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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Thymidine Phosphorylase Participates in Platelet Signaling and Promotes Thrombosis.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Rationale: Platelets contain abundant thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP), which is highly expressed in diseases with high risk of thrombosis, such as atherosclerosis and type II diabetes. Objective: Test the hypothesis that TYMP participates in platelet signaling and promotes thrombosis. Methods and Results: By using a ferric chloride (FeCl3) induced carotid artery injury thrombosis model, we found time to blood flow cessation was significantly prolonged in Tymp(-/-) and Tymp(+/-) mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. Bone marrow transplantation and platelet transfusion studies demonstrated that platelet TYMP was responsible for the antithrombotic phenomenon in the TYMP deficient mice. Collagen-, collagen-related peptide (CRP)-, adenosine diphosphate- and/or thrombin-induced platelet aggregation were significantly attenuated in Tymp(+/-) and Tymp(-/-) platelets, and in WT or human platelets pretreated with TYMP inhibitor KIN59. Tymp deficiency also significantly decreased agonist-induced P-selectin expression. TYMP contains an N-terminal SH3 domain binding proline-rich motif and forms a complex with the tyrosine kinases Lyn, Fyn and Yes in platelets. TYMP-associated Lyn was inactive in resting platelets, and TYMP trapped and diminished active Lyn after collagen stimulation. Tymp/Lyn double haploinsufficiency diminished the antithrombotic phenotype of Tymp(+/-) mice. TYMP deletion or inhibition of TYMP with KIN59 dramatically increased PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and diminished CRP or collagen induced AKT phosphorylation. In vivo administration of KIN59 significantly inhibited FeCl3 induced carotid artery thrombosis without affecting hemostasis. Conclusions: TYMP participates in multiple platelet signaling pathways and regulates platelet activation and thrombosis. Targeting TYMP might be a novel anti-platelet and anti-thrombosis therapy.
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Hyper-Inflammation and Skin Destruction Mediated by Rosiglitazone Activation of Macrophages in IL-6 Deficiency.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Injury initiates recruitment of macrophages to support tissue repair; however, excessive macrophage activity may exacerbate tissue damage causing further destruction and subsequent delay in wound repair. Here we show that the peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor-? agonist, rosiglitazone (Rosi), a medication recently reintroduced as a drug to treat diabetes and with known anti-inflammatory properties, paradoxically generates pro-inflammatory macrophages. This is observed in both IL-6-deficient mice and control wild-type mice experimentally induced to produce high titers of auto-antibodies against IL-6, mimicking IL-6 deficiency in human diseases. IL-6 deficiency when combined with Rosi-mediated upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 leads to an altered ratio of nuclear signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/NF-?B that allows hyper-induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Macrophages activated in this manner cause de novo tissue destruction, recapitulating human chronic wounds, and can be reversed in vivo by recombinant IL-6, blocking macrophage infiltration, or neutralizing iNOS. This study provides insight into an unanticipated paradoxical role of Rosi in mediating hyper-inflammatory macrophage activation significant for diseases associated with IL-6 deficiency.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 9 October 2014; (2014) 0, 000-000. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.375.
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Cancer stem cell-specific scavenger receptor 36 drives glioblastoma progression.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Glioblastoma (GBM) contains a self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cell (CSC) population which contributes to tumor propagation and therapeutic resistance. While the tumor microenvironment is essential to CSC self-renewal, the mechanisms by which CSCs sense and respond to microenvironmental conditions are poorly understood. Scavenger receptors are a broad class of membrane receptors well characterized on immune cells and instrumental in sensing apoptotic cellular debris and modified lipids. Here, we provide evidence that CSCs selectively use the scavenger receptor CD36 to promote their maintenance using patient-derived CSCs and in vivo xenograft models. CD36 expression was observed in GBM cells in addition to previously described cell types including endothelial cells, macrophages, and microglia. CD36 was enriched in CSCs and was able to functionally distinguish self-renewing cells. CD36 was coexpressed with integrin alpha 6 and CD133, previously described CSC markers, and CD36 reduction resulted in concomitant loss of integrin alpha 6 expression, self-renewal, and tumor initiation capacity. We confirmed oxidized phospholipids, ligands of CD36, were present in GBM and found that the proliferation of CSCs, but not non-CSCs, increased with exposure to oxidized low-density lipoprotein. CD36 was an informative biomarker of malignancy and negatively correlated to patient prognosis. These results provide a paradigm for CSCs to thrive by the selective enhanced expression of scavenger receptors, providing survival, and metabolic advantages.
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Platelet-derived S100 family member myeloid-related protein-14 regulates thrombosis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Expression of the gene encoding the S100 calcium-modulated protein family member MRP-14 (also known as S100A9) is elevated in platelets from patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with those from patients with stable coronary artery disease; however, a causal role for MRP-14 in acute coronary syndromes has not been established. Here, using multiple models of vascular injury, we found that time to arterial thrombotic occlusion was markedly prolonged in Mrp14?/? mice. We observed that MRP-14 and MRP-8/MRP-14 heterodimers (S100A8/A9) are expressed in and secreted by platelets from WT mice and that thrombus formation was reduced in whole blood from Mrp14?/? mice. Infusion of WT platelets, purified MRP-14, or purified MRP-8/MRP-14 heterodimers into Mrp14?/? mice decreased the time to carotid artery occlusion after injury, indicating that platelet-derived MRP-14 directly regulates thrombosis. In contrast, infusion of purified MRP-14 into mice deficient for both MRP-14 and CD36 failed to reduce carotid occlusion times, indicating that CD36 is required for MRP-14-dependent thrombosis. Our data identify a molecular pathway of thrombosis that involves platelet MRP-14 and CD36 and suggest that targeting MRP-14 has potential for treating atherothrombotic disorders, including MI and stroke.
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Proteasome proteolysis supports stimulated platelet function and thrombosis.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Proteasome inhibitors used in the treatment of hematologic cancers also reduce thrombosis. Whether the proteasome participates in platelet activation or function is unclear because little is known of the proteasome in these terminally differentiated cells.
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Lipopolysaccharide stimulates platelets through an IL-1? autocrine loop.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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LPS activates platelets through TLR4, aiding productive sepsis, with stimulated splicing and translation of stored heteronuclear pro-IL-1? RNA. Although the IL-1R type 1 (IL-1R1) receptor for IL-1 shares downstream components with the TLR4 receptor, platelets are not known to express IL-1R1, nor are they known to respond to this cytokine. We show by flow cytometry and Western blotting that platelets express IL-1R1, and that IL-1? and IL-1? stimulate heteronuclear I-1? splicing and translation of the newly made mRNA in platelets. Platelets also respond to the IL-1? they make, which is exclusively associated with shed microparticles. Specific blockade of IL-1R1 with IL-1R antagonist suppressed platelet stimulation by IL-1, so IL-1? stimulates its own synthesis in an autocrine signaling loop. Strikingly, IL-1R antagonist inhibition, pharmacologic or genetic suppression of pro-IL-1? processing to active cytokine by caspase-1, or blockade of de novo protein synthesis also blocked LPS-induced IL-1? mRNA production. Robust stimulation of platelets by LPS therefore also required IL-1? amplification. Activated platelets made IL-1? in vivo as IL-1? rapidly accumulated in occluded murine carotid arteries by posttranscriptional RNA splicing unique to platelets. We conclude that IL-1? is a platelet agonist, that IL-1? acts through an autocrine stimulatory loop, that an IL-1? autocrine loop is required to amplify platelet activation by LPS, and that platelets immobilized in occlusive thrombi are activated over time to produce IL-1?. IL-1 is a new platelet agonist that promotes its own synthesis, connecting thrombosis with immunity.
