JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Management and survival of patients with FIGO high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: the U.K. experience, 1995-2010.
J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To present survival rates of high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) (FIGO score > 7) patients treated between 1995 and 2010 in the U.K. Death due to GTN is largely confined to patients with high-risk disease. In the U.K. a national system ensures that all patients are treated at only 2 specialist centers: Charing Cross Hospital (CXH) in London and Weston Park Hospital (WPH) in Sheffield.
Related JoVE Video
A novel radiotracer to image glycogen metabolism in tumors by positron emission tomography.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The high rate of glucose uptake to fuel the bioenergetic and anabolic demands of proliferating cancer cells is well recognized and is exploited with (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) to image tumors clinically. In contrast, enhanced glucose storage as glycogen (glycogenesis) in cancer is less well understood and the availability of a noninvasive method to image glycogen in vivo could provide important biologic insights. Here, we demonstrate that (18)F-N-(methyl-(2-fluoroethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazole-4-yl)glucosamine ((18)F-NFTG) annotates glycogenesis in cancer cells and tumors in vivo, measured by PET. Specificity of glycogen labeling was demonstrated by isolating (18)F-NFTG-associated glycogen and with stable knockdown of glycogen synthase 1, which inhibited (18)F-NFTG uptake, whereas oncogene (Rab25) activation-associated glycogen synthesis led to increased uptake. We further show that the rate of glycogenesis is cell-cycle regulated, enhanced during the nonproliferative state of cancer cells. We demonstrate that glycogen levels, (18)F-NFTG, but not (18)F-FDG uptake, increase proportionally with cell density and G1-G0 arrest, with potential application in the assessment of activation of oncogenic pathways related to glycogenesis and the detection of posttreatment tumor quiescence.
Related JoVE Video
WITHDRAWN: Pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Approximately half of all patients with metastatic cancer develop a malignant pleural effusion which is likely to lead to a significant reduction in quality of life secondary to symptoms such as dyspnoea and cough. The aim of pleurodesis in these patients is to prevent re-accumulation of the effusion and thereby of symptoms, and avoid the need for repeated hospitalization for thoracocentesis.
Related JoVE Video
Intravenous versus oral dexamethasone premedication in preventing Paclitaxel infusion hypersensitivity reactions in gynecological malignancies.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dexamethasone premedication is required with paclitaxel to prevent infusion-related hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs). Both oral dexamethasone (PO-D; 20 mg 12 and 6 hours before paclitaxel) and intravenous dexamethasone (IV-D; 20 mg 30 minutes before paclitaxel) regimens are used. The optimal premedication regimen and management of patients after HSR are unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Discordance between cancer prevalence and training: a need for an increase in oncology education.
Clin Med
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The impact of cancer on healthcare is increasing. Therefore, it is key that all doctors receive oncology training. This study surveyed UK undergraduate medical schools to determine the extent of oncology training provided by their curricula. Data on foundation year (FY) and core medical training (CMT) programmes were obtained and analysed for the proportion of oncology posts. Of the responding medical schools, five (36%) had a defined period dedicated to oncology (mean 2 weeks). Four foundation schools were in London, with 10,094 FY posts in 1699 programmes. Of these, 1.5% of post and 8.7% of programmes were in oncology. For CMT offered by the London deanery specialty schools, 11% of CMT post and 48% of programmes included oncology. Oncology was included in 11% posts and 48% programmes offered by the London Deanery specialty schools. Our results show that < 50% of junior doctors receive dedicated undergraduate or postgraduate oncology training. An increase in oncology training is therefore urgently required.
Related JoVE Video
Feasibility of trials in ovarian cancer by line of therapy and platinum sensitivity.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To rapidly evaluate the significant numbers of novel therapies entering clinical development requires maximization of clinical trial capacity. To enable this, we evaluated the profile of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in clinical practice, compared with those targeted in clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
A study to evaluate the cause of bone demineralization in gynecological cancer survivors.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An association between treatment for gynecological cancers and risk of osteoporosis has never been formally evaluated. Women treated for these cancers are now living longer than ever before, and prevention of treatment-induced morbidities is important. We aimed to distinguish, in gynecological cancer survivors, whether cancer therapy has additional detrimental effects on bone health above those attributable to hormone withdrawal.
