv1.3.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Methamphetamine (Meth) abusing represents a major public health problem worldwide. Meth has long been known to induce neurotoxicity. However, the mechanism is still remained poorly understood. Growing evidences indicated that the voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) were participated in neuronal damage and microglia function. With the whole cell patch clamp, we found that Meth significantly increased the outward K? currents, therefore, we explored whether Kv1.3, one of the major K? channels expressed in microglia, was involved in Meth-induced microglia damage. Our study showed that Meth significantly increased the cell viability in a dose dependent manner, while the Kv blocker, tetraethylamine (TEA), 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) and Kv1.3 specific antagonist margatoxin (MgTx), prevented against the damage mediated by Meth. Interestingly, treatment of cells with Meth resulted in increasing expression of Kv1.3 rather than Kv1.5, at both mRNA and protein level, which is partially blocked by MgTx. Furthermore, Meth also stimulated a significant increased expression of IL-6 and TNF-? at protein level, which was significantly inhibited by MgTx. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Kv1.3 was involved in Meth-mediated microglial damage, providing the potential target for the development of therapeutic strategies for Meth abuse.
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Binding pocket alterations in dihydrofolate synthase confer resistance to para-aminosalicylic acid in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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The mechanistic basis for resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), an important agent in the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, has yet to be fully defined. As a substrate analog of the folate precursor para-aminobenzoic acid, PAS is ultimately bioactivated to hydroxydihydrofolate which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase and disrupts operation of folate-dependent metabolic pathways. As a result, mutation of dihydrofolate synthase, an enzyme needed for bioactivation of PAS, causes PAS resistance in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Here, we demonstrate that various missense mutations within the coding sequence of the dihydropteroate (H2Pte) binding pocket of dihydrofolate synthase (FolC) confer PAS resistance in laboratory isolates of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. From a panel of 85 multi-drug resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, 5 were found to harbor mutations in folC within the H2Pte binding pocket resulting in PAS resistance. While these alterations in the H2Pte binding pocket resulted in reduced dihydrofolate synthase activity, they also abolished bioactivation of hydroxydihydropteroate to hydroxydihydrofolate. Consistent with this model for abolished bioactivation, introduction of a wild type copy of folC fully restored PAS susceptibility in folC mutant strains. Confirmation of this novel PAS resistance mechanism will be beneficial for development of molecular based diagnostics for M. tuberculosis clinical isolates and for further defining the mode of action of this important tuberculosis drug.
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[Low-dose of furosemide to correct oliguria in gynecological surgery].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To investigate the safety and efficay of low-dose furosemide in the correction of oliguria in the patients undergoing gynecologic surgery.
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[Relationship between the expression of dual specificity phosphatase-1 and the prognosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To clarify the relationship between the expression of dual specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP1) and the prognosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
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[Effect of shuganjianpifang on the expression of BCL-2 and BAX in rats livers with hepatic fibrosis].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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To observe the effect of shuganjianpifang on BCL-2, BAX expressions in livers of hepatic fibrosis rats and its mechanism.
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Molecular subtypes identified by gene expression profiling in early stage endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Early stage (FIGO stage I-II) endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (EEA) is very common in clinical practice. However, patients with the early stage EEA show various clinical behaviors due to biological heterogeneity. Hence, we aimed to discover distinct classes of tumors based on gene expression profiling, and analyze whether the molecular classification correlated with the histopathological stages or other clinical parameters.