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Thrombospondin-1 modulates VEGF signaling via CD36 by recruiting SHP-1 to VEGFR2 complex in microvascular endothelial cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) inhibits growth factor signaling at the receptor level in microvascular endothelial cells (MVEC), and CD36 has been suggested to be involved in this inhibition, but the mechanisms are not known. We hypothesized that CD36-TSP-1 interaction recruits Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling complex and attenuates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. Western blots of anti-CD36 and anti-VEGFR2 immunoprecipitates from VEGF-treated MVEC showed that exposure of the cells to a recombinant protein containing the CD36 binding domain of thrombospondin-1 (known as the TSR domain) induced association of SHP-1 with the VEGFR2/CD36 signaling complex and thereby suppressed VEGFR2 phosphorylation. SHP-1 phosphatase activity was increased in immunoprecipitated VEGFR2 complexes from TSR-treated cells. Silencing CD36 expression in MVEC by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or genetic deletion of cd36 in mice showed that TSR-induced SHP-1/VEGFR2 complex formation required CD36 in vitro and in vivo. Silencing SHP-1 expression in MVEC by siRNA abrogated TSR-mediated inhibition of VEGFR2 phosphorylation as well as TSR-mediated inhibition of VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation. These studies reveal a SHP-1-mediated antiangiogenic pathway induced by CD36-TSP-1 interaction that inhibits VEGFR2 signaling and they provide a novel target to modulate angiogenesis therapeutically.
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Vav Guanine nucleotide exchange factors regulate atherosclerotic lesion development in mice.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Atherosclerosis requires migration of monocytes to the arterial intima, with subsequent differentiation into foam cells. We showed previously that the scavenger receptor CD36 contributes to the activation of Vav family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Vavs) in aortae from hyperlipidemic apoE-null mice and that oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein induced CD36-dependent activation of macrophage Vavs in vitro. We also discovered that CD36-dependent uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and foam cell formation were reduced in Vav-deficient macrophages. We now tested the hypothesis that Vavs play a role in atherosclerotic lesion development.
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Nicotine potentiates proatherogenic effects of oxLDL by stimulating and upregulating macrophage CD36 signaling.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. CD36 mediates oxidized LDL (oxLDL) uptake and contributes to macrophage foam cell formation. We investigated a role for the CD36 pathway in nicotine-induced activation of macrophages and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo. Nicotine in the same plasma concentration range found in smokers increased the CD36(+)/CD14(+) cell population in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, increased CD36 expression of human THP1 macrophages, and increased macrophage production of reactive oxygen species, PKC? phosphorylation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) expression. Nicotine-induced CD36 expression was suppressed by antioxidants and by specific PKC? and PPAR? inhibitors, implicating mechanistic roles for these intermediates. Nicotine synergized with oxLDL to increase macrophage expression of CD36 and cytokines TNF-?, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-6, and CXCL9, all of which were prevented by CD36 small interfering (si)RNA. Incubation with oxLDL (50 ?g/ml) for 72 h resulted in lipid deposition in macrophages and foam cell formation. Preincubation with nicotine further increased oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation and foam cell formation, which was also prevented by CD36 siRNA. Treatment of apoE-/- mice with nicotine markedly exacerbated inflammatory monocyte levels and atherosclerotic plaque accumulation, effects that were not seen in CD36-/- apoE-/- mice. Our results show that physiological levels of nicotine increase CD36 expression in macrophages, a pathway that may account at least in part for the known proinflammatory and proatherogenic properties of nicotine. These results identify such enhanced CD36 expression as a novel nicotine-mediated pathway that may constitute an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in smokers. The results also suggest that exacerbated atherogenesis by this pathway may be an adverse side effect of extended use of high concentrations of nicotine independent of their mode of administration.
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Molecular basis of antiangiogenic thrombospondin-1 type 1 repeat domain interactions with CD36.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Antiangiogenic activity of thrombospondin-1 and related proteins is mediated by interactions between thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) domains and the CD36, LIMP-2, Emp sequence homology (CLESH) domain of the endothelial cell receptor CD36. We sought to characterize key molecular determinants of the interaction between thrombospondin-1 TSR domains and the CD36 CLESH domain.
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Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array.
Santhi K Ganesh, Vinicius Tragante, Wei Guo, Yiran Guo, Matthew B Lanktree, Erin N Smith, Toby Johnson, Berta Almoguera Castillo, John Barnard, Jens Baumert, Yen-Pei Christy Chang, Clara C Elbers, Martin Farrall, Mary E Fischer, Nora Franceschini, Tom R Gaunt, Johannes M I H Gho, Christian Gieger, Yan Gong, Aaron Isaacs, Marcus E Kleber, Irene Mateo Leach, Caitrin W McDonough, Matthijs F L Meijs, Olle Mellander, Cliona M Molony, Ilja M Nolte, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Tom S Price, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Jonathan Shaffer, Sonia Shah, Haiqing Shen, Nicole Soranzo, Peter J van der Most, Erik P A van Iperen, Jessica van Setten, Jessic A Van Setten, Judith M Vonk, Li Zhang, Amber L Beitelshees, Gerald S Berenson, Deepak L Bhatt, Jolanda M A Boer, Eric Boerwinkle, Ben Burkley, Amber Burt, Aravinda Chakravarti, Wei Chen, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Sean P Curtis, Albert Dreisbach, David Duggan, Georg B Ehret, Richard R Fabsitz, Myriam Fornage, Ervin Fox, Clement E Furlong, Ron T Gansevoort, Marten H Hofker, G Kees Hovingh, Susan A Kirkland, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Abdullah Kutlar, Andrea Z LaCroix, Taimour Y Langaee, Yun R Li, Honghuang Lin, Kiang Liu, Steffi Maiwald, Rainer Malik, , Gurunathan Murugesan, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Jeffery R O'Connell, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Willem H Ouwehand, Walter Palmas, Brenda W Penninx, Carl J Pepine, Mary Pettinger, Joseph F Polak, Vasan S Ramachandran, Jane Ranchalis, Susan Redline, Paul M Ridker, Lynda M Rose, Hubert Scharnag, Nicholas J Schork, Daichi Shimbo, Alan R Shuldiner, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Ronald P Stolk, Herman A Taylor, Barbara Thorand, Mieke D Trip, Cornelia M van Duijn, W Monique Verschuren, Cisca Wijmenga, Bernhard R Winkelmann, Sharon Wyatt, J Hunter Young, Bernhard O Boehm, Mark J Caulfield, Daniel I Chasman, Karina W Davidson, Pieter A Doevendans, Garret A FitzGerald, John G Gums, Hakon Hakonarson, Hans L Hillege, Thomas Illig, Gail P Jarvik, Julie A Johnson, John J P Kastelein, Wolfgang Koenig, Winfried März, Braxton D Mitchell, Sarah S Murray, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Alex P Reiner, Eric E Schadt, Roy L Silverstein, Harold Snieder, Alice V Stanton, André G Uitterlinden, Pim van der Harst, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Nilesh J Samani, Andrew D Johnson, Patricia B Munroe, Paul I W de Bakker, Xiaofeng Zhu, Daniel Levy, Brendan J Keating, Folkert W Asselbergs.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable determinant of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ?50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ?2100 candidate genes for cardiovascular phenotypes in 61 619 individuals of European ancestry from cohort studies in the USA and Europe. We identified novel associations between rs347591 and SBP (chromosome 3p25.3, in an intron of HRH1) and between rs2169137 and DBP (chromosome1q32.1 in an intron of MDM4) and between rs2014408 and SBP (chromosome 11p15 in an intron of SOX6), previously reported to be associated with MAP. We also confirmed 10 previously known loci associated with SBP, DBP, MAP or PP (ADRB1, ATP2B1, SH2B3/ATXN2, CSK, CYP17A1, FURIN, HFE, LSP1, MTHFR, SOX6) at array-wide significance (P < 2.4 × 10(-6)). We then replicated these associations in an independent set of 65 886 individuals of European ancestry. The findings from expression QTL (eQTL) analysis showed associations of SNPs in the MDM4 region with MDM4 expression. We did not find any evidence of association of the two novel SNPs in MDM4 and HRH1 with sequelae of high BP including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or stroke. In summary, we identified two novel loci associated with BP and confirmed multiple previously reported associations. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, some of which may eventually provide new targets for therapeutic intervention.
