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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lipidomics applications for discovering biomarkers of diseases in clinical chemistry.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Lipids are the fundamental components of biological membranes as well as the metabolites of organisms. Lipids play diverse and important roles in biologicals. The lipid imbalance is closely associated with numerous human lifestyle-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Lipidomics or lipid profiling is a system-based study of all lipids aiming at comprehensive analysis of lipids in the biological system. Lipidomics has been accepted as a lipid-related research tool in lipid biochemistry, clinical biomarker discovery, disease diagnosis, and in understanding disease pathology. Lipidomics will not only provide insights into the specific functions of lipid species in health and disease, but will also identify potential biomarkers for establishing preventive or therapeutic programs for human diseases. This review presents an overview of lipidomics followed by in-depth discussion of its application to the study of human diseases, including extraction methods of lipids, analytical technologies, data analysis, and clinical research in cancer, neuropsychiatric disease, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and respiratory disease. We describe the current status of the identification of metabolic biomarkers in different diseases. We also discuss the lipidomics for the future perspectives and their potential problems. The application of lipidomics in clinical studies may provide new insights into lipid profiling and pathophysiological mechanisms.
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hARIP2 is a Putative Growth-promoting Factor Involved in Human Colon Tumorigenesis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Activin is a multifunctional growth and differentiation factor of the growth factor-beta (TGF-?) superfamily, which inhibits the proliferation of colon cancer cells. It induces phosphorylation of intracellular signaling molecules (Smads) by interacting with its type I and type II receptors. Previous studies showed that human activin receptor-interacting protein 2 (hARIP2) can reduce activin signaling by interacting with activin type II receptors; however, the activity of hARIP2 in colon cancer has yet to be detailed. In vitro, overexpression of hARIP2 reduced activin-induced transcriptional activity and enhanced cell proliferation and colony formation in human colon cancer HCT8 cells and SW620 cells. Also, hARIP2 promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis, suggesting that a vital role in the initial stage of colon carcinogenesis. In vivo, immunohistochemistry revealed that hARIP2 was expressed more frequently and much more intensely in malignant colon tissues than in controls. These results indicate that hARIP2 is involved in human colon tumorigenesis and could be a predictive maker for colon carcinoma aggressiveness.
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Metabolomics in dyslipidemia.
Adv Clin Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Hyperlipidemia is an important public health problem with increased incidence and prevalence worldwide. Current clinical biomarkers, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol lack the necessary specificity and sensitivity and only increase significantly after serious dyslipidemia. Therefore, sensitive biomarkers are needed for hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia-specific biomarkers would improve clinical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment at early disease stages. The aim of metabolomics is to identify untargeted and global small-molecule metabolite profiles from cells, biofluids, and tissues. This method offers the potential for a holistic approach to improve disease diagnoses and our understanding of underlying pathologic mechanisms. This review summarizes analytical techniques, data collection and analysis for metabolomics, and metabolomics in hyperlipidemia animal models and clinical studies. Mechanisms of hypolipemia and antilipemic drug therapy are also discussed. Metabolomics provides a new opportunity to gain insight into metabolic profiling and pathophysiologic mechanisms of hyperlipidemia.
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Complete sequence of a retinopathy inbred C57BL/6 mouse model mitochondrial genome.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Abstract In the present work we undertook the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of an important retinopathy model inbred C57BL/6 strain for the first time. Its mitogenome was 16,312?bp and coding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes. A total of 96 SNPs were examined when compared to reference BN sequence.
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Single-Tube, Highly Parallel Mutation Enrichment in Cancer Gene Panels by Use of Temperature-Tolerant COLD-PCR.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Multiplexed detection of low-level mutations presents a technical challenge for many technologies, including cancer gene panels used for targeted-resequencing. Analysis of mutations below approximately 2%-5% abundance in tumors with heterogeneity, samples with stromal contamination, or biofluids is problematic owing to increased noise from sequencing errors. Technologies that reduce noise via deep sequencing unavoidably reduce throughput and increase cost. Here we provide proof of principle that coamplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR technology enables multiplex low-level mutation detection in cancer gene panels while retaining throughput.
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Pttg1 inhibits TGF? signaling in breast cancer cells to promote their growth.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Increased expression of Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 (Pttg1) has been shown in various tumor cells, including breast cancer (BC). However, the precise role of Pttg1 in the tumorigenesis is not clarified yet. Here, we examined BC from the patients and detected significant increases and correlation in Pttg1 and phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3), a key effector of activated transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) receptor signaling pathway. Pttg1 levels were then modulated by transgene or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in a human BC cell line, BT474, respectively. We found that Pttg1 overexpression increased the proliferation of BC cells in vitro and in vivo, while Pttg1 inhibition decreased proliferation of BC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, phosphorylation of SMAD3 by TGF?1 was significantly inhibited by Pttg1 overexpression, suggesting that Pttg1 may promote growth of BC cells by inhibiting pSMAD3-mediated cell-growth inhibition. Thus, Pttg1 appears to be a novel therapeutic target for controlling the tumorigenesis of BC.
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[Three-dimensional finite element analysis on mechanical behavior of the bone remodeling and bone integration between the bone-implant interface after hip replacement].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To discuss the primary stability of the fixed interface between the cementless prosthesis and femur, and its influence on bone ingrowth and secondary stability under the roughened surface and press fit of different prostheses by finite element analysis.
