Aedes aegypti has played a major role in the dramatic expansion of dengue worldwide. The failure of control programs in reducing the rhythm of global dengue expansion through vector control suggests the need for studies to support more appropriated control strategies. We report here the results of a longitudinal study on Ae. aegypti population dynamics through continuous egg sampling aiming to characterize the infestation of urban areas of a Brazilian oceanic island, Fernando de Noronha. The spatial and temporal distribution of the dengue vector population in urban areas of the island was described using a monitoring system (SMCP-Aedes) based on a 103-trap network for Aedes egg sampling, using GIS and spatial statistics analysis tools. Mean egg densities were estimated over a 29-month period starting in 2011 and producing monthly maps of mosquito abundance. The system detected continuous Ae. aegypti oviposition in most traps. The high global positive ovitrap index (POI=83.7% of 2815 events) indicated the frequent presence of blood-fed-egg laying females at every sampling station. Egg density (eggs/ovitrap/month) reached peak values of 297.3 (0 - 2020) in May and 295 (0 - 2140) in August 2012. The presence of a stable Ae. aegypti population established throughout the inhabited areas of the island was demonstrated. A strong association between egg abundance and rainfall with a 2-month lag was observed, which combined with a first-order autocorrelation observed in the series of egg counts can provide an important forecasting tool. This first description of the characteristics of the island infestation by the dengue vector provides baseline information to analyze relationships between the spatial distribution of the vector and dengue cases, and to the development of integrated vector control strategies.
The Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus--a vector of West Nile virus--is equipped with 130 odorant receptors (ORs), which enable young females to locate plants and blood-meal sources and older females to find suitable sites for oviposition. In our attempts to de-orphanize ORs expressed in female antennae, we identified CquiOR37 and CquiOR99, which were narrowly tuned to two phenolic compounds, 4-methylphenol and 4-ethylphenol. When tested in the Xenopus oocyte recording system the observed EC50s for 4-methylphenol and 4-ethylphenol were 6.4 and 18.2 ?M for CquiOR37 and 14.4 and 0.74 ?M for CquiOR99 (goodness of fit, R² = 0.88-0.99), respectively. Indoor behavioral assays demonstrated that gravid female mosquitoes laid significantly more eggs in water trays spiked with these compounds than in control water trays. Field studies with gravid traps corroborated that 4-ethylphenol is active in a wide range of doses from 0.1 to 10 ?g/l, as required for practical applications. A dsRNA construct based on the two genes, CquiOR37/99-dsRNA was stable in pupa hemolymph for up to 3 h. Pupae injected with CquiOR37/99-dsRNA, ?-galactosidase-dsRNA or water had more than 40% survival rate at the peak of oviposition (day-9). qPCR analysis showed individual variation, but significant mean reduction in CquiOR37 and CquiOR99 transcript levels in CquiOR37/99-dsRNA-treated mosquitoes. Water-injected females and those treated with the control gene laid significantly more eggs in trays containing 4-ethylphenol than in water trays, whereas CquiOR37/99-dsRNA-treated mosquitoes laid normal number of eggs, but could not discriminate treatment from control. This study linked for the first time specific receptors for 4-ethylphenol with increased oviposition in the important vector Cx. quinquefasciatus.
Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008-2009, with 96.8%-100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the programs success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program.
The use of attractants and larvicides in oviposition traps is of practical interest for the surveillance and control of urban mosquitoes. In addition to increasing the safety of the traps, this combination is essential for an attract-and-kill control strategy based on trapping mosquito eggs. The combination of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and grass infusion (GI) vs. GI alone were tested for their ability to attract in paired BR-OVT traps in the backyards of 10 houses in Recife, Brazil, for a period of 45 days. Results show that females prefer to oviposit in traps containing Bti (363 compared with 251 egg rafts over 45 days). Results from a one-year trial on the efficacy of BR-OVT traps loaded with GI and Bti as a sampling tool to monitor temporal fluctuations in the population densities of Culex quinquefasciatus in an urban environment are also reported. From December 2006-January 2007, one trap per home was installed and maintained for 348 consecutive days in 134-151 houses located in three urban blocks. Throughout the one-year field trial a total of 43,151 Culex egg rafts were collected in the traps. The data show that BR-OVT loaded with GI and Bti is sensitive enough to demonstrate continuous reproductive activity of Cux. quinquefasciatus in the study area throughout the year and to monitor temporal fluctuations in population density.
A synthetic mixture of an oviposition-stimulating kairomone for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, comprising of 83% tetradecanoic acid, 16% nonanoic acid and 1% tetradecanoic acid methyl ester (NTT, in short) was tested in a dengue endemic area in Recife, Brazil. Gravid female mosquitoes confined to a cage under semi-field conditions deposited significantly higher numbers of eggs in traps baited with NTT at doses ranging from 0.6 to 600 ng/microl than in control (water) traps. When tested in homes, egg-laying in traps baited with 60 ng NTT/microl (final concentration in trap, approximately 3.33 ng/ml) and in control traps was not significantly different, but egg deposited in traps with lower dosage (6 ng NTT/microl; final concentration in trap, approximately 0.33 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in control traps. In subsequent trials, the numbers of eggs laid in traps baited with 0.6 ng NTT/microl (final concentration in trap, approximately 0.033 ng/ml) were not significantly different from the numbers deposited in trap loaded with 6 ng NTT/microl. Egg-laying was significantly higher in these treatments than in control traps.
The Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is an important human health pest as a vector of several pathogens, including agents of lymphatic filariasis and arboviruses like West Nile virus. We conducted preliminary experiments in Recife, Brazil, to explore applications of Culex oviposition attractants in combination with Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) in an attract-and-kill approach. Simple, cost-effective oviposition traps, BR-OVT, loaded with Bti and baited with or without attractant, were deployed in 10 homes for 30 d in 2 consecutive yr. Significantly higher numbers of egg rafts were deposited in traps baited with skatole or infusion than the control water traps. In the first year, 2006, significantly higher numbers of eggs were deposited in infusion-baited traps, particularly in the first 15 d of the experiment, than in skatole traps, but in the following year no significant difference was observed between synthetic and natural attractants. The tests strongly demonstrate that skatole or infusion can be used to enhance the number of egg rafts deposited on Bti-treated oviposition traps.
For decades thimerosal has been used as a preservative in the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which was developed by Mayrink et al. The use of thimerosal in humans has been banned due to its mercury content. This study addresses the standardization of phenol as a new candidate vaccine preservative. We have found that the proteolytic activity was abolished when the test was conducted using the candidate vaccine added to merthiolate (MtVac) as well as to phenol (PhVac). The Montenegros skin test conversion rates induced by MtVac and by PhVac was 68.06% and 85.9%, respectively, and these values were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The proliferative response of peripheral mononuclear blood cells shows that the stimulation index of mice immunized with both candidate vaccines was higher than the one in control animals (p < 0.05). The ability of the candidate vaccines to induce protection in C57BL/10 mice against a challenge with infective Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was tested and the mice immunized with PhVac developed smaller lesions than the mice immunized with MtVac. Electrophoresis of phenol-preserved antigen revealed a number of proteins, which were better preserved in PhVac. These results do in fact encourage the use of phenol for preserving the immunogenic and biochemical properties of the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Analyse how basic sanitation conditions, water supply and housing conditions affect the concentration of Culex quinquefasciatus
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