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Evolutionary tuning of protein expression levels of a positively autoregulated two-component system.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Cellular adaptation relies on the development of proper regulatory schemes for accurate control of gene expression levels in response to environmental cues. Over- or under-expression can lead to diminished cell fitness due to increased costs or insufficient benefits. Positive autoregulation is a common regulatory scheme that controls protein expression levels and gives rise to essential features in diverse signaling systems, yet its roles in cell fitness are less understood. It remains largely unknown how much protein expression is appropriate for optimal cell fitness under specific extracellular conditions and how the dynamic environment shapes the regulatory scheme to reach appropriate expression levels. Here, we investigate the correlation of cell fitness and output response with protein expression levels of the E. coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS). In response to phosphate (Pi)-depletion, the PhoB/PhoR system activates genes involved in phosphorus assimilation as well as genes encoding themselves, similarly to many other positively autoregulated TCSs. We developed a bacteria competition assay in continuous cultures and discovered that different Pi conditions have conflicting requirements of protein expression levels for optimal cell fitness. Pi-replete conditions favored cells with low levels of PhoB/PhoR while Pi-deplete conditions selected for cells with high levels of PhoB/PhoR. These two levels matched PhoB/PhoR concentrations achieved via positive autoregulation in wild-type cells under Pi-replete and -deplete conditions, respectively. The fitness optimum correlates with the wild-type expression level, above which the phosphorylation output saturates, thus further increase in expression presumably provides no additional benefits. Laboratory evolution experiments further indicate that cells with non-ideal protein levels can evolve toward the optimal levels with diverse mutational strategies. Our results suggest that the natural protein expression levels and feedback regulatory schemes of TCSs are evolved to match the phosphorylation output of the system, which is determined by intrinsic activities of TCS proteins.
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The synthesis of benzo[f]isoindole-1,3-dicarboxylates via an i2-induced 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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An I2-induced 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction has been developed for the synthesis of benzo[f]isoindole-1,3-dicarboxylates from quinones and N-substituted amino esters. The reaction proceeds in good to excellent yields in one step from 3 equiv of amino ester to react with the quinone structure. The utility of this transformation has been highlighted by its use for the construction of benzo[f]isoindole-1,3-dicarboxylates, which have been identified in natural products exhibiting important biological activities.
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Martentoxin, a large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel inhibitor, attenuated TNF-?-induced nitric oxide release by human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Martentoxin, a 4,046 Da polypeptide toxin purified from the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch, has been demonstrated to block large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channels; however, its biological roles are still largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological effects of martentoxin on regulating the production of nitric oxide induced by TNF-? in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that, 1, 10 and 100 µmol/L martentoxin decreased nitric oxide production by HUVECs exposed to 10 ng/mL TNF for 6, 12 and 24 hours. We further demonstrated that martentoxin inhibited the activity of iNOS and retarded the down-regulation of eNOS mRNA induced by TNF-?. Therefore, martentoxin could be a potential therapeutic agent for vascular diseases.
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Time-dependent expression of SNAT2 mRNA in the contused skeletal muscle of rats: a possible marker for wound age estimation.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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To estimate the age of skeletal muscle contusion, the expression of SNAT2 mRNA in contused skeletal muscle of rats was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In total, 78 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into control and contusion groups. At 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, and 48 h (n = 6) after contusion, the rats were sacrificed with a lethal dose of pentobarbital. Another 24 rats received contusion injuries at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h (n = 6) after death. Total RNA was isolated from muscle specimens using the TRIzol reagent and reverse-transcribed into first-strand cDNA. Sequence-specific primers and TaqMan fluorogenic probes for SNAT2 mRNA and RPL13 mRNA were designed using the AlleleID 6 software, and the expression levels of SNAT2 mRNA were determined by real-time PCR. At 4, 16, 20, and 24 h after contusion, expression levels of SNAT2 mRNA normalized to RPL13 mRNA increased by 2.07 (P < 0.05), 2.53 (P < 0.05), 2.68 (P < 0.05), and 2.06 fold (P < 0.05) respectively, versus that in the control group. However, there was no significant change in the expression level of SNAT2 mRNA from 24 to 48 h (P > 0.05) after contusion, when normalized to RPL13 mRNA. There was no change in the expression level of SNAT2 mRNA between the normal skeletal muscle from the left limb of the same injured rat and the control. Also, no degradation of SNAT2 mRNA was detected in the postmortem samples (P > 0.05). This result suggests that the determination of SNAT2 mRNA levels by real-time PCR may be useful for estimating wound age.