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A prospective, observational study of added medium-dose cytosine arabinoside versus As2O3 for elderly patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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This open-label, prospective, observational study aimed to evaluate disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), PML-RAR? polymerase chain reaction (PCR) monitoring and safety in elderly patients with de novo acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) who were treated with either arsenic trioxide (As2O3) or medium-dose cytosine arabinoside (MiDAC) as frontline consolidation regimens. A total of 167 patients (age?65 years old) received all-trans retinoic acid + daunorubicin as induction therapy. Of these patients, 22 died before attaining complete remission; the remaining 145 subjects received MiDAC- or As2O3-based consolidation therapy. As2O3 was superior to MiDAC for improving DFS and OS. This benefit appeared to result from the longer 5-year DFS (92.0 vs. 69.1%, P<0.01) and OS (94.5 vs. 79.7%, P<0.05) of As2O3 compared to MiDAC. PCR monitoring demonstrated that As2O3 promoted a lower positive rate than MiDAC (21.7 vs. 4.5%, P<0.05), but this treatment had no advantage for maintaining a low positive rate in the high-risk group. The most common life-threatening adverse drug effects in patients with MiDAC were platelet counts<25×10(9)/L (85.7%), leukocyte counts<1.0×10(9)/L (81.4%) and severe infection (84.3%). In contrast, the As2O3 regimen rarely caused leukocyte counts<1.0×10(9)/L (22.7%, P<0.01), platelet counts<25×10(9)/L (37.3%, P<0.01) or severe infection (21.3%, P<0.01). These data confirm that MiDAC should not be added during the initial consolidation of patients with APL because this treatment is far less effective, particularly in patients with a low-risk profile, and far more toxic than As2O3.
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Wild-type p53 reactivation by small-molecule Minnelide™ in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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The incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) continues to increase, particularly oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) cases. The inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene promotes a chain of molecular events, including cell cycle progression and apoptosis resistance. Reactivation of wild-type p53 function is an intriguing therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel compound derived from diterpene triepoxide (Minnelide™) can reactivate wild-type p53 function in HPV-positive HNSCC.
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Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity via dual modification of MOF and reduced graphene oxide on CdS.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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A Ternary composite UiO-66/CdS/1% reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was successfully prepared, with a photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate 13.8 times as high as that of pure commercial CdS. It shows great advantages over the perfect composite photocatalyst-P25/CdS/1%RGO.
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Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy versus chemotherapy for gastric cancer: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) versus chemotherapy (CT) for patients with gastric cancer.
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How to determine post-FCR therapy for cytogenetic risk-tailored elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, maintenance rituximab or observation.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The open-label, prospective, observational study aimed to evaluate whether the addition of maintenance rituximab (MR) improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), after fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) for cytogenetic risk-tailored elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Enrolled 201 patients (ages 65-84 years) who received FCR and gained an overall response. One hundred and four of 201 patients were in the observation (OBS) arm while 97/201 patients continued to receive MR therapy. After FCR, no more benefits were provided by MR versus OBS in cytogenetic better intermediate-risk cohort. PFS at 10 years reached 68.6 versus 58.1 % (P > 0.05). Ten-year OS was 81.8 versus 74.6 % (P > 0.05). However, the improvement of PFS and OS were as dramatic as the improvements of being MR treating versus OBS mainly in the poor-risk cohort. PFS at 10 years reached 57.1 versus 22.7 % (P < 0.01), and 10-year OS was 71.2 versus 41.7 % (P < 0.01). Compared with OBS, no severe hematologic adverse events (AEs) (Grades 3-4) appeared in patients with MR; only some mild non-hematologic AEs incurred (nausea-vomiting 0.96 %, allergy 1.9 % and infection 1.9 %) during the maintenance treatment. The study showed that MR improved 10-year RFS and OS for cytogenetic poor-risk patients with CLL.
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Two new compounds from Bombyx batryticatus.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Two new compounds beauvericins M1 (1) and S1 (2) were isolated from Bombyx batryticatus. Their structures were established as (3?,6?)-3-benzyl-6-secbutyl-4-methylmorpholine-2,5-dione (1) and (5?,8?)-epidioxyergosterol-24-one-6,22-dien-3?-ol (2) by various spectroscopic techniques including 1D NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY), and HR-ESI-TOF-MS.
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Interferon ?-2b gains high sustained response therapy for advanced essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera with JAK2V617F positive mutation.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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This open-label, prospective, observational study aimed to evaluate treatment response, efficacy therapy and safety to IFN ?-2b for the essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV) with JAK2V617F positive mutation.
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UPLC-based metabonomic applications for discovering biomarkers of diseases in clinical chemistry.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Metabonomics is a powerful and promising analytic tool that allows assessment of global low-molecular-weight metabolites in biological systems. It has a great potential for identifying useful biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis and assessment of therapeutic interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to provide a brief summary of the recent advances in UPLC-based metabonomic approach for biomarker discovery in a variety of diseases, and to discuss their significance in clinical chemistry.
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[Clinical apprehension on application of Tri-lock BPS total hip arthroplasty].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To study short-term results and clinical application of Tri-lock BPS in total hip arthoplasty.
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Clinical classification of Caroli's disease: an analysis of 30 patients.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Caroli's disease (CD) is a rare congenital disorder. The early diagnosis of the disease and differentiation of types I and II are of extreme importance to patient survival. This study was designed to review and discuss observations in 30 patients with CD and to clarify the clinical characteristics of the disease.
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Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as a sensitive and powerful technology in lipidomic applications.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Lipidomics, the comprehensive illumination of lipid-based information in biology systems, involves in identifying lipids and profiling lipids and lipid-derived mediators. The development of lipidomics enables the characterization of lipid species and detailed lipid profiling in body fluid, tissue or cell, and allows for a wider understanding of the biological roles of lipid networks. Lipidomic research has been greatly facilitated by recent advances in ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and involved in lipid extraction, lipid identification and data analysis supporting applications from qualitative and quantitative assessment of multiple lipid species. UPLC technique, different mass spectrometry technique, lipid extraction and data analysis in lipidomics are reviewed. Afterwards, examples are provided on the use of UPLC-MS for finding lipid biomarkers in disease, drug, food, nutrition and plant fields. We also discuss the UPLC-MS-based lipidomics for the future perspectives and their potential problems.