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Vav protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor regulates CD36 protein-mediated macrophage foam cell formation via calcium and dynamin-dependent processes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease, results in part from the accumulation of modified lipoproteins in the arterial wall and formation of lipid-laden macrophages, known as "foam cells." Recently, we reported that CD36, a scavenger receptor, contributes to activation of Vav-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors by oxidatively modified LDL in macrophages. We also discovered that CD36-dependent uptake of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in vitro and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo was significantly reduced in macrophages deficient of Vav proteins. The goal of the present study was to identify the mechanisms by which Vav proteins regulate CD36-dependent foam cell formation. We now show that a Vav-dynamin signaling axis plays a critical role in generating calcium signals in mouse macrophages exposed to CD36-specific oxidized phospholipid ligands. Chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) or inhibition of phospholipase C-? (PLC-?) inhibited Vav activation (85 and 70%, respectively, compared with vehicle control) and reduced foam cell formation (approximately 75%). Knockdown of expression by siRNA or inhibition of GTPase activity of dynamin 2, a Vav-interacting protein involved in endocytic vesicle fission, significantly blocked oxLDL uptake and inhibited foam cell formation. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies showed that Vav1 and dynamin 2 colocalized with internalized oxLDL in macrophages and that activation and mobilization of dynamin 2 by oxLDL was impaired in vav null cells. These studies identified previously unknown components of the CD36 signaling pathway, demonstrating that Vav proteins regulate oxLDL uptake and foam cell formation via calcium- and dynamin 2-dependent processes and thus represent novel therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis.
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CD9 tetraspanin interacts with CD36 on the surface of macrophages: a possible regulatory influence on uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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CD36 is a type 2 scavenger receptor with multiple functions. CD36 binding to oxidized LDL triggers signaling cascades that are required for macrophage foam cell formation, but the mechanisms by which CD36 signals remain incompletely understood. Mass spectrometry analysis of anti-CD36 immuno-precipitates from macrophages identified the tetraspanin CD9 as a CD36 interacting protein. Western blot showed that CD9 was precipitated from mouse macrophages by anti-CD36 monoclonal antibody and CD36 was likewise precipitated by anti-CD9, confirming the mass spectrometry results. Macrophages from cd36 null mice were used to demonstrate specificity. Membrane associations of the two proteins on intact cells was analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and by a novel cross linking assay that detects proteins in close proximity (<40 nm). Functional significance was determined by assessing lipid accumulation, foam cell formation and JNK activation in wt, cd9 null and cd36 null macrophages exposed to oxLDL. OxLDL uptake, lipid accumulation, foam cell formation, and JNK phosphorylation were partially impaired in cd9 null macrophages. The present study demonstrates that CD9 associates with CD36 on the macrophage surface and may participate in macrophage signaling in response to oxidized LDL.
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Expression, purification and structural characterization of functionally replete thrombospondin-1 type 1 repeats in a bacterial expression system.
Protein Expr. Purif.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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The matrix glycoprotein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a prominent regulator of endothelial cells and angiogenesis. The anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic properties of TSP-1 are in part mediated by the TSP-1 type 1 repeat domains 2 and 3, TSR(2,3). Here, we describe the expression and purification of human TSR(2,3) in milligram quantities from an Escherichia coli expression system. Microvascular endothelial cell migration assays and binding assays with a canonical TSP-1 ligand, histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRGP), indicate that recombinant TSR(2,3) exhibits anti-chemotactic and ligand binding properties similar to full length TSP-1. Furthermore, we determined the structure of E. coli expressed TSR(2,3) by X-ray crystallography at 2.4Å and found the structure to be identical to the existing TSR(2,3) crystal structure determined from a Drosophila expression system. The TSR(2,3) expression and purification protocol developed in this study allows for facile expression of TSR(2,3) for biochemical and biophysical studies, and will aid in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of TSP-1 anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities.
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Loss of expression of neutrophil proteinase-3: a factor contributing to thrombotic risk in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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A deficiency of specific glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria may be responsible for most of the clinical features of this disease, but some functional consequences may be indirect. For example, the absence of certain glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells may influence expression of other membrane proteins. Membrane-bound proteinase 3 co-localizes with glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-linked neutrophil antigen 2a, which is absent in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
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Platelet CD36 surface expression levels affect functional responses to oxidized LDL and are associated with inheritance of specific genetic polymorphisms.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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CD36 modulates platelet function via binding to oxidized LDL (oxLDL), cell-derived microparticles, and thrombospondin-1. We hypothesized that the level of platelet CD36 expression may be associated with inheritance of specific genetic polymorphisms and that this would determine platelet reactivity to oxLDL. Analysis of more than 500 subjects revealed that CD36 expression levels were consistent in individual donors over time but varied widely among donors (200-14,000 molecules per platelet). Platelet aggregometry and flow cytometry in a subset of subjects with various CD36 expression levels revealed a high level of correlation (r² = 0.87) between platelet activation responses to oxLDL and level of CD36 expression. A genome-wide association study of 374 white subjects from the Cleveland Clinic ASCLOGEN study showed strong associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CD36 with platelet surface CD36 expression. Most of these findings were replicated in a smaller subset of 25 black subjects. An innovative gene-based genome-wide scan provided further evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms in CD36 were strongly associated with CD36 expression. These studies show that CD36 expression on platelets varies widely, correlates with functional responses to oxLDL, and is associated with inheritance of specific CD36 genetic polymorphisms, and suggest that inheritance of specific CD36 polymorphisms could affect thrombotic risk.
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Lysophosphatidic acid suppresses endothelial cell CD36 expression and promotes angiogenesis via a PKD-1-dependent signaling pathway.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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In pathologic settings including retinal ischemia and malignant tumors, robust angiogenesis occurs despite the presence in the microenvironment of antiangiogenic proteins containing thrombospondin structural homology (TSR) domains. We hypothesized that antiangiogenesis mediated by TSR-containing proteins could be blunted by localized down-regulation of their cognate receptor on microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs), CD36. Through screening a panel of endothelial cell agonists, we found that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) dramatically down-regulated CD36 surface expression on primary MVECs. LPA is a lipid-signaling mediator known to have proangiogenic activity, but the mechanisms are largely unknown. We observed that LPA caused CD36 down-regulation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was long lasting. Down-regulation occurred at the transcriptional level via a signaling pathway involving specific LPA receptors and protein kinase D. LPA-induced MVEC CD36 repression significantly attenuated in vitro antiangiogenic responses to thrombospondin-1, including blockade of migration, tube formation, and VEGFR-2 signaling in response to fibroblast growth factor-2. In vivo relevance was demonstrated by showing that LPA abrogated thrombospondin-1-mediated inhibition of neovascularization of Matrigel plugs implanted in mice. Our data thus indicate that the proangiogenic mechanism of LPA may in part be via switching off the antiangiogenic switch mediated by TSR proteins and CD36.
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Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factors link hyperlipidemia and a prothrombotic state.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Platelet hyperactivity associated with hyperlipidemia contributes to development of a pro-thrombotic state. We previously showed that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) formed in the setting of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis initiated a CD36-mediated signaling cascade leading to platelet hyperactivity. We now show that the guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav1 and Vav3 were tyrosine phosphorylated in platelets exposed to oxLDL. Pharmacologic inhibition of src family kinases abolished Vav1 phosphorylation by oxLDL in vitro. Coimmunoprecipitations revealed the tyrosine phosphorylated form of src kinase Fyn was associated with Vav1 in platelets exposed to oxLDL. Using a platelet aggregation assay, we demonstrated that Vav1 deficiency, Fyn deficiency, or Vav1/Vav3 deficiency protected mice from diet-induced platelet hyperactivity. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis revealed that Vav1/Vav3 deficiency significantly inhibited oxLDL-mediated integrin ?IIb?III activation of platelets costimulated with ADP. Finally, we showed with an in vivo carotid artery thrombosis model that genetic deletion of Vav1 and Vav3 together may prevent the development of occlusive thrombi in mice fed a high-fat diet. These findings implicate Vav proteins in oxLDL-mediated platelet activation and suggest that Vav family member(s) may act as critical modulators linking a prothrombotic state and hyperlipidemia.
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Vav family Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors regulate CD36-mediated macrophage foam cell formation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Lipid-laden macrophages or "foam cells" are the primary components of the fatty streak, the earliest atherosclerotic lesion. Although Vav family guanine nucleotide exchange factors impact processes highly relevant to atherogenesis and are involved in pathways common to scavenger receptor CD36 signaling, their role in CD36-dependent macrophage foam cell formation remains unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine the contribution of Vav proteins to CD36-dependent foam cell formation and to identify the mechanisms by which Vavs participate in the process. We found that CD36 contributes to activation of Vav-1, -2, and -3 in aortae from hyperlipidemic mice and that oxidatively modified LDL (oxLDL) induces activation of macrophage Vav in vitro in a CD36 and Src family kinase-dependent manner. CD36-dependent uptake of oxLDL in vitro and foam cell formation in vitro and in vivo was significantly reduced in Vav null macrophages. These studies for the first time link CD36 and Vavs in a signaling pathway required for macrophage foam cell formation.