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Antiviral spirooliganones A and B with unprecedented skeletons from the roots of Illicium oligandrum.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Two novel spirooliganones A (1) and (2), a pair of spiro carbon epimers, with a rare dioxaspiro skeleton were isolated from the roots of Illicium oligandrum. The structures were fully determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods, especially modified Moshers method, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Spirooliganone B was found to exhibit more potent activities against coxsackie virus B3 and influenza virus A (H3N2) (IC50 3.70-5.05 ?M) than spirooliganone A. The biosynthetic pathway involving a hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of the epimers was proposed.
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[A review of H7 subtype avian influenza virus].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Since 2002, H7 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have caused more than 100 human infection cases in the Netherlands, Italy, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom, with clinical illness ranging from conjunctivitis to mild upper respiratory illness to pneumonia. On March 31st, three fatal cases caused by infection of a novel reassortant H7N9 subtype were reported in Shanghai City and Anhui Province in China. With the ability of H7 subtype to cause severe human disease and the increasing isolation of subtype H7 AIVs, we highlighted the need for continuous surveillance in both humans and animals and characterization of these viruses for the development of vaccines and anti-viral drugs.
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A novel reassortant H3N8 influenza virus isolated from drinking water for duck in a domestic duck farm in Poyang Lake area.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To conduct a full genome sequence analysis for genetic characterization of an H3N8 influenza virus isolated from drinking water of a domestic duck farm in Poyang Lake area in 2011.
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Effects of estradiol on high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels in cultured rat cortical neurons.
Endocr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Abstract Objectives: Estrogen regulates a wide variety of nonreproductive functions in the central nervous system. Cortical neurons contain a diverse range of voltage-gated ion channels, including calcium (Ca(2+)) channels, and Ca(2+) channels play an important role in the regulation of action potential generation and neuronal excitability. In this study, the effect of estradiol (E2) on high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca(2+) channels in cultured rat cortical neurons was examined. Methods: We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to measure the HVA Ca(2+) channels. Results: We found that HVA Ca(2+) channel currents was inhibited by 17?-E2 in a rapid, reversible and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, 17?-E2 shifted the steady-state inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction without changing the activation curve. We also found that the inhibitory effects of 17?-E2 on Ca(2+) currents were unaffected by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182780; however, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor rottlerin and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 blocked the 17?-E2-induced inhibition of Ca(2+) currents. Conclusions: E2 inhibited HVA Ca(2+) currents via PKC and PKA-dependent signaling pathway in cortical neurons, and the effects of BPA were independent of classical ER.
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[Ketamine inhalation before one-lung ventilation for perioperative lung protection in thoracic surgery patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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To explore the effects of ketamine inhalation before one-lung ventilation (OLV) in patients undergoing transthoracic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.
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Synthesis and antiviral activity of a novel class of (5-oxazolyl)phenyl amines.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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A series of novel (5-oxazolyl)phenyl amine derivatives were synthesized and their antiviral activities against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) and B6 (CVB6) were evaluated in vitro. Bioassays showed that the synthesized compounds 17a1, 17a4, 17a6, 17b1, 17d1, 17e2 and 17g3 exhibited potent antiviral activity against HCV (IC?? = 0.28-0.92 ?M) and most synthesized compounds exhibited low cytotoxicity in Huh7.5 cells, compared to telaprevir. The compounds 17a1, 17a4, 17a5, 17a6, 17b1, 17b2, 17g1 and 17g3 showed strong activity against the CVB3 and/or CVB6 at low concentrations (IC?? < 2.0 ?M). The (5-oxazolyl)phenyl amines 17a1, 17a4, 17a8, 17b1, 17d1, 17e2, 17f3 and 17g3 were identified as the most active on the biological assays, and will be studied further.