Related JoVE Video
Chemotherapy and human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations 6 months after uterine evacuation of molar pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Indications for chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic disease include raised human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations 6 months after uterine evacuation of hydatidiform mole, even when values are falling. We aimed to establish whether chemotherapy is always necessary in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
DNA-PK mediates AKT activation and apoptosis inhibition in clinically acquired platinum resistance.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinical resistance to chemotherapy is a frequent event in cancer treatment and is closely linked to poor outcome. High-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer is characterized by p53 mutation and high levels of genomic instability. Treatment includes platinum-based chemotherapy and initial response rates are high; however, resistance is frequently acquired, at which point treatment options are largely palliative. Recent data indicate that platinum-resistant clones exist within the sensitive primary tumor at presentation, implying resistant cell selection after treatment with platinum chemotherapy. The AKT pathway is central to cell survival and has been implicated in platinum resistance. Here, we show that platinum exposure induces an AKT-dependent, prosurvival, DNA damage response in clinically platinum-resistant but not platinum-sensitive cells. AKT relocates to the nucleus of resistant cells where it is phosphorylated specifically on S473 by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and this activation inhibits cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Inhibition of DNA-PK or AKT, but not mTORC2, restores platinum sensitivity in a panel of clinically resistant HGS ovarian cancer cell lines: we also demonstrate these effects in other tumor types. Resensitization is associated with prevention of AKT-mediated BAD phosphorylation. Strikingly, in patient-matched sensitive cells, we do not see enhanced apoptosis on combining cisplatin with AKT or DNA-PK inhibition. Insulin-mediated activation of AKT is unaffected by DNA-PK inhibitor treatment, suggesting that this effect is restricted to DNA damage-mediated activation of AKT and that, clinically, DNA-PK inhibition might prevent platinum-induced AKT activation without interfering with normal glucose homeostasis, an unwanted toxicity of direct AKT inhibitors.
Related JoVE Video
A study of symptoms described by ovarian cancer survivors.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A cross-sectional, observational study to evaluate physical and psychological symptoms experienced by patients following completion of treatment for ovarian cancer and compared to symptoms documented in their hospital notes.
Related JoVE Video
HDAC4-regulated STAT1 activation mediates platinum resistance in ovarian cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ovarian cancer frequently acquires resistance to platinum chemotherapy, representing a major challenge for improving patient survival. Recent work suggests that resistant clones exist within a larger drug-sensitive cell population prior to chemotherapy, implying that resistance is selected for rather than generated by treatment. We sought to compare clinically derived, intrapatient paired models of initial platinum response and subsequent resistant relapse to define molecular determinants of evolved resistance. Transcriptional analysis of a matched cell line series from three patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer before and after development of clinical platinum resistance (PEO1/PEO4/PEO6, PEA1/PEA2, PEO14/PEO23) identified 91 up- and 126 downregulated genes common to acquired resistance. Significantly enhanced apoptotic response to platinum treatment in resistant cells was observed following knockdown of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4, FOLR2, PIK3R1, or STAT1 (P < 0.05). Interestingly, HDAC4 and STAT1 were found to physically interact. Acetyl-STAT1 was detected in platinum-sensitive cells but not in HDAC4 overexpressing platinum-resistant cells from the same patient. In resistant cells, STAT1 phosphorylation/nuclear translocation was seen following platinum exposure, whereas silencing of HDAC4 increased acetyl-STAT1 levels, prevented platinum-induced STAT1 activation, and restored cisplatin sensitivity. Conversely, matched sensitive cells were refractory to STAT1 phosphorylation on platinum treatment. Analysis of 16 paired tumor biopsies taken before and after development of clinical platinum resistance showed significantly increased HDAC4 expression in resistant tumors [n = 7 of 16 (44%); P = 0.04]. Therefore, clinical selection of HDAC4-overexpressing tumor cells upon exposure to chemotherapy promotes STAT1 deacetylation and cancer cell survival. Together, our findings identify HDAC4 as a novel, therapeutically tractable target to counter platinum resistance in ovarian cancer.
Related JoVE Video
A Technical Assessment of the Utility of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for the Study of the Functional Proteome in Non-microdissected Human Breast Cancers.
Clin Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The lack of large panels of validated antibodies, tissue handling variability, and intratumoral heterogeneity potentially hamper comprehensive study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to address these concerns and to demonstrate clinical utility for the functional analysis of proteins in non-microdissected breast tumors using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA).
