Prothrombotic gene polymorphisms and plasma factors in young North Indian survivors of acute myocardial infarction.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of prothrombotic gene polymorphisms [factor V Leiden (FVL) 1691GA, factor VII (FVII) 10976GA, FVII HVR4, platelet membrane glycoproteins GP1BA 1018CT, GP1BA VNTR, integrin ITGB3 1565TC, integrin ITGA2 807CT and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T], plasma factors (fibrinogen and homocysteine) and traditional risk factors with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 184 patients ? 40 years of age and 350 controls (? 40 years) from north India. Multiple logistic-regression analysis showed that hypertension (OR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.8, p = 0.042), diabetes mellitus (OR 10.5, 95 % CI 2.0-56.7, p = 0.006), smoking (OR 7.1, 95 % CI 3.7-13.6, p < 0.001), low socio-economic status (OR 13.5, 95 % CI 2.3-78.4, p = 0.004), high waist-hip ratio (OR 35.6, 95 % CI 11.1-53.7, p < 0.001) and FVL 1691GA (OR 6.0, 95 % CI 1.2-13.4, p = 0.03) were independent risk predictors of AMI in young. Elevated plasma fibrinogen also showed association with increased AMI risk. ITGA2 807C/T polymorphism showed protection against AMI in univariate analysis only, while GP1BA VNTR-ac (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.033) showed significant protection even after adjusting for age and sex. Multinominal logistic-regression analysis showed gene-gene (GP1BA 1018C/T with GP1BA VNTR and ITGA2 807C/T with ITGB3 1565T/C polymorphisms) and gene-environment interactions (gene polymorphisms with smoking) operating in the occurrence of AMI in young. In conclusion, the role of inherited predisposition to thrombosis in complex, polygenic and multifactorial disease like AMI is limited to certain genetic factors, in combination with environmental factor like smoking.