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[History of heavy metal pollution from tidal flat in Haizhou Bay].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Coastal zone could be considered as an important sink of regional source to sink and preserve historical records of environmental evolution. Four sediment cores, collected from tidal flat at Haizhou Bay near Lianyungang City, were examined for concentrations of heavy metals including Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in core sediments to investigate the historical input of trace metals. In addition, sediment rates of cores LH3 and LH4 were determined based on radionuclide 210Pb. The results showed that grain size control effect was not the main factor that influenced the distribution of heavy metals. Heavy metals concentrations in the surface sediments were higher than these regional background values. Furthermore, Al element as a proxy of grain size was selected for normalization and calculation of metal enrichment factor (EF) and anthropogenic heavy metal fluxes. The results revealed that heavy metals in tidal flats were continuously enriched in the past decades, meanwhile, tidal flats have been significantly subjected to contaminations due to anthropogenic activities. Moreover, the depth profiles of heavy metals fluxes correspond to scenario of social-economy development of Lianyungang, which is an important urban area near Haizhou Bay. From 1950s to 2005, anthropogenic fluxes of metals increased with fluctuations, whereas, since 2005 anthropogenic fluxes declined, which may be correlated to the adjustment of industrial structure as well as the strengthened environmental regulation.
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[The effect of surfentanyl and fentanyl at rhythmic spontaneous contraction on isolated rabbits uterine smooth muscles].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To investigate the effects of surfentanyl and fentanyl on spontaneous contractions of isolated uterine smooth muscles of rabbits.
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40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (?40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (?80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of N-substituted sophocarpinic acid derivatives as coxsackievirus?B3 inhibitors.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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A series of novel N-substituted sophocarpinic acid derivatives was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their anti-enteroviral activities against coxsackievirus type?B3 (CVB3) and coxsackievirus type?B6 (CVB6) in Vero cells. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the introduction of a benzenesulfonyl moiety on the 12-nitrogen atom in (E)-?,?-sophocarpinic acid might significantly enhance anti-CVB3 activity. Among the derivatives, (E)-12-N-(m-cyanobenzenesulfonyl)-?,?-sophocarpinic acid (11?m), possessing a meta-cyanobenzenesulfonyl group, exhibited potent activity against CVB3 with a selectivity index (SI) of 107. Furthermore, compound 11?m also showed a good oral pharmacokinetic profile, with an AUC value of 7.29??M?h?¹ in rats, and good safety through the oral route in mice, with an LD?? value of >1000?mg?kg?¹; these values suggest a druggable characteristic. Therefore, compound 11?m was selected for further investigation as a promising CVB3 inhibitor. We consider (E)-?,?-N-(benzenesulfonyl)sophocarpinic acids to be a novel class of anti-CVB3 agents.
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Hyper-methylated miR-203 dysregulates ABL1 and contributes to the nickel-induced tumorigenesis.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Nickel compounds have been found to be carcinogenic based upon epidemiological, animal and cell culture studies. Previous studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in Nickel-induced carcinogenesis such as DNA methylation and histone modification. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. The expression of several miRNAs which may function as tumor suppressor genes revealed a strong downregulation of miR-203 in Ni3S2-transformed 16HBE cells (NSTCs). Meanwhile, we observed hypermethylation of CpGs in miR-203 promoter and first exon area, and proved that the hyper-methylated miR-203 was involved in the Nickel-induced tumorigenesis. Moreover, we identified that miR-203 may suppress the tumorigenesis at least in part through negatively regulating its target gene ABL1. Our findings indicate that DNA methylation-associated silencing of tumor suppressor miRNAs contributes to the development of Nickel-induced cancer.