Related JoVE Video
Quinone oxidoreductase-2-mediated prodrug cancer therapy.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA-damaging agents are widely used in cancer treatment despite their lack of tumor specificity. Human NQO2 (quinone oxidoreductase-2) is an atypical oxidoreductase because no endogenous electron donor has been identified to date. The enzyme converts CB1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide], in the presence of the synthetic nicotinamide cofactor analog EP0152R, to a cytotoxic bifunctional alkylating agent. NQO2 activity in hepatocellular tumor tissue is higher than that in other cancer types by a factor of 6 and higher than that in bone marrow by a factor of 20. Structural data from x-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy allowed us to construct a model of CB1954 and EP0152R binding to NQO2, which suggested an optimal infusion schedule for a phase I trial combining the two agents. Thirty-two patients were treated, and diarrhea and serum transaminase concentrations defined a maximum tolerated dose for the drug combination. There was a clear pharmacokinetic interaction, with EP0152R inducing a marked increase in clearance of CB1954, in keeping with model predictions. We detected DNA interstrand cross-links caused by nitroreduced CB1954 in tumor biopsies from treated patients, demonstrating that the activated prodrug exerts its cytotoxic properties through DNA base alkylation.
Related JoVE Video
PI3K pathway-directed therapeutic strategies in cancer.
Curr Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PI3K pathway signaling is the focus of intensive oncology drug-development programs at several academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies. With several drugs that target different parts of the pathway in early clinical trials, this review presents evidence demonstrating that the PI3K pathway represents a suitable target for cancer drug development, discusses therapeuticstrategies for targeting the pathway, and highlights the status of drugs currently in development.
Related JoVE Video
Functional proteomic analysis of advanced serous ovarian cancer using reverse phase protein array: TGF-beta pathway signaling indicates response to primary chemotherapy.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using reverse phase protein array, we measured protein expression associated with response to primary chemotherapy in patients with advanced-stage, high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
Related JoVE Video
First-line therapy for ovarian cancer with carboplatin followed by paclitaxel-gemcitabine (SCOTROC5): a feasibility study and comparative analysis of the SCOTROC series.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have conducted a series of four feasibility studies in stage Ic-IV ovarian cancer exploring six sequential first-line schedules with the same entry criteria in a total of 339 patients. Here we present the results of the sixth study, and an analysis of the overall series.
Related JoVE Video
The first-in-human study of the hydrogen sulfate (Hyd-sulfate) capsule of the MEK1/2 inhibitor AZD6244 (ARRY-142886): a phase I open-label multicenter trial in patients with advanced cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In part A, the aim was to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the hydrogen sulfate (Hyd-Sulfate) oral capsule formulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor AZD6244 (ARRY-142886). In part B, the aim was to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of the new Hyd-Sulfate capsule with the initial AZD6244 free-base suspension and further characterize the pharmacodynamic profile and efficacy of the new formulation.
Related JoVE Video
Integrative analysis of proteomic signatures, mutations, and drug responsiveness in the NCI 60 cancer cell line set.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aberrations in oncogenes and tumor suppressors frequently affect the activity of critical signal transduction pathways. To analyze systematically the relationship between the activation status of protein networks and other characteristics of cancer cells, we did reverse phase protein array (RPPA) profiling of the NCI60 cell lines for total protein expression and activation-specific markers of critical signaling pathways. To extend the scope of the study, we merged those data with previously published RPPA results for the NCI60. Integrative analysis of the expanded RPPA data set revealed five major clusters of cell lines and five principal proteomic signatures. Comparison of mutations in the NCI60 cell lines with patterns of protein expression showed significant associations for PTEN, PIK3CA, BRAF, and APC mutations with proteomic clusters. PIK3CA and PTEN mutation enrichment were not cell lineage-specific but were associated with dominant yet distinct groups of proteins. The five RPPA-defined clusters were strongly associated with sensitivity to standard anticancer agents. RPPA analysis identified 27 protein features significantly associated with sensitivity to paclitaxel. The functional status of those proteins was interrogated in a paclitaxel whole genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library synthetic lethality screen and confirmed the predicted associations with drug sensitivity. These studies expand our understanding of the activation status of protein networks in the NCI60 cancer cell lines, demonstrate the importance of the direct study of protein expression and activation, and provide a basis for further studies integrating the information with other molecular and pharmacological characteristics of cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Autotaxin delays apoptosis induced by carboplatin in ovarian cancer cells.