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A CD36-dependent pathway enhances macrophage and adipose tissue inflammation and impairs insulin signalling.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
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Obesity and hyperlipidaemia are associated with insulin resistance (IR); however, the mechanisms responsible remain incompletely understood. Pro-atherogenic hyperlipidaemic states are characterized by inflammation, oxidant stress, and pathophysiologic oxidized lipids, including ligands for the scavenger receptor CD36. Here we tested the hypothesis that the absence of CD36 protects mice from IR associated with diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidaemia.
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Meta-analysis of Dense Genecentric Association Studies Reveals Common and Uncommon Variants Associated with Height.
Matthew B Lanktree, Yiran Guo, Muhammed Murtaza, Joseph T Glessner, Swneke D Bailey, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Guillaume Lettre, Halit Ongen, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Toby Johnson, Haiqing Shen, Christopher P Nelson, Norman Klopp, Jens Baumert, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Nathan Pankratz, James S Pankow, Sonia Shah, Kira Taylor, John Barnard, Bas J Peters, Cliona M Maloney, Maximilian T Lobmeyer, Alice Stanton, M Hadi Zafarmand, Simon P R Romaine, Amar Mehta, Erik P A van Iperen, Yan Gong, Tom S Price, Erin N Smith, Cecilia E Kim, Yun R Li, Folkert W Asselbergs, Larry D Atwood, Kristian M Bailey, Deepak Bhatt, Florianne Bauer, Elijah R Behr, Tushar Bhangale, Jolanda M A Boer, Bernhard O Boehm, Jonathan P Bradfield, Morris Brown, Peter S Braund, Paul R Burton, Cara Carty, Hareesh R Chandrupatla, Wei Chen, John Connell, Chrysoula Dalgeorgou, Anthonius de Boer, Fotios Drenos, Clara C Elbers, James C Fang, Caroline S Fox, Edward C Frackelton, Barry Fuchs, Clement E Furlong, Quince Gibson, Christian Gieger, Anuj Goel, Diederik E Grobbee, Claire Hastie, Philip J Howard, Guan-Hua Huang, W Craig Johnson, Qing Li, Marcus E Kleber, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Charles Kooperberg, Bonnie Ky, Andrea LaCroix, Paul Lanken, Mark Lathrop, Mingyao Li, Vanessa Marshall, Olle Melander, Frank D Mentch, Nuala J Meyer, Keri L Monda, Alexandre Montpetit, Gurunathan Murugesan, Karen Nakayama, Dave Nondahl, Abiodun Onipinla, Suzanne Rafelt, Stephen J Newhouse, F George Otieno, Sanjey R Patel, Mary E Putt, Santiago Rodriguez, Radwan N Safa, Douglas B Sawyer, Pamela J Schreiner, Claire Simpson, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Christine Suver, Gary Swergold, Nancy K Sweitzer, Kelly A Thomas, Barbara Thorand, Nicholas J Timpson, Sam Tischfield, Martin Tobin, Maciej Tomaszewski, Maciej Tomaszweski, W M Monique Verschuren, Chris Wallace, Bernhard Winkelmann, Haitao Zhang, Dongling Zheng, Li Zhang, Joseph M Zmuda, Robert Clarke, Anthony J Balmforth, John Danesh, Ian N Day, Nicholas J Schork, Paul I W de Bakker, Christian Delles, David Duggan, Aroon D Hingorani, Joel N Hirschhorn, Marten H Hofker, Steve E Humphries, Mika Kivimäki, Debbie A Lawlor, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Jessica L Mega, Braxton D Mitchell, David A Morrow, Jutta Palmen, Susan Redline, Denis C Shields, Alan R Shuldiner, Patrick M Sleiman, George Davey Smith, Martin Farrall, Yalda Jamshidi, David C Christiani, Juan P Casas, Alistair S Hall, Pieter A Doevendans, Jason D Christie, Gerald S Berenson, Sarah S Murray, Thomas Illig, Gerald W Dorn, Thomas P Cappola, Eric Boerwinkle, Peter Sever, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Mark Caulfield, Philippa J Talmud, Eric Topol, James C Engert, Kai Wang, Anna Dominiczak, Anders Hamsten, Sean P Curtis, Roy L Silverstein, Leslie A Lange, Marc S Sabatine, Mieke Trip, Danish Saleheen, John F Peden, Karen J Cruickshanks, Winfried März, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Olaf H Klungel, Cisca Wijmenga, Anke Hilse Maitland-van der Zee, Eric E Schadt, Julie A Johnson, Gail P Jarvik, George J Papanicolaou, , Struan F A Grant, Patricia B Munroe, Kari E North, Nilesh J Samani, Wolfgang Koenig, Tom R Gaunt, Sonia S Anand, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Nicole Soranzo, Garret A FitzGerald, Alex Reiner, Robert A Hegele, Hakon Hakonarson, Brendan J Keating.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
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Height is a classic complex trait with common variants in a growing list of genes known to contribute to the phenotype. Using a genecentric genotyping array targeted toward cardiovascular-related loci, comprising 49,320 SNPs across approximately 2000 loci, we evaluated the association of common and uncommon SNPs with adult height in 114,223 individuals from 47 studies and six ethnicities. A total of 64 loci contained a SNP associated with height at array-wide significance (p < 2.4 × 10(-6)), with 42 loci surpassing the conventional genome-wide significance threshold (p < 5 × 10(-8)). Common variants with minor allele frequencies greater than 5% were observed to be associated with height in 37 previously reported loci. In individuals of European ancestry, uncommon SNPs in IL11 and SMAD3, which would not be genotyped with the use of standard genome-wide genotyping arrays, were strongly associated with height (p < 3 × 10(-11)). Conditional analysis within associated regions revealed five additional variants associated with height independent of lead SNPs within the locus, suggesting allelic heterogeneity. Although underpowered to replicate findings from individuals of European ancestry, the direction of effect of associated variants was largely consistent in African American, South Asian, and Hispanic populations. Overall, we show that dense coverage of genes for uncommon SNPs, coupled with large-scale meta-analysis, can successfully identify additional variants associated with a common complex trait.
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Mechanisms of cell signaling by the scavenger receptor CD36: implications in atherosclerosis and thrombosis.
Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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CD36 is a multifunctional membrane receptor present on mononuclear phagocytes, platelets, and other cells that serves as a scavenger receptor for oxidized phospholipids, apoptotic cells and certain microbial pathogens. On macrophages, CD36 interaction with oxidized LDL (oxLDL) triggers a signaling response that is pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic. The signaling pathway involves activation of src-family kinases, MAP kinases, and Vav family guanine nucleotide exchange factors and results in ligand internalization, foam cell formation and inhibition of migration. On platelets, CD36 interaction with oxLDL and cell-derived microparticles transduces intracellular signals that render them more reactive to low concentrations of classical agonists. In vitro studies and in vivo experiments in CD36 null mice have revealed an important mechanistic role for CD36 in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Identification of the precise CD36 signaling pathways in specific cells elicited in response to specific ligands may yield novel targets for drug development in athero-thrombotic disorders.
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A novel broadband impedance method for detection of cell-derived microparticles.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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A novel label-free method is presented to detect and quantify cell-derived microparticles (MPs) by the electrochemical potential-modulated electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). MPs are present in elevated concentrations during pathological conditions and play a major role in the establishment and pathogenesis of many diseases. Considering this, accurate detection and quantification of MPs is very important in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. A combination of bulk solution electrokinetic sorting and interfacial impedance responses allows achieving detection limits as low as several MPs per ?L. By fitting resulting EIS spectra with an equivalent electrical circuit, the bulk solution electrokinetic and interfacial impedance responses were characterized. In the bulk solution two major relaxations were prominent-?-relaxation in low MHz region due to the MP capacitive membrane bridging, and ?-relaxation at ?10 kHz due to counter ions diffusion. At low frequencies (10-0.1 Hz) at electrochemical potentials exceeding -100 mV, a facile interfacial Faradaic process of oxidation in MPs coupled with diffusion and non-Faradaic double layer charging dominate, probably due to oxidation of phospholipids and/or proteins on the MP surface and MP lysis. Buffer influence on the MP detection demonstrated that a relatively low conductivity Tyrodes buffer background solution is preferential for the MP electrokinetic separation and characterization. This study also demonstrated that standard laboratory methods such as flow cytometry underestimate MP concentrations, especially those with smaller average sizes, by as much as a factor of 2-40.