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Hyper-branched CdTe nanostructures based on the self-assembling of quantum dots and their optical properties.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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As the priority of interconnects and active components in nanoscale optical and electronic devices, three-dimensional hyper-branched nanostructures came into focus of research. Recently, a novel crystallization route, named as "nonclassical crystallization," has been reported for three-dimensional nanostructuring. In this process, Quantum dots are used as building blocks for the construction of the whole hyper-branched structures instead of ions or single-molecules in conventional crystallization. The specialty of these nanostructures is the inheritability of pristine quantum dots physical integrity because of their polycrystalline structures, such as quantum confinement effect and thus the luminescence. Moreover, since a longer diffusion length could exist in polycrystalline nanostructures due to the dramatically decreased distance between pristine quantum dots, the exciton-exciton interaction would be different with well dispersed quantum dots and single crystal nanostructures. This may be a benefit for electron transport in solar cell application. Therefore, it is very necessary to investigate the exciton-exciton interaction in such kind of polycrystalline nanostructures and their optical properites for solar cell application. In this research, we report a novel CdTe hyper-branched nanostructures based on self-assembly of CdTe quantum dots. Each branch shows polycrystalline with pristine quantum dots as the building units. Both steady state and time-resolved spectroscopy were performed to investigate the properties of carrier transport. Steady state optical properties of pristine quantum dots are well inherited by formed structures. While a suppressed multi-exciton recombination rate was observed. This result supports the percolation of carriers through the branches network.
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Early postoperative cognitive dysfunction is associated with higher cortisol levels in aged patients following hip fracture surgery.
J Anesth
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between plasma cortisol levels and the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in aged patients following hip fracture surgery. A total of 175 patients, aged 65 years or older, who were scheduled for hip fracture surgery with spinal anesthesia were enrolled. Perioperative plasma levels of cortisol and neurocognitive tests were determined at 1 day preoperatively and 7 days postoperatively. Seventy-seven patients completed both blood sample collections and neurocognitive tests. POCD occurred in 29.9 % of patients at 7 days postoperatively. POCD patients presented significantly higher cortisol levels compared with non-POCD patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore, plasma cortisol levels were negatively correlated with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores at 7 days postoperatively (P < 0.0001). A specificity of 93 % and a sensitivity of 35 % were identified for the plasma cortisol measurement to discriminate POCD patients from non-POCD patients. The results suggest higher plasma cortisol levels are associated with POCD in aged patients following hip fracture surgery with spinal anesthesia.
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Effects of estradiol on voltage-gated sodium channels in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Estrogen has multiple actions in the brain to modulate homeostasis, synaptic plasticity, neuroprotection and pain sensitivity. Previous studies have demonstrated that estradiol may affect the ion channel function. The role of voltage-gated sodium channels in the transmission of nociceptive and neuropathic pain messages is well-established. Herein, we report the effects of estradiol (E2) on TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) Na(+) currents, using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique from acutely isolated mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. We found that the extracellularly 17?-E2 inhibited TTX-S Na(+) currents and TTX-R Na(+) currents; the effects were rapid, reversible and in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, 17?-E2 did not significantly affect the activation curve for Na(+) channel, and shifted the steady-state inactivation curve for TTX-S and TTX-R Na(+) channels in the hyperpolarizing direction. We also found that the membrane impermeable E2-BSA was as efficacious as 17?-E2, whereas 17?-E2 had no effect. Blockers of PKC (GÖ-6983) and PKA (H-89) abrogated these acute effects of 17?-E2. In conclusion, E2 inhibited voltage-gated Na(+) channels in mouse DRG neurons through a membrane ER-activated PKC-PKA signaling pathway. Through the modulation of voltage-gated sodium currents, estradiol could affect cell excitability, firing properties.
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Single burr hole rigid endoscopic third ventriculostomy and endoscopic tumor biopsy: what is the safe displacement range for the foramen of Monro?
Asian J Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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To investigate the safe displacement range of the foramen of Monro (FM) during single burr hole rigid endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and endoscopic tumor biopsy (ETB).
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Highly enantioselective construction of trifluoromethylated all-carbon quaternary stereocenters via nickel-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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A highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of indoles with ?-CF(3)-?-disubstituted nitroalkenes was achieved using a Ni(ClO(4))(2)-bisoxazoline complex as a catalyst, which afforded indole-bearing chiral compounds with trifluoromethylated all-carbon quaternary stereocenters in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee). The transformation of one of the products into first a trifluoromethylated tryptamine and then a trifluoromethylated tetrahydro-?-carboline by sequential nitro reduction and Pictet-Spengler cyclization were realized with complete preservation of enantiopurity.