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Drug resistance remains a barrier to the effective long term treatment of ovarian cancer. We have established an RNAi-based screen to identify genes which confer resistance to carboplatin or paclitaxel. To validate the screen we showed that siRNA interfering with the apoptosis regulators FLIP and Bcl-X(L) conferred sensitivity to paclitaxel and carboplatin respectively. The expression of 90 genes which have previously been shown to be over-expressed in drug-resistant ovarian cancer was inhibited using siRNA and the impact on sensitivity to carboplatin and paclitaxel was assessed. ENPP2 was identified as a candidate gene causing drug resistance. ENPP2 encodes autotaxin, a phospholipase involved in the synthesis of the survival factor lysophosphatidic acid. siRNA directed to ENPP2 resulted in earlier apoptosis following treatment with carboplatin. 2-carbacyclic phosphatidic acid (ccPA 16:1), a small molecule inhibitor of autotaxin, also accelerated apoptosis induced by carboplatin. Stable ectopic expression of autotaxin in OVCAR-3 cells led to a delay in apoptosis. When serum was withdrawn to remove exogenous LPA, ccPA caused a pronounced potentiation of apoptosis induced by carboplatin in cells expressing autotaxin. These results indicate that autotaxin delays apoptosis induced by carboplatin in ovarian cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
The emerging role of the RAB25 small GTPase in cancer.
Traffic
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
RAB25, a member of the rat sarcoma (RAS) family of small GTPase, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ovarian, breast and other cancers. Its role in endosomal transport and recycling of cell-surface receptors and signaling proteins presents a novel paradigm for the disruption of cellular pathways and promotion of tumor development and aggressiveness. Variations in structure and post-translational modifications control the localization of RAS superfamily proteins to specific subcellular compartments and recruitment of downstream effectors, allowing these small GTPases to function as sophisticated modulators of a complex and diverse range of cellular processes. Here, we review the link between RAB25 and tumor development and current knowledge regarding its possible roles in cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic markers and long-term outcome of placental-site trophoblastic tumours: a retrospective observational study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Placental-site trophoblastic tumours are a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease and consequently information about optimum management or prognostic factors is restricted. We aimed to assess the long-term outcome of stage-adapted management by surgery, chemotherapy, or both for patients with the disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Integrative analysis of cyclin protein levels identifies cyclin b1 as a classifier and predictor of outcomes in breast cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We studied the expression levels of cyclins B1, D1, and E1 and the implications of cyclin overexpression for patient outcomes in distinct breast cancer subtypes defined by clinical variables and transcriptional profiling.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of a naturally occurring breast cancer subset enriched in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stem cell characteristics.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metaplastic breast cancers (MBC) are aggressive, chemoresistant tumors characterized by lineage plasticity. To advance understanding of their pathogenesis and relatedness to other breast cancer subtypes, 28 MBCs were compared with common breast cancers using comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and reverse-phase protein arrays and by sequencing for common breast cancer mutations. MBCs showed unique DNA copy number aberrations compared with common breast cancers. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 9 of 19 MBCs (47.4%) versus 80 of 232 hormone receptor-positive cancers (34.5%; P = 0.32), 17 of 75 HER-2-positive samples (22.7%; P = 0.04), 20 of 240 basal-like cancers (8.3%; P < 0.0001), and 0 of 14 claudin-low tumors (P = 0.004). Of 7 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway phosphorylation sites, 6 were more highly phosphorylated in MBCs than in other breast tumor subtypes. The majority of MBCs displayed mRNA profiles different from those of the most common, including basal-like cancers. By transcriptional profiling, MBCs and the recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subset constitute related receptor-negative subgroups characterized by low expression of GATA3-regulated genes and of genes responsible for cell-cell adhesion with enrichment for markers linked to stem cell function and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In contrast to other breast cancers, claudin-low tumors and most MBCs showed a significant similarity to a "tumorigenic" signature defined using CD44(+)/CD24(-) breast tumor-initiating stem cell-like cells. MBCs and claudin-low tumors are thus enriched in EMT and stem cell-like features, and may arise from an earlier, more chemoresistant breast epithelial precursor than basal-like or luminal cancers. PIK3CA mutations, EMT, and stem cell-like characteristics likely contribute to the poor outcomes of MBC and suggest novel therapeutic targets.
