To identify metabolite patterns associated with childhood obesity, to examine relations of these patterns with measures of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk, and to evaluate associations with maternal peripartum characteristics.
CD4 T cell activation leads to proliferation and differentiation into effector (Teff) or regulatory (Treg) cells that mediate or control immunity. While each subset prefers distinct glycolytic or oxidative metabolic programs in vitro, requirements and mechanisms that control T cell glucose uptake and metabolism in vivo are uncertain. Despite expression of multiple glucose transporters, Glut1 deficiency selectively impaired metabolism and function of thymocytes and Teff. Resting T cells were normal until activated, when Glut1 deficiency prevented increased glucose uptake and glycolysis, growth, proliferation, and decreased Teff survival and differentiation. Importantly, Glut1 deficiency decreased Teff expansion and the ability to induce inflammatory disease in vivo. Treg cells, in contrast, were enriched in vivo and appeared functionally unaffected and able to suppress Teff, irrespective of Glut1 expression. These data show a selective in vivo requirement for Glut1 in metabolic reprogramming of CD4 T cell activation and Teff expansion and survival.
Although multiple, complex molecular studies have been done for understanding the development and progression of pulmonary hypertension (PAH), little is known about the metabolic heterogeneity of PAH. Using a combination of high-throughput liquid-and-gas-chromatography-based mass spectrometry, we found bile acid metabolites, which are normally product derivatives of the liver and gallbladder, were highly increased in the PAH lung. Microarray showed that the gene encoding cytochrome P450 7B1 (CYP7B1), an isozyme for bile acid synthesis, was highly expressed in the PAH lung compared with the control. CYP7B1 protein was found to be primarily localized on pulmonary vascular endothelial cells suggesting de novo bile acid synthesis may be involved in the development of PAH. Here, by profiling the metabolomic heterogeneity of the PAH lung, we reveal a newly discovered pathogenesis mechanism of PAH.
Mutations in the ABC transporter ABCC6 were recently identified as cause of Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive mineralization of elastic fibers. We used an untargeted metabolic approach to identify biochemical differences between human dermal fibroblasts from healthy controls and PXE patients in an attempt to find a link between ABCC6 deficiency, cellular metabolic alterations and disease pathogenesis. 358 compounds were identified by mass spectrometry covering lipids, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, nucleotides, vitamins and cofactors, xenobiotics and energy metabolites. We found substantial differences in glycerophospholipid composition, leucine dipeptides, and polypeptides as well as alterations in pantothenate and guanine metabolism to be significantly associated with PXE pathogenesis. These findings can be linked to extracellular matrix remodeling and increased oxidative stress, which reflect characteristic hallmarks of PXE. Our study could facilitate a better understanding of biochemical pathways involved in soft tissue mineralization.
Reprogramming of tumour cell metabolism contributes to disease progression and resistance to therapy, but how this process is regulated on the molecular level is unclear. Here we report that heat shock protein 90-directed protein folding in mitochondria controls central metabolic networks in tumour cells, including the electron transport chain, citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid synthesis and cellular redox status. Specifically, mitochondrial heat shock protein 90, but not cytosolic heat shock protein 90, binds and stabilizes the electron transport chain Complex II subunit succinate dehydrogenase-B, maintaining cellular respiration under low-nutrient conditions, and contributing to hypoxia-inducible factor-1?-mediated tumorigenesis in patients carrying succinate dehydrogenase-B mutations. Thus, heat shock protein 90-directed proteostasis in mitochondria regulates tumour cell metabolism, and may provide a tractable target for cancer therapy.
T cell activation leads to dramatic shifts in cell metabolism to protect against pathogens and to orchestrate the action of other immune cells. Quiescent T cells require predominantly ATP-generating processes, whereas proliferating effector T cells require high metabolic flux through growth-promoting pathways. Further, functionally distinct T cell subsets require distinct energetic and biosynthetic pathways to support their specific functional needs. Pathways that control immune cell function and metabolism are intimately linked, and changes in cell metabolism at both the cell and system levels have been shown to enhance or suppress specific T cell functions. As a result of these findings, cell metabolism is now appreciated as a key regulator of T cell function specification and fate. This review discusses the role of cellular metabolism in T cell development, activation, differentiation, and function to highlight the clinical relevance and opportunities for therapeutic interventions that may be used to disrupt immune pathogenesis.