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CD36 participates in a signaling pathway that regulates ROS formation in murine VSMCs.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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CD36 is a membrane glycoprotein expressed on platelets, monocytes, macrophages, and several other cell types that was recently demonstrated to be involved in platelet activation in response to oxidized phospholipids, including oxidized LDL. Although the role of CD36 in other vascular cells has not been well defined, previous studies have demonstrated that cd36-knockout (cd36-/-) mice have prolonged thrombosis times after vascular injury, which can be protective in the state of hyperlipidemia. Here, we found significantly less ROS in the vessel walls of cd36-/- mice compared with WT after chemically induced arterial injury, suggesting that CD36 may contribute to ROS generation in the VSMCs themselves. Gene expression analysis revealed that the antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin-2 (Prdx2) and heme oxygenase-1 were upregulated in cd36-/- VSMCs. Molecular dissection of the pathway in isolated mouse VSMCs revealed CD36 ligand-dependent induction of Fyn phosphorylation, with subsequent phosphorylation and degradation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments further showed that Nrf2 directly occupied the Prdx2 promoter. The importance of this pathway was evidenced by increased ROS generation in prdx2-/- mice and decreased thrombosis times in both prdx2-/- and nrf2-/- mice after vascular injury. These data suggest that CD36-mediated downregulation of antioxidant systems in VSMCs may contribute to its prothrombotic, proinflammatory, and atherogenic effects.
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Histidine-rich glycoprotein modulates the anti-angiogenic effects of vasculostatin.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a transmembrane protein expressed on glial cells within the brain. Its expression is dramatically down-regulated in many glioblastomas, consistent with its functional ability to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. We have shown that the soluble anti-angiogenic domain of BAI1 (termed Vstat120) requires CD36, a cell surface glycoprotein expressed on microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs), for it to elicit an anti-angiogenic response. We now report that Vstat120 binding to CD36 on MVECs activates a caspase-mediated pro-apoptotic pathway, and this effect is abrogated by histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRGP). HRGP is a circulating glycoprotein previously shown to function as a CD36 decoy to promote angiogenesis in the presence of thrombospondin-1 or -2. Data here show that Vstat120 specifically binds HRGP. Under favorable MVEC growth conditions this interaction allows chemotactic-directed migration as well as endothelial tube formation to persist in in vitro cellular systems, and increased tumor growth in vivo as demonstrated in both subcutaneous and orthotopic brain tumor models, concomitant with an increase in tumor vascularity. Finally, we show that HRGP expression is increased in human brain cancers, with the protein heavily localized to the basement membrane of the tumors. These data help define a novel angiogenic axis that could be exploited for the treatment of human cancers and other diseases where excess angiogenesis occurs.
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Surveillance for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: recommendations from a national workshop.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE), affect an estimated 900,000 people in the U.S. each year, resulting in several hundred thousand hospitalizations and about 300,000 deaths. Despite this substantial public health burden, no systematic collection of VTE-related morbidity and mortality data exists in the U.S. The available information about disease prevalence and incidence consists of estimates based mainly on population-based epidemiologic studies and analysis of hospital discharge or health insurance claims databases. The limited scope of the available data has raised the question of whether a systematic surveillance system for VTE should be established. To help answer this question and to make recommendations for the next steps toward better surveillance of VTE, the CDC asked the American Society of Hematology (ASH) to convene a national workshop of stakeholders representing relevant federal agencies, experts in VTE epidemiology and treatment, public health experts in VTE, and patient representatives. These groups were assembled by ASH for a 1-day meeting in Washington DC. The subspecialty experts included representatives from internal medicine, cardiovascular diseases, adult and pediatric hematology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, radiology, emergency medicine and trauma care, hospital practice and critical care, and geriatrics. Experts in epidemiology, healthcare quality, and health policy also participated. During the workshop, experts discussed their perspectives on the burden of disease from VTE and its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. The workshop also focused on the advisability and feasibility of establishing systematic surveillance for VTE and included preliminary discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The workshop concluded that (1) improved utilization in clinical practice of existing, proven-effective preventive measures is critical to reducing the disease burden from VTE; (2) systematic surveillance of DVT and PE is needed to provide nationally representative data on the prevalence and annual incidence of DVT and PE in the U.S.; (3) tracking and documenting changes in the incidence of DVT and PE through systematic surveillance will be important to enhance prevention efforts; and (4) the CDC should convene a second group of experts to advise the agency in detail on the strengths, weaknesses, and feasibility of possible approaches to systematic surveillance for DVT and PE.
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Type 2 scavenger receptor CD36 in platelet activation: the role of hyperlipemia and oxidative stress.
Clin Lipidol
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Platelet hyper-reactivity and a systemic prothrombotic state are associated with atherosclerosis and other inflammatory conditions. CD36, a member of the Type 2 scavenger receptor family, is a multiligand pattern recognition receptor that recognizes specific oxidized phospholipids, molecules expressed on microbial pathogens, apoptotic cells, and cell-derived microparticles. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD36 binding to oxidized LDL or microparticles activates a specific signaling pathway that induces platelet activation. This pathway is activated in vivo in the setting of hyperlipidemia and oxidant stress. Genetic deletion of CD36 protects mice from pathological thrombosis associated with hyperlipidemia without any apparent effect on normal hemostasis. Targeting CD36 or its signaling pathway could potentially lead to the development of novel antithrombotic therapies for patients with atheroinflammatory disorders.
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Thrombospondin-1-induced apoptosis of brain microvascular endothelial cells can be mediated by TNF-R1.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) treatment of dermal microvascular endothelial cells (MvEC) has been shown to upregulate Fas ligand (FasL) and to induce apoptosis by a mechanism that requires caspase-8 activity. We have examined the potential anti-angiogenic effects of TSP-1 on primary human brain MvEC. The addition of TSP-1 to primary human brain MvEC cultured as monolayers on type 1 collagen, induced cell death and apoptosis (evidenced by caspase-3 cleavage) in a dose- (5-30 nM) and time-dependent (maximal at 17 h) manner. TSP-1 treatment for 17 h induced caspase-3 cleavage that required caspase-8 activity and the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1). We did not find a requirement for Fas, or the tumor necrosis-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors (TRAIL-R) 1 and 2. We confirmed the findings using caspase inhibitors, blocking antibodies and small interfering RNA (siRNA). Further analysis indicated that the TSP-1 induction of caspase-3 cleavage of primary human brain MvEC adherent to collagen required the synthesis of new message and protein, and that TSP-1 induced the expression of TNFalpha mRNA and protein. Consistent with these findings, when the primary human brain MvEC were propagated on collagen gels mAb anti-TNF-R1 reversed the inhibitory effect, in part, of TSP-1 on tube formation and branching. These data identify a novel mechanism whereby TSP-1 can inhibit angiogenesis-through induction of apoptosis in a process mediated by TNF-R1.
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Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with increased monocyte expression of scavenger receptor CD36 and internalization of oxidized LDL.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) contribute to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and may be atherogenic. We tested the relationship among lipid-induced insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and monocyte capacity to form foam cells through scavenger receptor A (SRA) and CD36. Ten healthy subjects underwent 24-h infusion of Intralipid/heparin and saline (0.5 ml/min) on two separate occasions followed by brachial artery reactivity testing and a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (80 mU/(kg.min)) clamp study to determine insulin sensitivity. Isolation of blood monocytes was performed 24 h after infusion. Surface expression and function of CD36 and SRA to take up oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) was determined by flow cytometry and quantitative confocal imaging. Lipid infusion resulted in a twofold increase in serum FFA levels, reduced whole-body glucose disposal by approximately 20% (P < 0.05), and possibly impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilation (P = 0.1). Blood monocytes obtained during lipid infusion demonstrated a approximately 25% increase in cell surface expression of CD36 (P < 0.05) but no change in SRA expression. Enhanced CD36 expression was associated with a 50% increase in internalization of oxLDL (P < 0.05). The increase in CD36 surface expression during lipid infusion correlated inversely with glucose disposal (P < 0.05) and not with FFA levels or brachial artery dilation. These data support a role for FFAs in induction of insulin resistance and provide a link to atherogenic mechanisms mediated by expression of scavenger receptor CD36.