Related JoVE Video
Androgen receptor levels and association with PIK3CA mutations and prognosis in breast cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the androgen receptor (AR) levels in breast cancer and to assess the impact of AR expression on patient outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
EMA/CO for high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: good outcomes with induction low-dose etoposide-cisplatin and genetic analysis.
J. Clin. Oncol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with high-risk (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics score ? 7) gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) frequently receive etoposide, methotrexate, and dactinomycin alternating weekly with cyclophosphamide and vincristine (EMA/CO). Between 1979 and 1995, overall survival (OS) with this regimen at our institute was 85.4% with a significant proportion of early deaths (< 4 weeks). Here, we determine whether survival rates have improved in a more recent patient cohort (1995 to 2010).
Related JoVE Video
Frequency of mutations and polymorphisms in borderline ovarian tumors of known cancer genes.
Mod. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Borderline ovarian tumors represent an understudied subset of ovarian tumors. Most studies investigating aberrations in borderline tumors have focused on KRAS/BRAF mutations. In this study, we conducted an extensive analysis of mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in borderline ovarian tumors. Using the Sequenom MassArray platform, we investigated 160 mutations/polymorphisms in 33 genes involved in cell signaling, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation and cellular senescence. Of 52 tumors analyzed, 33 were serous, 18 mucinous and 1 endometrioid. KRAS c.35G>A p.Gly12Asp mutations were detected in eight tumors (six serous and two mucinous), BRAF V600E mutations in two serous tumors, and PIK3CA H1047Y and PIK3CA E542K mutations in a serous and an endometrioid BOT, respectively. CTNNB1 mutation was detected in a serous tumor. Potentially functional polymorphisms were found in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), ABCB1, FGFR2 and PHLPP2. VEGF polymorphisms were the most common and detected at four loci. PHLPP2 polymorphisms were more frequent in mucinous as compared with serous tumors (P=0.04), with allelic imbalance in one case. This study represents the largest and most comprehensive analysis of mutations and functional SNPs in borderline ovarian tumors to date. At least 25% of borderline ovarian tumors harbor somatic mutations associated with potential response to targeted therapeutics.
Related JoVE Video
The OPCML tumor suppressor functions as a cell surface repressor-adaptor, negatively regulating receptor tyrosine kinases in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Cancer Discov
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, and its molecular basis is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that opioid binding protein cell adhesion molecule (OPCML) was frequently epigenetically inactivated in epithelial ovarian cancers, with tumor suppressor function in vitro and in vivo. Here, we further show the clinical relevance of OPCML and demonstrate that OPCML functions by a novel mechanism in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and normal ovarian surface epithelial cells by regulating a specific repertoire of receptor tyrosine kinases: EPHA2, FGFR1, FGFR3, HER2, and HER4. OPCML negatively regulates receptor tyrosine kinases by binding their extracellular domains, altering trafficking via nonclathrin-dependent endocytosis, and promoting their degradation via a polyubiquitination-associated proteasomal mechanism leading to signaling and growth inhibition. Exogenous recombinant OPCML domain 1-3 protein inhibited the cell growth of epithelial ovarian cancers cell in vitro and in vivo in 2 murine ovarian cancer intraperitoneal models that used an identical mechanism. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of OPCML-mediated tumor suppression and provide a proof-of-concept for recombinant OPCML protein therapy in epithelial ovarian cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Rab25 increases cellular ATP and glycogen stores protecting cancer cells from bioenergetic stress.
EMBO Mol Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer cells are metabolically stressed during tumour progression due to limited tumour vascularity and resultant nutrient, growth factor and oxygen deficiency that can induce cell death and inhibit tumour growth. We demonstrate that Rab25, a small GTPase involved in endosomal recycling, that is genomically amplified in multiple tumour lineages, is a key regulator of cellular bioenergetics and autophagy. RAB25 enhanced survival during nutrient stress by preventing apoptosis and autophagy via binding and activating AKT leading to increased glucose uptake and improved cellular bioenergetics. Unexpectedly, Rab25 induced the accumulation of glycogen in epithelial cancer cells, a process not previously identified. Strikingly, an increase in basal ATP levels combined with AKT-dependent increases in glucose uptake and glycogen storage allowed maintenance of ATP levels during bioenergetic stress. The clinical relevance of these findings was validated by the ability of a Rab25-dependent expression profile enriched for bioenergetics targets to identify patients with a poor prognosis. Thus, Rab25 is an unexpected regulator of cellular bioenergetics implicated as a useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.