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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Serum neurofilament light chain is a biomarker of human spinal cord injury severity and outcome.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Neurofilaments (Nf) are major structural proteins that occur exclusively in neurons. In spinal cord injury (SCI), the severity of disease is quantified by clinical measures that have limited sensitivity and reliability, and no blood-based biomarker has been established to further stratify the degree of injury. We aimed to examine a serum-based NfL immunoassay as predictor of the clinical outcome in SCI.
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Bone health in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) and osteoporosis are chronic diseases associated with increasing age. Single studies have reported associations between them and the major consequence, namely, increased risk of fractures. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship of PD with osteoporosis, bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk.
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A service development study of the assessment and management of fracture risk in Parkinson's disease.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture. FRAX and Qfracture are risk calculators that estimate the 10-year risk of hip and major fractures and guide definitive investigation for osteoporosis using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) imaging. It is unclear which PD patients should be considered for fracture risk assessment and whether FRAX or Qfracture should be used. Seventy-seven patients with PD were recruited in the movement disorders clinic. Data were collected on PD-related characteristics and fracture risk scores were calculated. Patients with previous osteoporotic fractures had a higher incidence of falls (p = 0.0026) and use of bilateral walking aids (p = 0.0187) in addition to longer disease duration (p = 0.0037). Selecting patients with falls in combination with either disease duration >5 years, bilateral walking aids, or previous osteoporotic fracture distinguished patients with and without previous osteoporotic fracture with specificity 67.7 % (95 % CI 55.0-78.8) and sensitivity 100.0 % (95 % CI 73.5-100.0). Qfracture calculated significantly higher fracture risk scores than FRAX for hip (p < 0.0001) and major (p = 0.0008) fracture in PD patients. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that FRAX outperformed Qfracture with an area under the curve of 0.84 (95 % CI 0.70-0.97, p = 0.0004) for FRAX and 0.68 (95 % CI 52-86, p = 0.0476) for Qfracture major fracture risk calculators. We suggest that falls in combination with either a disease duration longer than 5 years or bilateral walking aids or previous osteoporotic fracture should be used as red flags in PD patients to prompt clinicians to perform a FRAX fracture risk assessment in the neurology clinic.
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The refinement of genetic predictors of multiple sclerosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated that more than 100 genetic variants influence the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated what proportion of the general population can be considered at high genetic risk of MS, whether genetic information can be used to predict disease development and how the recently found genetic associations have influenced these estimates. We used summary statistics from GWAS in MS to estimate the distribution of risk within a large simulated general population. We profiled MS associated loci in 70 MS patients and 79 healthy controls (HC) and assessed their position within the distribution of risk in the simulated population. The predictive performance of a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) on disease status was investigated using receiver operating characteristic statistics. When all known variants were considered, 40.8% of the general population was predicted to be at reduced risk, 49% at average, 6.9% at elevated and 3.3% at high risk of MS. Fifty percent of MS patients were at either reduced or average risk of disease. However, they showed a significantly higher wGRS than HC (median 13.47 vs 12.46, p?=?4.08×10(-10)). The predictive performance of the model including all currently known MS associations (area under the curve?=?79.7%, 95%CI?=?72.4%-87.0%) was higher than that of models considering previously known associations. Despite this, considering the relatively low prevalence of MS, the positive predictive value was below 1%. The increasing number of known associated genetic variants is improving our ability to predict the development of MS. This is still unlikely to be clinically useful but a more complete understanding of the complexity underlying MS aetiology and the inclusion of environmental risk factors will aid future attempts of disease prediction.
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Assessing treatment response to interferon-?: Is there a role for MRI?
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Interferon-? (IFN-?) has been shown to reduce relapse rates in multiple sclerosis; however, the clinical response appears to vary among individuals. Can early MRI be used to identify those patients who have a poor response to treatment?
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The effect of vitamin D-related interventions on multiple sclerosis relapses: a meta-analysis.