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Diuretic and anti-diuretic activities of fractions of Alismatis rhizoma.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Alismatis rhizoma or Alisma orientale (Zexie in Chinese), the dried rhizome of Alisma orientale Juzepzuk (Alismataceae), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used as an agent for diuresis and for excreting dampness in China and Japan. In this paper, we report the diuretic activities of the petroleum ether fraction, the ethyl acetate fraction, the n-buthanol fraction, and the remaining fraction, of the ethanol extract of Alismatis rhizoma (AR).
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Standard intensive chemotherapy is less effective and far more toxic than attenuated induction and post-induction regimen in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The open-label, prospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety for standard intensive chemotherapy compared with attenuated therapy in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A total of 297 patients between 65 and 82 years were enrolled in the study. The 141 patients received standard-dose therapy (daunorubicin 45 mg/m(2) × 3 days with cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) × 7 days for induction therapy, while post-induction therapy consisted of high-dose cytarabine 1.5 g/m(2) × 4 days), and the attenuated treatment (daunorubicin 30 mg/m(2) × 3 days with cytarabine 75 mg/m(2) × 7 days for induction therapy, while post-induction therapy consisted of attenuated high-dose Ara-C 1.0 g/m(2) × 3 days) was administered to the remaining 156 patients, based on a random number assigned. Total 168 patients (56.6%) achieved complete remission with an incomplete blood recovery (CR)/CRi. No significant differences were observed between the two treatments (P = 0.60). Attenuated chemotherapy improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) compared to standard-dose therapy; 5-year OS values for these two groups were 39 and 24 months, respectively (P < 0.001), and the PFS values for these two groups were 35 versus 23 months (P < 0.001). In addition, the attenuated treatment with a poor risk profile overcame the negative impact and yielded OS and PFS values similar to those of the standard-dose chemotherapy with a better-to-intermediate risk profile. Five-year OS values for these two groups were 28 versus 28 months (P = 0.89), and the 5-year PFS values were 27 and 28 months, respectively (P = 0.89). The most common adverse drug effect for chemotherapy was agranulocytosis (98.3%). There was a significant difference in early mortality between the attenuated and standard-dose treatment groups (0.64% vs. 7.1%, respectively, P < 0.01). Standard intensive chemotherapy is less effective and far more toxic than attenuated induction and post-induction regimen in elderly patients with AML.
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Characterization of the intergenic spacer rDNAs of two pig nodule worms, Oesophagostomum dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The characteristics of the intergenic spacer rDNAs (IGS rDNAs) of Oesophagostomum dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum isolated from pigs in different geographical locations in Mainland China were determined, and the phylogenetic relationships of the two species were reconstructed using the IGS rDNA sequences. The organization of the IGS rDNA sequences was similar to their organization in other eukaryotes. The 28S-18S IGS rDNA sequences of both O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum were found to have variable lengths, that is, 759-762?bp and 937-1128?bp, respectively. All of the sequences contained direct repeats and inverted repeats. The length polymorphisms were related to the different numbers and organization of repetitive elements. Different types and numbers of repeats were found between the two pig nodule species, and two IGS structures were found within O. quadrispinulatum. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all O. dentatum isolates were clustered into one clade, but O. quadrispinulatum isolates from different origins were grouped into two distinct clusters. These results suggested independent species and the existence of genotypes or subspecies within pig nodule worms. Different types and numbers of repeats and IGS rDNA structures could serve as potential markers for differentiating these two species of pig nodule worms.
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Diuretic and anti-diuretic activities of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of Alismatis rhizoma.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Alismatis rhizoma or Alisma orientale (Zexie in Chinese), the dried rhizome of Alisma orientale Juzepzuk (Alismataceae), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used as an agent for diuresis and for excreting dampness in Asia and Europe. In this paper, we report the diuretic activities of the ethanol extract (EE) and the aqueous extract (AE) of A. rhizoma (AR).
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UPLC-MS(E) application in disease biomarker discovery: the discoveries in proteomics to metabolomics.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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In the last decade, proteomics and metabolomics have contributed substantially to our understanding of different diseases. Proteomics and metabolomics aims to comprehensively identify proteins and metabolites to gain insight into the cellular signaling pathways underlying disease and to discover novel biomarkers for screening, early detection and diagnosis, as well as for determining prognoses and predicting responses to specific treatments. For comprehensive analysis of cellular proteins and metabolites, analytical methods of wider dynamic range higher resolution and good sensitivity are required. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) (UPLC-MS(E)) is currently one of the most versatile techniques. UPLC-MS(E) is an established technology in proteomics studies and is now expanding into metabolite research. MS(E) was used for simultaneous acquisition of precursor ion information and fragment ion data at low and high collision energy in one analytical run, providing similar information to conventional MS(2). In this review, UPLC-MS(E) application in proteomics and metabolomics was highlighted to assess protein and metabolite changes in different diseases, including cancer, neuropsychiatric pharmacology studies from clinical trials and animal models. In addition, the future prospects for complete proteomics and metabolomics are discussed.
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Quantitative Analysis of Panax ginseng by FT-NIR Spectroscopy.
J Anal Methods Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a rapid and efficient tool, was used to determine the total amount of nine ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. In the study, the regression models were established using multivariate regression methods with the results from conventional chemical analytical methods as reference values. The multivariate regression methods, partial least squares regression (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR), were discussed and the PLSR was more suitable. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), second derivative, and Savitzky-Golay smoothing were utilized together for the spectral preprocessing. When evaluating the final model, factors such as correlation coefficient (R (2)) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were considered. The final optimal results of PLSR model showed that root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (R (2)) in the calibration set were 0.159 and 0.963, respectively. The results demonstrated that the NIRS as a new method can be applied to the quality control of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma.