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Extraction, derivatization, and determination of metabolome in human macrophages.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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A GC/TOF-MS was applied to the determination of metabolites in human macrophages. The extraction conditions and quenching conditions were investigated and optimized. The results indicated that 0.9% w/v sodium chloride at 4°C was the most favorable condition to quench macrophage, 1 mL 50% ACN for 2 min in ice bath was the optimal condition to extract 5 × 10(6) cells. Two hundred six peaks could be detectable with peak area over 50 using this method. Among these peaks, 45 peaks with the similarity over 700 were identified using standard compounds for endogenous metabolites. Thirty-seven out of 45 metabolites could be quantified directly by this method. Twenty metabolites were selected randomly, and 15 amino acids were used for method validation. The correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9902 to 0.9977 were obtained for 15 amino acids in the range of 2.35-150.20 ?g/mL. The intraday and interday precisions were lower than 19.90% for the randomly selected 20 endogenous metabolites. Using this development method and multivariate statistical technique, several potential biomarkers were found from human macrophages infected by different Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strains. The results suggest that the method could be applied to the investigation of the pathogenicity of tuberculosis.
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Effects of polymorphisms in translesion DNA synthesis genes on lung cancer risk and prognosis in Chinese men.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) plays an important role in promoting replication through DNA lesions. Genetic polymorphisms in TLS genes may have potential roles in lung cancer development in humans.
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Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 3-aryl-4-pyrrolyl-maleimides as glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibitors.
Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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A series of 3-aryl-4-pyrrolyl-maleimides were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) inhibitory activity. Most compounds exhibited potent activity against GSK-3?. Among them, compounds 11a, 11c, 11h, 11i, and 11j significantly reduced A?-induced Tau hyperphosphorylation, showing the inhibition of GSK-3? at the cellular level. Structure-activity relationships were discussed based on the experimental data obtained.
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Measurement of serum IgG4 levels by an established ELISA system and its clinical applications in autoimmune diseases.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel and rare autoimmune disease entity. Elevated serum IgG4 level is strongly suggestive of IgG4-RD. But it is still unknown whether serum IgG4 elevation commonly occurs in other autoimmune diseases. In this study, the serum IgG4 levels were detected by an established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a variety of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogrens syndrome (SS), polymyositis or dermatomyositis (PM/DM) and IgG4-RD. To evaluate the reliability of this ELISA system, some of our samples were sent to a lab in Kanazawa Medical University, Japan, and detected by using the nephelometric assay. The results showed that our findings were consistent with theirs. Moreover, it was found that the serum IgG4 levels were 0.23±0.16 g/L in 53 healthy controls, 0.16±0.15 g/L in 103 SLE patients, 0.22±0.18 g/L in 41 SS patients and 0.40±0.32 g/L in 21 PM/DM patients. No significant difference in the serum IgG4 level was observed among these groups (P>0.05). The serum IgG4 levels of two cases of IgG4-RD were 1.63 and 4.65 g/L respectively, and both decreased markedly after treatment with glucocorticoids. These data indicated that this established ELISA system can be used for detecting serum IgG4 levels. Elevated serum IgG4 levels help diagnose IgG4-RD and evaluate the curative effect of this condition rather than other autoimmune diseases.
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Synthesis and antiviral activity of N-phenylbenzamide derivatives, a novel class of enterovirus 71 inhibitors.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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A series of novel N-phenylbenzamide derivatives were synthesized and their anti-EV 71 activities were assayed in vitro. Among the compounds tested, 3-amino-N-(4-bromophenyl)-4-methoxybenzamide (1e) was active against the EV 71 strains tested at low micromolar concentrations, with IC50 values ranging from 5.7 ± 0.8-12 ± 1.2 ?M, and its cytotoxicity to Vero cells (TC50 = 620 ± 0.0 ?M) was far lower than that of pirodavir (TC50 = 31 ± 2.2 ?M). Based on these results, compound 1e is a promising lead compound for the development of anti-EV 71 drugs.