Mult. Scler.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Observational studies have shown an association between lower vitamin D levels and higher risk of relapse among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). This has raised interest in potential clinical benefits of vitamin D supplementation in the management of MS. The objectives were to examine the effect of vitamin D based interventions on the relative risk of relapse in MS. Any randomised controlled trial assessing the effect on the relative risk of relapse of any formulation or dose of vitamin D, in participants with MS, was eligible. The inverse variance with random effects model in Review Manager 5.1 was used to calculate the odds ratio of relapses in high dose vitamin D treated patients vs. controls. Five studies were published as of September 2012, yielding a total of 129 high-dose vitamin D-treated patients and 125 controls. We found no significant association between high-dose vitamin D treatment and risk of MS relapse (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.45-2.16). In conclusion, although no significant association between high-dose vitamin D treatment and risk of MS relapses was found, the studies were limited by several methodological limitations. Further larger, more prolonged studies are merited.
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Comparison of two commercial ELISA systems for evaluating anti-EBNA1 IgG titers.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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High IgG titers against the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen, EBNA-1, have been strongly correlated with the risk of developing multiple sclerosis. ELISAs are used frequently to measure EBNA-1 titers, however concerns remain regarding the accuracy of results. Ordering absolute results into rank quintiles for analysis may be preferable. Using 120 serum samples, two commercially available ELISAs (produced by DiaSorin and VirionSerion) were compared, both in terms of absolute results and rank quintiles. The positive predictive value of the VirionSerion ELISA was 99.1% when compared to the DiaSorin ELISA, however, the negative predictive value was 64.3%. Sensitivity and specificity were acceptable at 95.5% and 90.0%, respectively. There was poor correlation between absolute results, R(2) ?= 0.49; and the kappa coefficient for rank quintiles was low at 0.23. Although sensitivity and specificity appear adequate, the poor negative predictive value and kappa coefficient are of major concern. Care must be taken when selecting assays for experimental use.
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Validating a novel web-based method to capture disease progression outcomes in multiple sclerosis.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is the current gold standard for monitoring disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The EDSS is a physician-based assessment. A patient-related surrogate for the EDSS may be useful in remotely capturing information. Eighty-one patients (EDSS range 0-8) having EDSS as part of clinical trials were recruited. All patients carried out the web-based survey with minimal assistance. Full EDSS scores were available for 78 patients. The EDSS scores were compared to those generated by the online survey using analysis of variance, matched pair test, Pearsons coefficient, weighted kappa coefficient, and the intra-class correlation coefficient. The internet-based EDSS scores showed good correlation with the physician-measured assessment (Pearsons coefficient = 0.85). Weighted kappa for full agreement was 0.647. Full agreement was observed in 20 patients who had EDSS scores ranging from 0 to 6; many of those with 100 % agreement had scores of 5.5-6 (n = 8).The intra-class coefficient was 0.844 overall for all cases. Internet-based FS and EDSS show good agreement with physician-measured scores. Agreement was better in patients with higher scores. Overall patient satisfaction with the web-based assessment was high. An internet-based assessment tool is likely to prove an invaluable tool in the long-term monitoring in MS.
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Bone health in chronic neurological diseases: a focus on multiple sclerosis and parkinsonian syndromes.
Pract Neurol
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The importance of bone health is increasingly recognised, and there is mounting evidence that neurological conditions are associated with a significantly increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. This increase in risk is likely to be multifactorial. Multiple sclerosis and Parkinsons disease were identified in the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women study as significantly associated with osteoporosis. Here, we discuss the literature on bone health, falls and fractures in MS and akinetic-rigid syndromes, and suggest strategies to investigate and manage bone health in the neurology clinic.
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Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndromes: a meta-analysis of prevalence, prognosis and effect of latitude.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) unique to the cerebrospinal fluid are used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The precise prevalence of OCBs in MS and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is unknown. The influence of OCBs on clinical outcomes has not been quantified. OCB prevalence has been associated with latitude in a single study, if confirmed this would provide avenues for further study.
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Autoimmune disease in people with multiple sclerosis and their relatives: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Additional autoimmune diseases in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their relatives have been studied many times. Studies have employed different designs, and yielded conflicting results. We performed a systematic review, and calculated overall risk of additional autoimmune diseases in people with MS and their first-degree relatives. PubMed and Web of Science were searched. Thyroid disease, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were studied. A generic inverse variance model was used, and subgroup analysis was used to explore heterogeneity. The OR of thyroid disease was increased in both people with MS (OR 1.66; p < 0.00001) and their relatives (OR 2.38; p < 0.00001). A similar association was seen between MS and inflammatory bowel disease (OR 1.56; p < 0.0001) and psoriasis (OR 1.31; p < 0.0001), although not in relatives. There was no increase in the rate of either SLE or RA. Studies examining diabetes showed significant heterogeneity and evidence of publication bias. There is an increase in the rate of certain autoimmune diseases in people with MS and their first-degree relatives. However, this does not extend to all conditions studied. Given the nonspecific clinical presentation of thyroid disease, it should be considered in all people with MS presenting with nonspecific symptoms.