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Using the Doubly Charged Selected Ion Coupled with MS/MS Fragments Monitoring (DCSI-MS/MS) Mode for the Identification of Gelatin Species.
J Anal Methods Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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In electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, peptides and proteins can be multiply charged ions; in this situation a doubly charged selected ion (DCSI) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragments monitoring (DCSI-MS/MS) method is the most suitable scanning mode to detect known peptides in complex samples when an ion-trap mass spectrometer is the instrument used for the analysis. In this mode, the MS detector is programmed to only select a doubly charged ion as a precursor and to perform continuous MS/MS on one or more of the selected precursors, either during a specific time interval or along the whole chromatographic run. Gelatin is a mixture of high molecular weight polypeptides from the hydrolysis of collagen. In this study, the DCSI-MS/MS monitoring mode was applied to the detection of previously characterized species-specific peptides from different gelatins. The proposed methodology makes use of tryptic digestion for sample preparation and peptide separation and identification by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to an ion trap working in the DCSI-MS/MS mode for the analysis. This methodology was applied to the differential classification of five commercial, homological species of gelatins and proved to be an excellent tool for gelatin product authentication.
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Sequence variability in four mitochondrial genes among rabbit pinworm (Passalurus ambiguus) isolates from different localities in China.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Abstract Passalurus ambiguus is a common pinworm which parasitizes in the caecum and colon of rabbits. This study examined genetic variability among P. ambiguus isolated from naturally infected rabbits in four different provinces in China. The partial mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1), cytochrome b (pcytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 5 (pnad1 and pnad5) were amplified separately from individual nematodes by PCR and sequenced. The results showed that pcox1, pcytb, pnad1 and pnad5 were 714, 663, 645 and 546?bp in length, respectively. The intra-specific sequence variations within P. ambiguus were 0-1.1% for pcox1, 0-1.2% for pcytb, 0-0.6% for pnad1 and 0-1.3% for pnad5, whereas inter-specific sequence differences with other members of the Oxyuridae were 16.2-17.3% for pcox1, 27.8-30.4% for pcytb, 20.2-24.0% for pnad1 and 27.1-30.3% for pnad5. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, based on the combined sequences of the four partial mtDNA sequences, revealed that all the P. ambiguus samples form monophyletic groups. This study demonstrated the existence of low-level intra-specific variation in cox1, cytb, nad1 and nad5 genes among P. ambiguus isolates from different geographic regions in China, and these four mtDNA sequences can be used as genetic markers for the population genetic studies of P. ambiguus, as well as the differentiation of P. ambiguus from other oxyurid nematodes.
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Label-free silver nanoparticles for the naked eye detection of entecavir.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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A simple, rapid, field-portable colorimetric method for the detection of entecavir was proposed based on the color change caused by the aggregation of silver nanoparticles. Neutralization of the electrostatic repulsion from each silver nanoparticle resulted in the aggregation of AgNPs and a consequent color change of AgNPs from yellow to wine-red, which provided a platform for rapid and field-portable colorimetric detection of entecavir. The concentration of entecavir could be determined with naked eye or UV-vis spectrometer. The proposed method can be used to detect entecavir in human urine with a detection limit of 1.51?g mL(-1), within 25min by naked eye observation without the aid of any advanced instrument or complex pretreatment. Results from UV-vis spectra showed that the absorption ratio was linear with the concentration of entecavir in the range of 5.04-25.2?g mL(-1) and 1.01-5.04?g mL(-1) with linear coefficients of 0.9907 and 0.9955, respectively. The selectivity of AgNPs detection system for entecavir is excellent comparing with other ions and analytes. Due to its rapid, visible color changes, and excellent selectivity, the AgNPs synthesized in this study are suitable to be applied to on-site screening of entecavir in human urine.
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Effects of surface activation on the structural and catalytic properties of ruthenium nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Using colloid-based methods to prepare supported catalytic metallic nanoparticles (NPs) often faces the challenge of removing the stabilizer used during synthesis and activating the catalyst without modifying the particles or the support. We explored three surface activation protocols (thermal oxidation at 150 °C, thermal reduction at 350 °C, and argon-protected calcination at 650 °C) to activate ruthenium NPs supported on mesoporous silica (MSU-F), and assessed their effects on the structural and catalytic properties of the catalysts, and their activity by the aqueous phase hydrogenation of pyruvic acid. The NPs were synthesized by polyol reduction using poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer, and supported on MSU-F by sonication-assisted deposition. The NPs maintained their original morphology on the support during activation. Ar-protected calcination was the most efficient of the three for completely removing PVP from particle surfaces, and provided the highest degree of particle crystallinity and a metal dispersion comparable to commercial Ru/SiO2. Its catalytic performance was significantly higher than the other two protocols, although all three thermally activated catalysts achieved higher activity than the commercial catalyst at the same Ru loading. Post-reaction analysis also showed that the supported catalyst activated at 650 °C retained its morphology during the reaction, which is an important requirement for recyclability.
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Aphrodisiac Use Associated with HIV Infection in Elderly Male Clients of Low-Cost Commercial Sex Venues in Guangxi, China: A Matched Case-Control Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rising HIV infection rates have been observed among elderly people in Guangxi, China. Inexpensive aphrodisiacs are available for purchase in suburban and rural areas. This study aims to investigate the association between aphrodisiac use and increased HIV risk for middle-aged and elderly men in Guangxi.
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Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in southern China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29-2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83-1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53-1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02-1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55-36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0-11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0-6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant "baseline" data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China.