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CD36, a scavenger receptor involved in immunity, metabolism, angiogenesis, and behavior.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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CD36 is a membrane glycoprotein present on platelets, mononuclear phagocytes, adipocytes, hepatocytes, myocytes, and some epithelia. On microvascular endothelial cells, CD36 is a receptor for thrombospondin-1 and related proteins and functions as a negative regulator of angiogenesis. On phagocytes, through its functions as a scavenger receptor recognizing specific oxidized phospholipids and lipoproteins, CD36 participates in internalization of apoptotic cells, certain bacterial and fungal pathogens, and modified low-density lipoproteins, thus contributing to inflammatory responses and atherothrombotic diseases. CD36 also binds long-chain fatty acids and facilitates their transport into cells, thus participating in muscle lipid utilization, adipose energy storage, and gut fat absorption and possibly contributing to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity. On sensory cells, CD36 is involved in insect pheromone signaling and rodent fatty food preference. The signaling pathways downstream of CD36 involve ligand-dependent recruitment and activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, specific mitogen-activated protein kinases, and the Vav family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors; modulation of focal adhesion constituents; and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. CD36 in many cells is localized in specialized cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains and may also interact with other membrane receptors, such as tetraspanins and integrins. Identification of the precise CD36 signaling pathways in specific cells elicited in response to specific ligands may yield novel targets for drug development.
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Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and arterial thrombosis: role of the scavenger receptor CD36.
Cleve Clin J Med
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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The CD36 scavenger receptor recognizes oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cell-derived microparticles. It is expressed on macrophages and platelets and is a mediator of both atherogenesis and thrombosis. Macrophages from CD36-null mice have a defect in foam cell formation in response to exposure to oxidized LDL, and CD36-null mice fed an atherogenic Western diet have significantly less atherosclerosis than their wild-type counterparts. On platelets, CD36 recognition of oxidized LDL contributes to their activation and provides a mechanistic link between hyperlipidemia, oxidant stress, and the prothrombotic state. Cell-derived microparticles are also major ligands for CD36 and contribute to thrombus formation in a CD36-dependent manner even in the absence of hyperlipidemia. CD36 deficiency in mice is associated with inhibition of thrombus formation and with a reduction in microparticle accumulation in thrombi. Targeting CD36 is a promising avenue for the treatment of atheroinflammatory disorders.
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Deficiency of LRP8 in mice is associated with altered platelet function and prolonged time for in vivo thrombosis.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Our group has previously reported genetic studies associating polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 8 (LRP8) gene with myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to define the role of platelet surface LRP8 in thrombosis.
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CD36 modulates migration of mouse and human macrophages in response to oxidized LDL and may contribute to macrophage trapping in the arterial intima.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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The trapping of lipid-laden macrophages in the arterial intima is a critical but reversible step in atherogenesis. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is not clearly defined. Here, we tested in mice the hypothesis that CD36, a class B scavenger receptor expressed on macrophages, has a role in this process. Using both in vivo and in vitro migration assays, we found that oxidized LDL (oxLDL), but not native LDL, inhibited migration of WT mouse macrophages but not CD36-deficient cells. We further observed a crucial role for CD36 in modulating the in vitro migratory response of human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages to oxLDL. oxLDL also induced rapid spreading and actin polymerization in CD36-sufficient but not CD36-deficient mouse macrophages in vitro. The underlying mechanism was dependent on oxLDL-mediated CD36 signaling, which resulted in sustained activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and inactivation of Src homology 2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2). The latter was due to NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS generation, resulting in oxidative inactivation of critical cysteine residues in the SHP-2-active site. Macrophage migration in the presence of oxLDL was restored by both antioxidants and NADPH oxidase inhibitors, which restored the dynamic activation of FAK. We conclude therefore that CD36 signaling in response to oxLDL alters cytoskeletal dynamics to enhance macrophage spreading, inhibiting migration. This may induce trapping of macrophages in the arterial intima and promote atherosclerosis.
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TLR2 and its co-receptors determine responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to lipoproteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Cell. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2009
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) signals through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to regulate antigen presenting cells (APCs). Mtb lipoproteins, including LpqH, LprA, LprG and PhoS1, are TLR2 agonists, but their co-receptor requirements are unknown. We studied Mtb lipoprotein-induced responses in TLR2(-/-), TLR1(-/-), TLR6(-/-), CD14(-/-) and CD36(-/-) macrophages. Responses to LprA, LprG, LpqH and PhoS1 were completely dependent on TLR2. LprG, LpqH, and PhoS1 were dependent on TLR1, but LprA did not require TLR1. None of the lipoproteins required TLR6, although a redundant contribution by TLR6 cannot be excluded. CD14 contributed to detection of LprA, LprG and LpqH, whereas CD36 contributed only to detection of LprA. Studies of lung APC subsets revealed lower TLR2 expression by CD11b(high)/CD11c(low) lung macrophages than CD11b(low)/CD11c(high) alveolar macrophages, which correlated with hyporesponsiveness of lung macrophages to LpqH. Thus, lung APC subsets differ in TLR expression, which may determine differences in responses to Mtb.
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Vasculostatin inhibits intracranial glioma growth and negatively regulates in vivo angiogenesis through a CD36-dependent mechanism.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Angiogenesis is a critical physiologic process that is appropriated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about how this process is specifically regulated in the brain. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor-1 (BAI1) is a brain-predominant seven-transmembrane protein that contains five antiangiogenic thrombospondin type-1 repeats (TSR). We recently showed that BAI1 is cleaved at a conserved proteolytic cleavage site releasing a soluble, 120 kDa antiangiogenic factor called vasculostatin (Vstat120). Vstat120 has been shown to inhibit in vitro angiogenesis and suppress subcutaneous tumor growth. Here, we examine its effect on the intracranial growth of malignant gliomas and further study its antitumor mechanism. First, we show that expression of Vstat120 strongly suppresses the intracranial growth of malignant gliomas, even in the presence of the strong proangiogenic stimulus mediated by the oncoprotein epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII). This tumor-suppressive effect is accompanied by a decrease in tumor vascular density, suggesting a potent antiangiogenic effect in the brain. Second, and consistent with this interpretation, we find that treatment with Vstat120 reduces the migration of cultured microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and inhibits corneal angiogenesis in vivo. Third, we show that these antivascular effects critically depend on the presence of the cell surface receptor CD36 on endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, supporting the role of Vstat120 TSRs in mediating these effects. These results advance the understanding of brain-specific angiogenic regulation, and suggest that Vstat120 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of brain tumors and other intracerebral vasculopathies.
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CD36 and Na/K-ATPase-?1 form a proinflammatory signaling loop in kidney.
Hypertension
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Proatherogenic, hyperlipidemic states demonstrate increases in circulating ligands for scavenger receptor CD36 (eg, oxidized low-density lipoprotein [oxLDL]) and the Na/K-ATPase (eg, cardiotonic steroids). These factors increase inflammation, oxidative stress, and progression of chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia potentiate a CD36/Na/K-ATPase-dependent inflammatory paracrine loop between proximal tubule cells (PTCs) and their associated macrophages and thereby facilitate development of chronic inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. ApoE(-/-) and apoE(-/-)/cd36(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet for ?32 weeks and examined for physiologic and histologic changes in renal function. Compared with apoE(-/-), apoE(-/-)/cd36(-/-) mice had improved creatinine clearance and blood pressure which corresponded histologically with less glomerular and tubulointerstitial macrophage accumulation, foam cell formation, oxidant stress, and interstitial fibrosis. Coimmunopreciptation and a cell surface fluorescence-based crosslinking assay showed that CD36 and Na/K-ATPase ?-1 colocalized in PTCs and macrophages, and this association was increased by oxLDL or the cardiotonic steroid ouabain. OxLDL and ouabain also increased activation of Src and Lyn in PTCs. Cell-free conditioned medium from PTCs treated with oxLDL or ouabain increased macrophage migration. OxLDL, ouabain, or plasma isolated from high-fat diet-fed mice stimulated reactive oxygen species production in PTCs, which was inhibited by N-acetyl-cysteine, apocynin, or Na/K-ATPase ?-1 knockdown. These data suggest that ligands generated in hyperlipidemic states activate CD36 and the Na/K-ATPase and potentiate an inflammatory signaling loop involving PTCs and their associated macrophages, which facilitates the development of chronic inflammation, oxidant stress, and fibrosis underlying the renal dysfunction common to proatherogenic, hyperlipidemic states.