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Dynamics of B-Cell Populations in CSF and Blood in Patients Treated with a Combination of Rituximab and Mitoxantrone.
ISRN Neurol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Background. Mitoxantrone (MTX) and Rituximab (RTX) are successfully used for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be combined to increase efficacy. Objective. We used MTX, RTX, and methylprednisolone in a single combined regiment and observed patients prospectively. Methods. We present results of observational pilot study of combined therapy of RTX and MTX in 28 patients with active MS. Therapeutic protocol consisted of two infusions within 14 days. First infusion was 1000?mg methylprednisolone (MP) IV, 1000?mg RTX IV, and 20?mg MTX IV. On day 14, 1000?mg MP IV and 1000?mg RTX IV were given. Patients were followed prospectively from 12 to 48 months. Results and Conclusion. There were no relapses among all 28 patients during the observation period. B-cell depletion of CD19+ and CD19+/CD27+ memory B-cell subpopulation in both compartments was confirmed in all patients at 6 months. We found a more rapid reconstitution of B cells in the CSF than in the peripheral blood and longstanding depression of CD19+CD27+ memory B-cell. Conclusion. Effectiveness of combined regimen of RTX and MTX could be related to longstanding depletion of CD19+CD27+ memory B-cell subset.
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Increased neurofilament light chain blood levels in neurodegenerative neurological diseases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Neuronal damage is the morphological substrate of persisting neurological disability. Neurofilaments (Nf) are cytoskeletal proteins of neurons and their release into cerebrospinal fluid has shown encouraging results as a biomarker for neurodegeneration. This study aimed to validate the quantification of the Nf light chain (NfL) in blood samples, as a biofluid source easily accessible for longitudinal studies.
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Assessing fracture risk in people with MS: a service development study comparing three fracture risk scoring systems.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Suboptimal bone health is increasingly recognised as an important cause of morbidity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been consistently associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Various fracture risk screening tools have been developed, two of which are in routine use and a further one is MS-specific. We set out to compare the results obtained by these in the MS clinic population.
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Vitamin D deficiency--do we follow our own advice?
Clin Med
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Over the last few years, vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a risk factor for many diseases. Public awareness of the importance of the sunshine vitamin is increasing, however deficiency remains an ongoing problem. Is an awareness of the importance of vitamin D enough to promote healthy people to take supplements or is a different approach required? In this article the importance of vitamin D is discussed and data showing that knowledge of this is not sufficient to encourage people to take supplements are presented.
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The effect of gender in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS): a meta-analysis.
Mult. Scler.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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A clinically isolated syndrome compatible with demyelination (CIS) is the initial presentation for the majority of people that go on to develop multiple sclerosis (MS). There has previously been little work examining the effect of gender on the development and progression of CIS.
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Melanoma associated retinopathy and how to understand the electroretinogram.
Pract Neurol
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Melanoma associated retinopathy is a rare paraneoplastic complication of metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. It may present years after the original diagnosis of melanoma. Here we describe a patient with this condition who presented with persistent photopsias and visual loss. We will discuss the electroretinographic findings and their utility.
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More to come: humoral immune responses in MS.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Interest in the role of B-cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis has increased, and a number of B-cell targeted therapies are currently in clinical trials. B-cells are key mediators of the humoral immune response, with roles including antibody production and acting as antigen presenting cells. Whilst previously, the presence of B-cells within MS plaques has been thought to be secondary to T-cell dysregulation, it is now becoming clear that B-cells play an independent role in disease. In this review we will discuss the potential role of B-cells in MS, how this influences our understanding of the disease, and potential therapeutic implications.
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Smoking and multiple sclerosis: an updated meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a leading cause of disability in young adults. Susceptibility to MS is determined by environmental exposure on the background of genetic risk factors. A previous meta-analysis suggested that smoking was an important risk factor for MS but many other studies have been published since then.
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Multiple sclerosis: risk factors, prodromes, and potential causal pathways.