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Functional Fcgamma receptor polymorphisms are associated with human allergy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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IgG Fc receptors (Fc?Rs) play important roles in immune responses. It is not clear whether Fc?R receptors play a role in human asthma and allergy. The aim of current study was to investigate whether functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Fc?R genes (FCGR) are associated with human asthma and allergy.
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Two new phthalides with BuChE inhibitory activity from Ligusticum chuanxiong.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Two new phthalides, chuanxiongdiolides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the roots of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Their structures were established by UV, IR, 1D ((1)H, (13)C) and 2D (HSQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMBC, NOESY) NMR, and HR-ESI-MS methods, and their absolute configurations were assigned via circular dichroism exciton chirality. The two compounds showed different degrees of inhibitory effects against butyrylcholine esterase.
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[Relationship between colorectal adenocarcinoma with invasive micropapillary carcinoma component and lymph node metastasis].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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To investigate the relationship between colorectal adenocarcinoma with invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) component, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis.
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How to determine bortezomib-based regimen for elderly patients with multiple myeloma: PAD versus CBd, an observational study.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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This was an open-label, observational, prospective assessment. We conducted an analysis of the impact of bortezomib-based therapy (PAD: bortezomib, doxorubicin, high-dose dexamethasone vs. CBd: cyclophosphamide bortezomib, low-dose dexamethasone) on the survival rates and adverse events in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM).
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Mechanistic insight into the photocatalytic hydrogenation of 4-nitroaniline over band-gap-tunable CdS photocatalysts.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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CdS photocatalysts with tunable band gaps (2.17-2.32 eV) were successfully prepared by a solvothermal method. Photocatalytic hydrogenation of 4-nitroaniline over the obtained samples was evaluated in the presence of HCO2NH4 as a hole scavenger upon purging with N2 under visible light irradiation (? ? 420 nm). The CdS sample prepared by CdCl2 and sulfur powder in ethylenediamine showed excellent catalytic activity, giving 100% of 4-nitroaniline conversion and 95% of p-phenylenediamine selectivity after 35 min of visible light irradiation. The results of electron spin resonance revealed that its photoexcited holes could efficiently react with HCO2(-) ions within HCO2NH4 molecules to produce ?CO2(-) radicals with strong reductive abilities. Furthermore, photoexcited electrons of the obtained sample exhibited relatively strong reductive abilities as compared to other CdS samples. Therefore, this sample showed the highest catalytic activity among the CdS samples for the photocatalytic hydrogenation of 4-nitroaniline.
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[Study on saponins in shengmai injection].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To investigate the saponin in Shengmai injection.
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Highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles anchored on UiO-66(NH?) metal-organic framework as a reusable and dual functional visible-light-driven photocatalyst.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Proper design and preparation of high-performance and stable dual functional photocatalytic materials remains a significant objective of research. In this work, highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles of about 3-6 nm in diameter are immobilized in the metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66(NH?) via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The resulting Pd@UiO-66(NH?) nanocomposite exhibits an excellent reusable and higher visible light photocatalytic activity for reducing Cr(vi) compared with UiO-66(NH?) owing to the high dispersion of Pd nanoparticles and their close contact with the matrix, which lead to the enhanced light harvesting and more efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. More significantly, the Pd@UiO-66(NH?) could be used for simultaneous photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, like methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB), and reduction of Cr(vi) with even further enhanced activity in the binary system, which could be attributed to the synergetic effect between photocatalytic oxidation and reduction by individually consuming photogenerated holes and electrons. This work represents the first example of using the MOFs-based materials as dual functional photocatalyst to remove different categories of pollutants simultaneously. Our finding not only proves great potential for the design and application of MOFs-based materials but also might bring light to new opportunities in the development of new high-performance photocatalysts.
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A new tetrahydrofuran-type lignan with anti-inflammatory activity from Asarum heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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A new tetrahydrofuran-type lignan, episesaminone (1), was isolated from Asarum heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum (Maxim.) Kitag. Its structure was established by spectroscopic techniques (HR-MS, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and circular dichroism). The anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages was carried out on 1 and other eight known compounds, the epimer of 1 (2) and seven known furofurans-type lignan (3-9) obtained from A. heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, particularly 50 ?M compound 3 inhibited 69.2% NO production compared with the lipopolysaccharide group.
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Association between multiple sclerosis risk-associated SNPs and relapse and disability - a prospective cohort study.
Mult. Scler.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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The modulating effects of the multiple sclerosis (MS) risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on MS clinical course are not well established.
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Novel modulating effects of PKC family genes on the relationship between serum vitamin D and relapse in multiple sclerosis.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The interplay between genes and environmental factors on multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical course has been little studied.
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[Chemical constituents of surface layer of Poria cocos and their pharmacological properties (I)].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The surface layer of the sclerotia of Poria cocos, named Fu-Ling-Pi, is used as a diuretic in traditional Chinese medicine to treat edema and urinary dysfunction. Recent studies have showed that the triterpenes (lanostane and 3,4-secolanostane skeletons) and polysaccharides (beta-pachyman) are the main components of Fu-Ling-Pi and they exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-tumor, antibacterial and antioxidant, etc. This review was focused on the chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical uses of this drug and it may provide scientific foundation for further development and utilization of Fulingpi.
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Intrinsic determinants of optic nerve regeneration.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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To review the functions of these intracellular signals in their regulation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon regeneration.
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Diuretic activity of some fractions of the epidermis of Poria cocos.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) is a well-known medicinal fungus, the epidermis ("Fu-Ling-Pi" in Chinese) of the sclerotia is used as a diuretic for treating oedema and promoting the diuretic process. In this paper we report on the diuretic activity in rats of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the remaining fractions of the ethanol extract from the epidermis of Poria cocos.