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Large-scale gene-centric meta-analysis across 32 studies identifies multiple lipid loci.
Folkert W Asselbergs, Yiran Guo, Erik P A van Iperen, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Vinicius Tragante, Matthew B Lanktree, Leslie A Lange, Berta Almoguera, Yolande E Appelman, John Barnard, Jens Baumert, Amber L Beitelshees, Tushar R Bhangale, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Tom R Gaunt, Yan Gong, Jemma C Hopewell, Toby Johnson, Marcus E Kleber, Taimour Y Langaee, Mingyao Li, Yun R Li, Kiang Liu, Caitrin W McDonough, Matthijs F L Meijs, Rita P S Middelberg, Kiran Musunuru, Christopher P Nelson, Jeffery R O'Connell, Sandosh Padmanabhan, James S Pankow, Nathan Pankratz, Suzanne Rafelt, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Simon P R Romaine, Nicholas J Schork, Jonathan Shaffer, Haiqing Shen, Erin N Smith, Sam E Tischfield, Peter J van der Most, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Niek Verweij, Kelly A Volcik, Li Zhang, Kent R Bailey, Kristian M Bailey, Florianne Bauer, Jolanda M A Boer, Peter S Braund, Amber Burt, Paul R Burton, Sarah G Buxbaum, Wei Chen, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, L Adrienne Cupples, Jonas S deJong, Christian Delles, David Duggan, Myriam Fornage, Clement E Furlong, Nicole Glazer, John G Gums, Claire Hastie, Michael V Holmes, Thomas Illig, Susan A Kirkland, Mika Kivimäki, Ronald Klein, Barbara E Klein, Charles Kooperberg, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Meena Kumari, Andrea Z LaCroix, Laya Mallela, Gurunathan Murugesan, Jose Ordovas, Willem H Ouwehand, Wendy S Post, Richa Saxena, Hubert Scharnagl, Pamela J Schreiner, Tina Shah, Denis C Shields, Daichi Shimbo, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Ronald P Stolk, Daniel I Swerdlow, Herman A Taylor, Eric J Topol, Elina Toskala, Joost L van Pelt, Jessica van Setten, Salim Yusuf, John C Whittaker, A H Zwinderman, , Sonia S Anand, Anthony J Balmforth, Gerald S Berenson, Connie R Bezzina, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Juan P Casas, Mark J Caulfield, Robert Clarke, John M Connell, Karen J Cruickshanks, Karina W Davidson, Ian N M Day, Paul I W de Bakker, Pieter A Doevendans, Anna F Dominiczak, Alistair S Hall, Catharina A Hartman, Christian Hengstenberg, Hans L Hillege, Marten H Hofker, Steve E Humphries, Gail P Jarvik, Julie A Johnson, Bernhard M Kaess, Sekar Kathiresan, Wolfgang Koenig, Debbie A Lawlor, Winfried März, Olle Melander, Braxton D Mitchell, Grant W Montgomery, Patricia B Munroe, Sarah S Murray, Stephen J Newhouse, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Neil Poulter, Bruce Psaty, Susan Redline, Stephen S Rich, Jerome I Rotter, Heribert Schunkert, Peter Sever, Alan R Shuldiner, Roy L Silverstein, Alice Stanton, Barbara Thorand, Mieke D Trip, Michael Y Tsai, Pim van der Harst, Ellen van der Schoot, Yvonne T van der Schouw, W M Monique Verschuren, Hugh Watkins, Arthur A M Wilde, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, John B Whitfield, G Kees Hovingh, Christie M Ballantyne, Cisca Wijmenga, Muredach P Reilly, Nicholas G Martin, James G Wilson, Daniel J Rader, Nilesh J Samani, Alex P Reiner, Robert A Hegele, John J P Kastelein, Aroon D Hingorani, Philippa J Talmud, Hakon Hakonarson, Clara C Elbers, Brendan J Keating, Fotios Drenos.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a dense gene-centric approach. Our meta-analysis of 32 studies in 66,240 individuals of European ancestry was based on the custom ?50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) covering ?2,000 candidate genes. SNP-lipid associations were replicated either in a cohort comprising an additional 24,736 samples or within the Global Lipid Genetic Consortium. We identified four, six, ten, and four unreported SNPs in established lipid genes for HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TGs, respectively. We also identified several lipid-related SNPs in previously unreported genes: DGAT2, HCAR2, GPIHBP1, PPARG, and FTO for HDL-C; SOCS3, APOH, SPTY2D1, BRCA2, and VLDLR for LDL-C; SOCS3, UGT1A1, BRCA2, UBE3B, FCGR2A, CHUK, and INSIG2 for TC; and SERPINF2, C4B, GCK, GATA4, INSR, and LPAL2 for TGs. The proportion of explained phenotypic variance in the subset of studies providing individual-level data was 9.9% for HDL-C, 9.5% for LDL-C, 10.3% for TC, and 8.0% for TGs. This large meta-analysis of lipid phenotypes with the use of a dense gene-centric approach identified multiple SNPs not previously described in established lipid genes and several previously unknown loci. The explained phenotypic variance from this approach was comparable to that from a meta-analysis of GWAS data, suggesting that a focused genotyping approach can further increase the understanding of heritability of plasma lipids.
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Context dependent role of the CD36--thrombospondin--histidine-rich glycoprotein axis in tumor angiogenesis and growth.
PLoS ONE
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The angiogenic switch is a promising therapeutic target in cancer. Work by our laboratory and others has described an important endogenous anti-angiogenic pathway mediated by interactions of CD36, a receptor on microvascular endothelial cells, with proteins containing thrombospondin (TSP) type I repeat domains (TSR). Recent studies revealed that circulating Histidine Rich Glycoprotein (HRG) inhibits the anti-angiogenic potential of the CD36-TSR pathway by functioning as a decoy receptor that binds and sequesters TSR proteins. As tumors of different origin display variable expression profiles of numerous targets, we hypothesized that the TSP-CD36-HRG axis regulates vascularization and growth in the tumor microenvironment in a context, or tumor type, dependent manner. Growth of Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LL2) and B16F1 Melanoma tumor cell implants in syngeneic wild type (WT), hrg, or cd36 null mice were used as a model to interrogate this signaling axis. LL2 tumor volumes were greater in cd36 null mice and smaller in hrg null mice compared to WT. Immunofluorescent staining showed increased vascularity in cd36 null vs. WT and WT vs. hrg null mice. No differences in tumor growth or vascularity were observed with B16F1 implants, consistent with lack of expression of TSP-1 in B16F1 cells. When TSR expression was induced in B16F1 cells by cDNA transfection, tumor growth and vascularity were similar to that seen with LL2 cells. These data show a role for CD36-mediated anti-angiogenic activity in the tumor microenvironment when TSR proteins are available and demonstrate that HRG modulates this activity. Further, they suggest a mechanism by which tumor microenvironments may regulate sensitivity to TSR containing proteins.
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Oxidized LDL/CD36 interaction induces loss of cell polarity and inhibits macrophage locomotion.
Mol. Biol. Cell
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Cell polarization is essential for migration and the exploratory function of leukocytes. However, the mechanism by which cells maintain polarity or how cells revert to the immobilized state by gaining cellular symmetry is not clear. Previously we showed that interaction between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and CD36 inhibits macrophage migration; in the current study we tested the hypothesis that oxLDL/CD36-induced inhibition of migration is the result of intracellular signals that regulate cell polarity. Live cell imaging of macrophages showed that oxLDL actuated retraction of macrophage front end lamellipodia and induced loss of cell polarity. Cd36 null and macrophages null for Vav, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), did not show this effect. These findings were caused by Rac-mediated inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II, a cell polarity determinant. OxLDL induced dephosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) by increasing the activity of Rac. Six-thioguanine triphosphate (6-thio-GTP), which inhibits Vav-mediated activation of Rac, abrogated the effect of oxLDL. Activation of the Vav-Rac-myosin II pathway by oxidant stress may induce trapping of macrophages at sites of chronic inflammation such as atherosclerotic plaque.