Recognition of peptide Major Histocompatibility Complexes (MHC) by the T cell receptor causes rapid production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in naïve CD8(+) T cells. Because ROI such as H2O2 are membrane permeable, mechanisms must exist to prevent overoxidation of surface proteins. In this study we used fluorescently labeled conjugates of maleimide to measure the level of cell surface free thiols (CSFT) during the development, activation and differentiation of CD8(+) T cells. We found that during development CSFT were higher on CD8 SP compared to CD4 SP or CD4CD8 DP T cells. After activation CSFT became elevated prior to division but once proliferation started levels continued to rise. During acute viral infection CSFT levels were elevated on antigen-specific effector cells compared to memory cells. Additionally, the CSFT level was always higher on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in lymphoid compared to nonlymphoid organs. During chronic viral infection, CSFT levels were elevated for extended periods on antigen-specific effector CD8(+) T cells. Finally, CSFT levels on effector CD8(+) T cells, regardless of infection, identified cells undergoing TCR stimulation. Taken together these data suggest that CD8(+) T cells upregulate CSFT following receptor ligation and ROI production during infection to prevent overoxidation of surface proteins.
Stimulation of resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes leads to rapid proliferation and differentiation into effector (Teff) or inducible regulatory (Treg) subsets with specific functions to promote or suppress immunity. Importantly, Teff and Treg use distinct metabolic programs to support subset specification, survival, and function. Here, we describe that the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-? (ERR?) regulates metabolic pathways critical for Teff. Resting CD4(+) T cells expressed low levels of ERR? protein that increased on activation. ERR? deficiency reduced activated T-cell numbers in vivo and cytokine production in vitro but did not seem to modulate immunity through inhibition of activating signals or viability. Rather, ERR? broadly affected metabolic gene expression and glucose metabolism essential for Teff. In particular, up-regulation of Glut1 protein, glucose uptake, and mitochondrial processes were suppressed in activated ERR?(-/-) T cells and T cells treated with two chemically independent ERR? inhibitors or by shRNAi. Acute ERR? inhibition also blocked T-cell growth and proliferation. This defect appeared as a result of inadequate glucose metabolism, because provision of lipids, but not increased glucose uptake or pyruvate, rescued ATP levels and cell division. Additionally, we have shown that Treg requires lipid oxidation, whereas Teff uses glucose metabolism, and lipid addition selectively restored Treg--but not Teff--generation after acute ERR? inhibition. Furthermore, in vivo inhibition of ERR? reduced T-cell proliferation and Teff generation in both immunization and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models. Thus, ERR? is a selective transcriptional regulator of Teff metabolism that may provide a metabolic means to modulate immunity.
Osteoporosis and age-related bone loss are important public health concerns. Therefore, there is a high level of interest in the development of medical interventions and lifestyle changes that reduce the incidence of osteoporosis and age-related bone loss. Decreased bone mineral density is associated with high cholesterol, and patients on statins have increased bone mineral densities, strongly implicating cholesterol as a negative regulator of bone homeostasis. In this study, using both molecular and pharmacological approaches, we have been able to demonstrate that the primary cholesterol metabolite, 27-hydroxycholesterol, through its actions on both estrogen receptors and liver X receptors, decreases osteoblast differentiation and enhances osteoclastogenesis, resulting in increased bone resorbtion in mice. Induction of the short heterodimer partner protein by estrogens in osteoblasts can attenuate the liver X receptor-mediated actions of 27-hydroxycholesterol in bone. These data establish a mechanistic link between cholesterol and bone quality, highlight an unexpected target of estrogens in osteoblasts, and define a signaling axis, the therapeutic exploitation of which is likely to yield novel antiosteoporotic drugs.
During many infections, large numbers of effector CD8(+) T cells are generated. After pathogen clearance, the majority of these cells undergo apoptosis, while the survivors differentiate into memory CD8(+) T cells. Although loss of both Bim and Fas function dramatically increased antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in the lymph nodes following acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, it was unclear whether they were pardoned effector or true memory CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we demonstrate they are bona fide memory T cells as characterized by surface marker expression, cytokine production, homeostatic proliferation, and ability to clear a secondary challenge of pathogen. Loss of both Bim and Fas also increased the number of virus-specific CD4(+) T cells found in the lymph nodes compared to the parental genotypes or wildtype mice. These studies illustrate that decreasing apoptosis increases the number of memory T cells and therefore could increase the efficacy of vaccines.