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[Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of Chinese caterpillar fungus].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (CCF) is one of the rare Chinese traditional drugs. As the resource is reducing sharply, the price is rising higher and higher, and there have been much more adulterants in the markets, but until now we dont have a scientific and accurate research on the identification study for this drug. On the basis of resource investigation, during the study of the samples collected by ourselves and the specimens stored in the museum, using the macroscopic and microscopic methods, referring to the literatures of entomology, emphasizing on the characteristics of polypide part, we have studied this species in detail of the macroscopic characters such as the insertion position of the stroma part, the annulations and segments of the caterpillar, the abdominal leg, the pinaculum, and the microscopic characters of the body wall; firstly added the microscopic character of the crotchets on the planta of abdominal leg. The result turned out that the characters which we have studied are regular and stable, and it have laid the foundation for the powder products and patent medicines which have used the crude drug of CCF.
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Template-free synthesis of a CdSnO3·3H2O hollow-nanocuboid photocatalyst via a facile microwave hydrothermal method.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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A CdSnO3·3H2O hollow-nanocuboid photocatalyst was successfully synthesized via a facile template-free microwave hydrothermal method for the first time. The as-prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, samples prepared under different reaction times were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy to investigate the formation process of the CdSnO3·3H2O hollow-nanocuboids. Based on this result, a possible mechanism for the formation process was proposed. The sample prepared at 160 °C for 2 h at pH 11 exhibited the best photocatalytic activity and stability for the degradation of gaseous benzene under UV irradiation (? = 254 nm) as compared with the other samples. The conversion and mineralization rates of benzene were about 12.5% and 67%, respectively. The mineralization rate was twice as high as that of commercial TiO2 (Degussa Co.). Furthermore, the excellent stability for the benzene decomposition was attributed to the positive charge on the catalyst surface, which was analyzed both by electron spin resonance and Zeta-potentials.
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A multifunctional helical Cu(I) coordination polymer with mechanochromic, sensing and photocatalytic properties.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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A multifunctional Cu(I) coordination polymer constructed from helical chains showed unusual mechanochromic, sensing of nitrobenzene and photocatalytic properties on degradation of organic dyes.
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Anti-inflammatory ligustilides from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Four new ligustilides chuanxiongnolide R1 (1), chuanxiongnolide R2 (2), chuanxiongdiolide R1 (3) and chuanxiongdiolide R2 (4) together with eight known derivatives (5-12) were isolated from the root of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Their structures were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY) methods. The absolute configurations were confirmed via the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum. The anti-inflammatory assay in LPS-triggered RAW 264.7 macrophages was carried out on the twelve compounds. 1, 3, 5 and 6 showed significant inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO production.
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Therapeutic regimens and prognostic factors of brain metastatic cancers.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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This work aims to investigate the therapeutic regimen of brain metastatic cancers and the relationship between clinical features and prognosis.
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General toxicity of Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Berit. in rat: a metabonomic method for profiling of serum metabolic changes.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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BX is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the plant Pinellia ternata(Thunb.) Berit. It has been traditionally used to treat cough, vomiting, infection and inflammation. Despite of its potentially clinical utility, it also has many side effects and toxicity.
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Urinary metabonomic study of the surface layer of Poria cocos as an effective treatment for chronic renal injury in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) is a well-known medicinal fungus. The epidermis of the sclerotia ("Fu-Ling-Pi" in Chinese) is used as a diuretic and traditionally used for promoting urination and reduce edema.
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Ultra performance liquid chromatography-based metabonomic study of therapeutic effect of the surface layer of Poria cocos on adenine-induced chronic kidney disease provides new insight into anti-fibrosis mechanism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The surface layer of Poria cocos (Fu-Ling-Pi, FLP) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and its diuretic effect was confirmed in rat. Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight high-sensitivity mass spectrometry and a novel mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) data collection technique was employed to investigate metabonomic characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) induced from adenine excess and the protective effects of FLP. Multiple metabolites are detected in the CKD and are correlated with progressive renal injury. Among these biomarkers, lysoPC(18?0), tetracosahexaenoic acid, lysoPC(18?2), creatinine, lysoPC (16?0) and lysoPE(22?0/0?0) in the FLP-treated group were completely reversed to levels in the control group which lacked CKD. Combined with biochemistry and histopathology results, the changes in serum metabolites indicate that the perturbations of phospholipids metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism are related to adenine-induced CKD and to the interventions of FLP on all the three metabolic pathways. FLP may regulate the metabolism of these biomarkers, especially their efficient utilization within the context of CKD. Furthermore, these biomarkers might serve as characteristics to explain the mechanisms of FLP.
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Metabonomic study of biochemical changes in the rat urine induced by Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Berit.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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We adopted an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) metabonomics approach to study metabonomic features of rats induced by orally administered Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Berit. (BX). The integrated urinary MS data were analyzed via principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to identify the differential metabolites. Ten potential biomarkers were identified within complex sample matrix of urine. The identified biomarkers indicated the perturbations of tryptophan, phenylacetylglycine and pantothenic acid metabolism in BX-induced rats. The biomarkers that were found to be changed with the passage of time were explained tentatively based on previous study.
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Metaproteomic analysis of ratoon sugarcane rhizospheric soil.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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The current study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of yield decline in ratoon sugarcane using soil metaproteomics combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis.