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Vascular anatomy of kiwi fruit and its implications for the origin of carpels.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Kiwi fruit is of great agricultural, botanical, and economic interest. The flower of kiwi fruit has axile placentation, which is typical for Actinidiaceae. Axile placentation is thought derived through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placentation according to the traditional doctrine. Recent progress in angiosperm systematics has refuted this traditional doctrine and placed ANITA clade rather than Magnoliaceae as the basalmost clade. However, the former traditional doctrine stays in the classrooms as the only teachable theory for the origin of carpels. To test the validity of this doctrine, we performed anatomical study on kiwi fruit. Our study indicates that the placenta has a vascular system independent of that of the ovary wall, the ovules/seeds are attached to the placenta that is a continuation of floral axis enclosed by the lateral appendages that constitute the ovary wall, and there are some amphicribral bundles in the center of placenta and numerous amphicribral bundles supplying ovules/seeds in kiwi fruit. The amphicribral vascular bundles supplying the ovules/seeds are comparable to those usually seen in branches, but not comparable to those seen in leaves or their derivatives. This comparison indicates that the placenta in kiwi fruit cannot be derived from the fusion of collateral ventral bundles of conduplicate carpels, as suggested by traditional doctrine. Instead the vascular organization in placenta of kiwi suggests that the placenta is a shoot apex-bearing ovules/seeds laterally. This conclusion is in line with the recently raised Unifying Theory, in which the placenta is taken as an ovule-bearing branch independent of the ovary wall (carpel in strict sense). Similar vascular organization in placenta has been seen in numerous isolated taxa besides kiwi fruit. Therefore whether such a pattern is applicable for other angiosperms is an interesting question awaiting answering.
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[Construction of recombinant plasmid expressing S1 gene of new type of reovirus].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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To construct the recombinant plasmid containing S1 gene of new type of reovirus, and to study the expression of protein sigma1 in Vero cells.
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[Impacts of gestational weight gain on offspring weight and obesity: a 2-year follow up study].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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To evaluate the impacts of maternal weight gain during pregnancy on offspring weight and obesity from birth to 24 months of age.
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Epidemiology, genetics and treatments for myopia.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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Myopia is a significant public health problem and its prevalence is increasing over time and genetic factors in disease development are important. The prevalence and incidence of myopia within sampled population often varies with age, country, sex, race, ethnicity, occupation, environment, and other factors. Myopia growth is under a combination of genes and their products in time and space to complete the coordination role of the guidance. Myopia-related genes include about 70 genetic loci to which primary myopias have been mapped, although the number is constantly increasing and depends to some extent on definition. Of these, several are associated with additional abnormalities, mostly as part of developmental syndromes. These tend to result from mutations in genes encoding transcriptional activators, and most of these have been identified by sequencing candidate genes in patients with developmental anomalies. Currently, COL1A1 (collagen alpha-1 chain of type I), COL2A1 (collagen alpha-1 chain of type II), ACTC1 (actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1), PAX6 (paired box gene 6) and NIPBL (nipped-B homolog), and so on have been mapped. Myopia is most commonly treated with spectacles or glasses. The most common surgical procedure performed to correct myopia is laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). This review of the recent advances on epidemiology, genetic locations and treatments of myopia are summarized.
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[Construction and identification of attenuated Salmonella which harboring enterovirus 71 VP1 gene].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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To develop attenuated Salmonella which harboring enterovirus 71 (EV71) VP1 gene.
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[Research on optimization of model for detecting sugar content of navel orange by online near infrared spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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The objective of the present research was to optimize the model of sugar content in navel orange for improving the detection presicion by the online near infrared spectroscopy. The reference wavelength was chosen by coefficient of variation of the different wavelengths in the calibration set in the wavelength range of 700.28 - 933.79 nm. Then the spectra were transformed into ratio specra. The absorbance and ration spectra were pretreated by different preprocessing methods. The models of sugar content were developed by partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector regression (LSSVR). The 30 unknown navel orange samples were applied to evaluate the performance of the models. By comparison of the predictive performances, the LSSVR model was the best among the models with the first derivative preprocessing and ration spectra. The correlation coeffiecient (R(P)) of the best model was 0.85, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.41 Brix. The results suggested that it was feasible to improve the precision of online near infrared spectroscopy detecting sugar content in navel orange by the optimization of reference wavelengths, the first derivative preprocessing and LSSVR.