Stimulated CD4(+) T lymphocytes can differentiate into effector T cell (Teff) or inducible regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets with specific immunological roles. We show that Teff and Treg require distinct metabolic programs to support these functions. Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells expressed high surface levels of the glucose transporter Glut1 and were highly glycolytic. Treg, in contrast, expressed low levels of Glut1 and had high lipid oxidation rates. Consistent with glycolysis and lipid oxidation promoting Teff and Treg, respectively, Teff were selectively increased in Glut1 transgenic mice and reliant on glucose metabolism, whereas Treg had activated AMP-activated protein kinase and were dependent on lipid oxidation. Importantly, AMP-activated protein kinase stimulation was sufficient to decrease Glut1 and increase Treg generation in an asthma model. These data demonstrate that CD4(+) T cell subsets require distinct metabolic programs that can be manipulated in vivo to control Treg and Teff development in inflammatory diseases.
Summary: The regulation of lymphocyte homeostasis is critical for the development and formation of productive immune responses. Cell numbers must be maintained to allow sufficient numbers of lymphocytes to combat foreign pathogens but prevent the accumulation of excess lymphocytes that may increase the risk of developing autoimmunity or neoplasia. Cell extrinsic growth factors are essential to maintain homeostasis and cell survival, and it has become increasingly apparent that a key mechanism of this control is through regulation of cell metabolism. The metabolic state of T cells can have profound influences on cell growth and survival and even differentiation. In particular, resting T cells utilize an energy efficient oxidative metabolism but shift to a highly glycolytic metabolism when stimulated to grow and proliferate by pathogen encounter. After antigen clearance, T cells must return to a more quiescent oxidative metabolism to support T-cell memory. This review highlights how these metabolic changes may be intricately involved with both T-cell growth and death in the control of homeostasis and immunity.
It has become apparent that T cells require growth signals to maintain function and viability necessary to maintain proper immune homeostasis. One means by which cell extrinsic signals may mediate these effects is by sustaining sufficient basal cell metabolism to prevent cell atrophy. The role of metabolism and the specific growth factors essential to maintain metabolism of mature T cells in vivo, however, are poorly defined. As IL-7 is a nonredundant cytokine required for T cell development and survival and can regulate T cell metabolism in vitro, we hypothesized it may be essential to sustain metabolism of resting T cells in vivo. Thus, we generated a model for conditional expression of IL-7R in mature T cells. After IL-7R deletion in a generally normal lymphoid environment, T cells had reduced responses to IL-7, including abrogated signaling and maintenance of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family expression that corresponded to decreased survival in vitro. T cell survival in vivo was also reduced after loss of the IL-7R in a T cell-intrinsic manner. Additionally, IL-7R deletion resulted in delayed growth and proliferation following stimulation. Importantly, in vivo excision of IL-7R led to T cell atrophy that was characterized by delayed mitogenesis and reduced glycolytic flux. These data are the first to identify an in vivo requirement for a specific cell extrinsic signal to sustain lymphocyte metabolism and suggest that control of glycolysis by IL-7R may contribute to the well-described roles of IL-7 in T cell development, homeostatic proliferation, and survival.
We and others have reported significant expression of the Ang II Type 1 receptor (AT1R) on renal nuclei; thus, the present study assessed the functional pathways and distribution of the intracellular AT1R on isolated nuclei. Ang II (1nM) stimulated DCF fluorescence, an intranuclear indicator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the AT1R antagonist losartan or the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor DPI abolished the increase in ROS. Dual labeling of nuclei with antibodies against nucleoporin 62 (Nup62) and AT1R or the NADPH oxidase isoform NOX4 revealed complete overlap of the Nup62 and AT1R (99%) by flow cytometry, while NOX4 was present on 65% of nuclei. Treatment of nuclei with a PKC agonist increased ROS while the PKC inhibitor GF109203X or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 abolished Ang II stimulation of ROS. We conclude that the Ang II-AT1R-PKC axis may directly influence nuclear function within the kidney through a redox sensitive pathway.
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) generated in response to receptor stimulation play an important role in cellular responses. However, the effect of increased H(2)O(2) on an antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response was unknown. Following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, the expression and oxidation of peroxiredoxin II (PrdxII), a critical antioxidant enzyme, increased in CD8(+) T cells. Deletion of PrdxII increased ROI, S phase entry, division, and death during in vitro division. During primary acute viral and bacterial infection, the number of effector CD8(+) T cells in PrdxII-deficient mice was increased, while the number of memory cells were similar to those of the wild-type cells. Adoptive transfer of P14 TCR transgenic cells demonstrated that the increased expansion of effector cells was T cell autonomous. After rechallenge, effector CD8(+) T cells in mutant animals were more skewed to memory phenotype than cells from wild-type mice, resulting in a larger secondary memory CD8(+) T cell pool. During chronic viral infection, increased antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells accumulated in the spleens of PrdxII mutant mice, causing mortality. These results demonstrate that PrdxII controls effector CD8(+) T cell expansion, secondary memory generation, and immunopathology.
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