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Pharmacokinetics of 2,3,5,4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glucoside in rat using ultra-performance LC-quadrupole TOF-MS.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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2,3,5,4-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glucoside (THSG) from Polygoni multiflori has been demonstrated to possess a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. Ultra-performance LC-quadrupole TOF-MS with MS Elevated Energy data collection technique and rapid resolution LC with diode array detection and ESI multistage MS(n) methods were developed for the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies of THSG in rats following a single intravenous or oral dose. The three metabolites were identified by rapid resolution LC-MS(n). The concentrations of the THSG in rat plasma, bile, urine, feces, or tissue samples were determined by ultra-performance LC-MS. The results showed that THSG was rapidly distributed and eliminated from rat plasma. After the intravenous administration, THSG was mainly distributing in the liver, heart, and lung. For the rat, the major distribution tissues after oral administration were heart, kidney, liver, and lung. There was no long-term storage of THSG in rat tissues. Total recoveries of THSG within 24 h were low (0.1% in bile, 0.007% in urine, and 0.063% in feces) and THSG was excreted mainly in the forms of metabolites, which may resulted from biotransformation in the liver.
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Sequence variation in four mitochondrial genes among sibling species within Contracaecum rudolphii sensu lato.
Mol. Cell. Probes
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The present study investigated sequence variability in four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit (cox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 (nad1 and nad4), and small subunit of rRNA (rrnS), among Contracaecum rudolphii A, C. rudolphii B, C. rudolphii C and Contracaecum septentrionale from different hosts and geographical origins in China, Italy, Spain and the USA. Regions in the cox1, nad1, nad4 and rrnS genes (designated pcox1, pnad1, pnad4 and prrnS, respectively) were amplified separately from individual nematodes by PCR, sequenced and compared to estimate sequence variability. While sequence variation within each of the Contracaecum species was 0-2.6% for pcox1, 0.3-2.5% for pnad1, 0-1.9% for pnad4 and 0-2.9% for prrnS, differences between species was significantly higher, being 3.3-12%, 9.8-15.2%, 9.6-18.3% and 3.5-11.12% for these regions, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of pcox1, pnad1, pnad4 and prrnS sequence data using maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbour joining (NJ) showed that the specimens of each Contracaecum species clustered together. These results provide additional genetic evidence for the existence of sibling species within C. rudolphii sensu lato.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of different Toxoplasma gondii genotypes by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals and humans. There are three infective stages of T. gondii: the tachyzoites, the bradyzoites and the oocysts. The tachyzoite is a rapidly multiplying stage and the main pathogenic factor. In North America and Europe, T. gondii is consisted of four major clonal lineages (namely Types I, II, III and Type 12). In this study, we explored the proteomic profiles of different genotypes (Type I-RH strain, Type II-PRU strain, Type II-TgQHO strain and ToxoDB 9-TgC7 strain) of T. gondii tachyzoites by using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) combined with MALDI-TOF MS. Totally, 110 differentially abundant protein spots were selected. Of these, 98 spots corresponding to 56 proteins from T. gondii were successfully identified. These included surface antigen (SAG1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), disulfide isomerase, coronin, heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), pyruvate kinase, receptor for activated C kinase 1 and peroxiredoxin. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially abundant proteins were involved in biological regulation, metabolic process, response to stress, binding, antioxidant activity and transporter activity. According to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathway maps of T. gondii, some identified proteins were involved in the glycolytic/gluconeogenesis pathway. The present study identified differentially abundant proteins among different genotypes of T. gondii and these findings have implications for the better understanding of the phenotypic differences among the examined T. gondii genotypes which in turn may contribute to the better control of toxoplasmosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Combining Oxymatrine or Matrine with Lamivudine Increased Its Antireplication Effect against the Hepatitis B Virus In Vitro.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Some recent clinical reports have shown that the combination of oxymatrine, a phyto-derived drug, with lamivudine (3TC) could improve its curative effect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the experimental data in support of this combination strategy are lacking. In this study, we investigated the anti-HBV activity of the combination of 3TC and either oxymatrine or matrine on HepG2 2.2.15 in vitro. The activities of the combination and the solo compound, each in different concentrations, were compared on the 3rd, 6th, and 9th experimental days. The cytotoxicity results showed that the nontoxic concentrations of both oxymatrine and matrine to HepG2 2.2.15 cells were 800??g/mL. We found that the single use of oxymatrine below 100??g/ml, matrine below 200??g/ml, and 3TC below 30??g/ml showed weak inhibitory effects on the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and HBV-DNA in culture media; the combination of 3TC (30??g/ml) with oxymatrine (100??g/ml) or matrine (100??g/ml) showed significant inhibitory effects that were higher than or equivalent to the single use of 3TC at 100??g/ml. The results provide a new impetus to develop novel, multicomponent anti-HBV drugs through the combination of natural products with nucleoside analogs to enhance their activity.
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Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ development of the parasite. The present study provides a framework for further research of Ascaris miRNAs, and consequently leads to the development of potential nucleotide vaccines against Ascaris of human and animal health significance.
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Intrarenal metabolomic investigation of chronic kidney disease and its TGF-?1 mechanism in induced-adenine rats using UPLC Q-TOF/HSMS/MS(E).
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a worldwide public health problem. In this study, a kidney metabonomics method based on the ultra performance liquid chromatography/high-sensitivity mass spectrometry with MS(E) data collection technique was undertaken to explore the excretion pattern of low molecular mass metabolites in rat model of adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF). Coupled with blood biochemistry and kidney histopathology results, the significant difference in metabolic profiling between the adenine-induced CRF group and the control group by using pattern recognition analysis indicated that changes in global tissue metabolites were occurred. Some significantly changed metabolites like fatty acids, p-cresol sulfate, and indoxyl sulfate have been identified. The results showed that the most important CRF-related metabolites were polyunsaturated fatty acids, indoxyl sulfate, and p-cresyl sulfate. Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate (uremic toxins) were significantly increased in CRF rats. Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate stimulate progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis by increasing the expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). These biochemical changes in tissue metabolites are related to the perturbations of fatty acid metabolism and amino metabolism, which may be helpful to further understand the TGF-?1 mechanisms of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. This work shows that the metabonomics method is a valuable tool for studying the essence of CKD.