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[Detection of firmness and surface color of pear by near infrared spectroscopy based on Monte Carlo uninformative variables elimination method].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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In the present study, NIRS was applied to nondestructive and rapid measurement of firmness and surface color of pear. In order to improve the prediction precision and eliminate the influence of uninformative variables on model robustness, Monte Carlo uninformative variables elimination (MC-UVE) and Monte Carlo uninformative variables elimination based on wavelet transform (WT-MC-UVE) methods were proposed for variable selection in firmness and surface color NIR spectral modeling. Results show that WT-MC-UVE can reduce the modeling variables from 1451 to 210, and get similar prediction results for firmness. WT-MC-UVE improved the prediction precision for surface color, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and calibration variables were reduced from 1.06 and 1451 to 0.90 and 220 respectively, and the correlation coefficient (r) was improved from 0.975 to 0.981. The proposed method is able to select important wavelength from the NIR spectra, and makes the prediction more robust and accurate in quantitative analysis of firmness and surface color.
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Patterns of herbal combination for the treatment of insomnia commonly employed by highly experienced Chinese medicine physicians.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2011
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To explore the most effective herbal combinations commonly used by highly experienced Chinese medicine (CM) physicians for the treatment of insomnia.
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[Establishment of normal reference values for thromboelastography on Chinese population in Beijing].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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To determine the normal values for thromboelastography (TEG) in Chinese healthy adult volunteers residing in Beijing for over three years and compare them with those of the manufacturers.
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[The expression of VCAM-1 in organs of rats died of anaphylactic shock].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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To investigate the effect and expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in organs of rats died of anaphylactic shock.
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Primary study and anti-tumor mechanisms of analog from SC002.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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To study the anti-tumor mechanisms of ascidiacea analog SC002.
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[Construction and expression of a coxsackievirus A16 VP1 gene plasmid which delivered by live attenuated Salmonella].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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To develop a coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) VP1 gene plasmid which delivered by live attenuated Salmonella.
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Synthesis, structure-activity relationship and in vitro biological evaluation of N-arylethyl isoquinoline derivatives as Coxsackievirus B3 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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Currently, there is no approved antiviral drug for the infection caused by enteroviruses. A series of novel N-arylethyl isoquinoline derivatives defined with substituents on the ring A and C were designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their activities against Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). The primary structure-activity relationship revealed that substituents on the ring A were not beneficial for the activity. Among these analogs synthesized, compound 7f bearing a methylenedioxy at the R(4) and R(5) positions afforded an anti-CVB3 activity and a reasonable selectivity index (SI=26.8); furthermore, 7f exhibited a moderate activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) with SI value of 9.0. Thus it has been selected as an anti-enteroviral lead compound for further investigation.
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Effects of inhaled nitric oxide in neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure from a multicenter controlled trial.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) is one of the most common causes for neonatal infants requiring aggressive respiratory support. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been established routinely as an adjunct to conventional respiratory support in developed countries. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of iNO in neonates with HRF in resource limited condition with no or limited use of surfactant, high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
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Hierarchical self-assembly of CdTe quantum dots into hyperbranched nanobundles: suppression of biexciton Auger recombination.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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In this paper, we report a novel nanobundle structure formed by the hierarchical self-assembly of TGA-capped CdTe quantum dots. HR-TEM confirms the polycrystalline phase of the bundle structure, and that pristine quantum dots are the building units. The steady state absorption and luminescence properties of the pristine quantum dots can be well inherited by the nanobundles. In transient state observation, carrier quenching induced by Auger recombination is found to be remarkably suppressed. Electron delocalizing to close building units is considered to be the reason. Suppression of Auger recombination may earn much more time for charge separation, which makes the novel nanobundle structures suitable for the excellent donor material in solar cell applications.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.