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Insulin promotes macrophage foam cell formation: potential implications in diabetes-related atherosclerosis.
Lab. Invest.
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The prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is higher in patients with type 2 diabetes, a disorder characterized by hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. The role of hyperinsulinemia as an independent participant in the atherogenic process has been controversial. In the current study, we tested the effect of insulin and the insulin sensitizer, adiponectin, on human macrophage foam cell formation. We found that both insulin and adiponectin increased the expression of the type 2 scavenger receptor CD36 by approximately twofold and decreased the expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 by >80%. In both cases regulation was post-transcriptional. As a consequence of these changes, we found that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) uptake was increased by 80% and cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) was decreased by ?25%. This led to two- to threefold more cholesterol accumulation over a 16-h period. As reported previously in studies of murine systems, scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) expression on human macrophages was downregulated by insulin and adiponectin. Insulin and adiponectin did not affect oxLDL-induced secretion of monocyte attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These studies suggest that hyperinsulinemia could promote macrophage foam cell formation and thus may contribute to atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Advanced glycation end products induce a prothrombotic phenotype in mice via interaction with platelet CD36.
Blood
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Diabetes mellitus has been associated with platelet hyperreactivity, which plays a central role in the hyperglycemia-related prothrombotic phenotype. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not established. In the present study, we investigated the role of CD36, a class-B scavenger receptor, in this process. Using both in vitro and in vivo mouse models, we demonstrated direct and specific interactions of platelet CD36 with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated under hyperglycemic conditions. AGEs bound to platelet CD36 in a specific and dose-dependent manner, and binding was inhibited by the high-affinity CD36 ligand NO(2)LDL. Cd36-null platelets did not bind AGE. Using diet- and drug-induced mouse models of diabetes, we have shown that cd36-null mice had a delayed time to the formation of occlusive thrombi compared with wild-type (WT) in a FeCl(3)-induced carotid artery injury model. Cd36-null mice had a similar level of hyperglycemia and a similar level of plasma AGEs compared with WT mice under this condition, but WT mice had more AGEs incorporated into thrombi. Mechanistic studies revealed that CD36-dependent JNK2 activation is involved in this prothrombotic pathway. Therefore, the results of the present study couple vascular complications in diabetes mellitus with AGE-CD36-mediated platelet signaling and hyperreactivity.
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Large-scale gene-centric meta-analysis across 39 studies identifies type 2 diabetes loci.
Richa Saxena, Clara C Elbers, Yiran Guo, Inga Peter, Tom R Gaunt, Jessica L Mega, Matthew B Lanktree, Archana Tare, Berta Almoguera Castillo, Yun R Li, Toby Johnson, Marcel Bruinenberg, Diane Gilbert-Diamond, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Benjamin F Voight, Ashok Balasubramanyam, John Barnard, Florianne Bauer, Jens Baumert, Tushar Bhangale, Bernhard O Böhm, Peter S Braund, Paul R Burton, Hareesh R Chandrupatla, Robert Clarke, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Errol D Crook, George Davey-Smith, Ian N Day, Anthonius de Boer, Mark C H de Groot, Fotios Drenos, Jane Ferguson, Caroline S Fox, Clement E Furlong, Quince Gibson, Christian Gieger, Lisa A Gilhuijs-Pederson, Joseph T Glessner, Anuj Goel, Yan Gong, Struan F A Grant, Diederick E Grobbee, Claire Hastie, Steve E Humphries, Cecilia E Kim, Mika Kivimäki, Marcus Kleber, Christa Meisinger, Meena Kumari, Taimour Y Langaee, Debbie A Lawlor, Mingyao Li, Maximilian T Lobmeyer, Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee, Matthijs F L Meijs, Cliona M Molony, David A Morrow, Gurunathan Murugesan, Solomon K Musani, Christopher P Nelson, Stephen J Newhouse, Jeffery R O'Connell, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Jutta Palmen, Sanjey R Patel, Carl J Pepine, Mary Pettinger, Thomas S Price, Suzanne Rafelt, Jane Ranchalis, Asif Rasheed, Elisabeth Rosenthal, Ingo Ruczinski, Sonia Shah, Haiqing Shen, Günther Silbernagel, Erin N Smith, Annemieke W M Spijkerman, Alice Stanton, Michael W Steffes, Barbara Thorand, Mieke Trip, Pim van der Harst, Daphne L van der A, Erik P A van Iperen, Jessica van Setten, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Niek Verweij, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Taylor Young, M Hadi Zafarmand, Joseph M Zmuda, , Michael Boehnke, David Altshuler, Mark McCarthy, W H Linda Kao, James S Pankow, Thomas P Cappola, Peter Sever, Neil Poulter, Mark Caulfield, Anna Dominiczak, Denis C Shields, Deepak L Bhatt, Deepak Bhatt, Li Zhang, Sean P Curtis, John Danesh, Juan P Casas, Yvonne T van der Schouw, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Pieter A Doevendans, Gerald W Dorn, Martin Farrall, Garret A FitzGerald, Anders Hamsten, Robert Hegele, Aroon D Hingorani, Marten H Hofker, Gordon S Huggins, Thomas Illig, Gail P Jarvik, Julie A Johnson, Olaf H Klungel, William C Knowler, Wolfgang Koenig, Winfried März, James B Meigs, Olle Melander, Patricia B Munroe, Braxton D Mitchell, Susan J Bielinski, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Stephen S Rich, Jerome I Rotter, Danish Saleheen, Nilesh J Samani, Eric E Schadt, Alan R Shuldiner, Roy Silverstein, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Philippa J Talmud, Hugh Watkins, Folkert W Asselbergs, Folkert Asselbergs, Paul I W de Bakker, Jeanne McCaffery, Cisca Wijmenga, Marc S Sabatine, James G Wilson, Alex Reiner, Donald W Bowden, Hakon Hakonarson, David S Siscovick, Brendan J Keating.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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To identify genetic factors contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D), we performed large-scale meta-analyses by using a custom ?50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) with ?2000 candidate genes in 39 multiethnic population-based studies, case-control studies, and clinical trials totaling 17,418 cases and 70,298 controls. First, meta-analysis of 25 studies comprising 14,073 cases and 57,489 controls of European descent confirmed eight established T2D loci at genome-wide significance. In silico follow-up analysis of putative association signals found in independent genome-wide association studies (including 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls) performed by the DIAGRAM consortium identified a T2D locus at genome-wide significance (GATAD2A/CILP2/PBX4; p = 5.7 × 10(-9)) and two loci exceeding study-wide significance (SREBF1, and TH/INS; p < 2.4 × 10(-6)). Second, meta-analyses of 1,986 cases and 7,695 controls from eight African-American studies identified study-wide-significant (p = 2.4 × 10(-7)) variants in HMGA2 and replicated variants in TCF7L2 (p = 5.1 × 10(-15)). Third, conditional analysis revealed multiple known and novel independent signals within five T2D-associated genes in samples of European ancestry and within HMGA2 in African-American samples. Fourth, a multiethnic meta-analysis of all 39 studies identified T2D-associated variants in BCL2 (p = 2.1 × 10(-8)). Finally, a composite genetic score of SNPs from new and established T2D signals was significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes in African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. In summary, large-scale meta-analysis involving a dense gene-centric approach has uncovered additional loci and variants that contribute to T2D risk and suggests substantial overlap of T2D association signals across multiple ethnic groups.
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CD36 ectodomain phosphorylation blocks thrombospondin-1 binding: structure-function relationships and regulation by protein kinase C.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
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CD36 phosphorylation on its extracellular domain inhibits binding of thrombospondin-1. The mechanisms of cellular CD36 ectodomain phosphorylation and whether it can be regulated in cells are not known. We determined structure-function relationships of CD36 phosphorylation related to thrombospondin-1 peptide binding in vitro and explored mechanisms regulating phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) in melanoma cells.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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