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Identity-by-descent mapping to detect rare variants conferring susceptibility to multiple sclerosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified around 60 common variants associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), but these loci only explain a fraction of the heritability of MS. Some missing heritability may be caused by rare variants that have been suggested to play an important role in the aetiology of complex diseases such as MS. However current genetic and statistical methods for detecting rare variants are expensive and time consuming. Population-based linkage analysis (PBLA) or so called identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping is a novel way to detect rare variants in extant GWAS datasets. We employed BEAGLE fastIBD to search for rare MS variants utilising IBD mapping in a large GWAS dataset of 3,543 cases and 5,898 controls. We identified a genome-wide significant linkage signal on chromosome 19 (LOD?=?4.65; p?=?1.9×10(-6)). Network analysis of cases and controls sharing haplotypes on chromosome 19 further strengthened the association as there are more large networks of cases sharing haplotypes than controls. This linkage region includes a cluster of zinc finger genes of unknown function. Analysis of genome wide transcriptome data suggests that genes in this zinc finger cluster may be involved in very early developmental regulation of the CNS. Our study also indicates that BEAGLE fastIBD allowed identification of rare variants in large unrelated population with moderate computational intensity. Even with the development of whole-genome sequencing, IBD mapping still may be a promising way to narrow down the region of interest for sequencing priority.
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Complete mitochondrial genome sequence data provides genetic evidence that the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) represents a species complex.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites of great medical and veterinary significance that can transmit bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses, and cause a variety of human and animal diseases worldwide. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Rhipicephalus sanguineus from China (RSC) and compared with that of R. sanguineus from USA (RSU). Nucleotide sequence difference in the full mt genome was 11.23% between RSC and RSU. For the 13 protein-coding genes, comparison revealed sequence divergences at both the nucleotide (9.34-15.65%) and amino acid (2.54-19.23%) levels between RSC and RSU. In addition, sequence comparison of the conserved mt cox1 and cytb genes among multiple individual R. sanguineus revealed substantial nucleotide differences between RSC and RSU but limited sequence variation within RSC. Phylogenetic analysis of ticks based on the amino acid sequence data of 13 protein-coding genes revealed that R. sanguineus from China and R. sanguineus from USA represent sister taxa (likely separate species). Taken together, the findings support the recently proposal that R. sanguineus tick may represents a species complex of at least two closely related species.
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[Study on a new prevention and control model on soil-borne parasitic diseases in rural areas of China].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To explore a new prevention and control model on soil-borne parasitic diseases in rural areas of China.
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[Retrospective investigation on national endemic situation of schistosomiasis. III. Changes of endemic situation in endemic rebounded counties after transmission of schistosomiasis under control or interruption].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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To analyze the changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation before and after reaching the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission control or transmission interruption in endemic rebounded areas, so as to offer the information for modifying the criteria of schistosomiasis control and elimination, and consolidating achievements of schistosomiasis control in Peoples Republic of China.
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[Retrospective investigation on national endemic situation of schistosomiasis I analysis of changes of endemic situation in transmission-interrupted counties].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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To analyze the changing rules of schistosomiasis endemic situation in the area of transmission that has been interrupted before and after they reach the criteria of transmission interruption, so as to offer the basis of amending to the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission interruption and a more scientific, standardized assessment and evaluation of the effects of schistosomiasis control in the future.
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[Retrospective investigation on national endemic situation of schistosomiasis. II. Analysis of changes of endemic situation in transmission-controlled counties].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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To summarize and analyze the process of the changes of schistosomiasis infection and Oncomelania snails in schistosomiasis transmission-controlled areas to explore the rules of the impact of changes of snail indexes on human infection before and after the stage of transmission control, so as to provide the evidence for editing snail indexes in the schistosomiasis controlled criterion and a more scientific, standardized control assessment and evaluation.
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Serum metabonomics study of adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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An ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF MS) metabonomics approach was employed to study the serum metabolic profiling of adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF) rats. Acquired data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for differentiating the CRF and the normal control groups. Potential biomarkers were screened by using S-plot and were identified by the accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS fragments information obtained from UPLC Q-TOF MS analysis. Significant differences in the serum level of creatinine, amino acids and LysoPCs were observed, indicating the perturbations of amino acid metabolism and phospholipid metabolism in adenine-induced CRF rats. This research proved that metabonomics is a promising tool for disease research.
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Inhibition effects of all trans-retinoic acid on the growth and angiogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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The potential application of retinoic acid receptor activators, such as all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), for treating various cancers have been studied both pre-clinically and clinically. Whether ATRA has an anticancer effect on human esophageal squamous cancer cell (ESCC) is still unknown. We have explored the anticancer effect of ATRA in ESCC, and in this study, the effects of ATRA on levels and patterns of expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signal transduction pathway in transplantable tumor growth of the human ESCC cell line, EC9706, in nude mice.
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Urinary metabonomics study on biochemical changes in an experimental model of chronic renal failure by adenine based on UPLC Q-TOF/MS.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a serious clinical symptom, occurring as the end result of all kinds of chronic kidney disease and its pathophysiological mechanism is not yet well understood. We investigated the metabolic profiling of urine samples from CRF model rats to find potential disease biomarkers and research pathology of CRF.
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Ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one isolated from Polyporus umbellatus prevents early renal injury in aristolochic acid-induced nephropathy rats.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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Aristolochic acid (AA) nephropathy, first reported as Chinese herbs nephropathy, is a rapidly progressive tubulointerstitial nephropathy that results in severe anemia, interstitial fibrosis and end-stage renal disease. Tubulointerstitial injury was studied in a rat model of AA nephropathy to determine whether ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (ergone) treatment prevents early renal injury in rats with aristolochic acid I-induced nephropathy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.