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common, complex neurological disease. The precise aetiology of MS is not yet known, although epidemiological data indicate that both genetic and environmental factors are important. The evidence that the environment acts long before MS becomes clinically evident is well established and suggests the existence of a prodromal phase for the disease. The increasing incidence of MS emphasises the need for strategies to prevent this chronic disorder, and the possibility of a prodrome indicates a window of opportunity to potentially reverse early disease processes before clinical disease becomes evident. Studying a prodrome requires techniques other than clinical observation such as monitoring endophenotypes that result from associated risk factors. However, our current knowledge of causal pathways and endophenotypes in MS is limited. Identifying and studying individuals with a high risk of developing the disease provides a powerful opportunity to understand the MS causal cascade and is highly relevant to strategies that are aimed at preventing this debilitating disease.
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Viral pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis: A role for Epstein-Barr virus infection?
Pathophysiology
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating and degenerative disease of the CNS. The cause of MS is unknown but environmental risk factors are implicated in MS. Several viruses have been proposed as a trigger for MS, and lately Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has become the leading candidate. An infectious aetiology fits with a number of epidemiological observations in addition to the immunopathological features of the disease. In this review we will summarize the emerging evidence, which demonstrates a strong association between EBV infection and MS. The conundrum remains as to whether EBV is directly involved in the pathophysiology of MS, or alternatively if the immunopathology of MS somehow affects the regulation of EBV infection.
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Increased urinary free immunoglobulin light chain excretion in patients with multiple sclerosis.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Plasma and B cells are implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) and produce free light chains (FLC) that are excreted in urine.
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The month of birth effect in multiple sclerosis: systematic review, meta-analysis and effect of latitude.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
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Month of birth has previously been described as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). This has been hypothesised to be related to maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy, although conclusive evidence to support this is lacking. To date, no large studies of latitudinal variation in the month of birth effect have been performed to advance this hypothesis.
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Meta-analysis of the relationship between multiple sclerosis and migraine.
PLoS ONE
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Studies investigating a proposed association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and migraine have produced conflicting results and a great range in the prevalence rate of migraine in MS patients. By meta-analysing all available data we aimed to establish an overall estimate of any association in order to more accurately inform clinicians and care-givers about a potential association between MS and migraine.
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Bone health and multiple sclerosis.
Mult. Scler.
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People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many reasons to have low bone mineral density and an increased fracture risk. Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and is more common in people with MS than the general population. A number of studies have examined the relationship between multiple sclerosis and reduced bone mineral density. In this topical review we seek to address the risk of low bone mineral density, osteoporosis and fractures associated with MS, and make practical suggestions as to how this pertinent issue may be approached in clinical practice.
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The risk of developing multiple sclerosis in individuals seronegative for Epstein-Barr virus: a meta-analysis.
Mult. Scler.
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is widely considered to be a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). A previous meta-analysis estimated an odds ratio (OR) for MS in individuals seronegative for EBV of 0.06. Given the potential importance of this finding, we aimed to establish a more precise OR for adult and paediatric onset MS in EBV seronegative individuals.
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Genomic regions associated with multiple sclerosis are active in B cells.
PLoS ONE
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More than 50 genomic regions have now been shown to influence the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanisms of action, and the cell types in which these associated variants act at the molecular level remain largely unknown. This is especially true for associated regions containing no known genes. Given the evidence for a role for B cells in MS, we hypothesized that MS associated genomic regions co-localized with regions which are functionally active in B cells. We used publicly available data on 1) MS associated regions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2) chromatin profiling in B cells as well as three additional cell types thought to be unrelated to MS (hepatocytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes). Genomic intervals and SNPs were tested for overlap using the Genomic Hyperbrowser. We found that MS associated regions are significantly enriched in strong enhancer, active promoter and strong transcribed regions (p?=?0.00005) and that this overlap is significantly higher in B cells than control cells. In addition, MS associated SNPs also land in active promoter (p?=?0.00005) and enhancer regions more than expected by chance (strong enhancer p?=?0.0006; weak enhancer p?=?0.00005). These results confirm the important role of the immune system and specifically B cells in MS and suggest that MS risk variants exert a gene regulatory role. Previous studies assessing MS risk variants in T cells may be missing important effects in B cells. Similar analyses in other immunological cell types relevant to MS and functional studies are necessary to fully elucidate how genes contribute to MS pathogenesis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.