It was hypothesised that implantation of a total knee prosthesis may change the size and shape of the joint gap. To test this hypothesis, a tensor device was used which was specifically designed to reproduce the conditions before and after implantation, including attachment of the polyethylene insert trial. This study aimed to compare the joint gaps before and after implantation of a total knee prosthesis using this new tensor device.
Soft-tissue balancing of the knee is fundamental to the success of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In posterior-stabilized TKA, there is no stabilizer of the anterior-posterior translation in the midflexion range in which the cam-post mechanism does not engage yet. Therefore, instability in the midflexion range is suspected to occur in posterior-stabilized TKA. The purpose of this study was to measure the joint gap throughout a full range of motion and to analyze the joint gap laxity in the midflexion range after implantation of a mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee prosthesis.
There is only limited information available on the sagittal alignment of the lower extremity of normal subjects under weight-bearing conditions. Our aim was to determine the sagittal alignment of the lower extremity under such conditions. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were taken of the 20 lower extremities of 20 healthy female volunteers while standing. The coronal mechanical axis passed through 29% medial to the proximal tibial articulating surface. The sagittal mechanical axis passed through 44% anterior to the distal femoral condyle and 33% anterior to the proximal tibial articulating surface, and also passed 3 mm anterior to the intercondylar notch. Our study showed that the coronal and sagittal mechanical axes of the lower extremity do not always pass through the center of the knee. Our results will provide important information for alignment in surgery of lower extremity such as knee arthroplasty and osteotomy.
Reduction of wear with highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) has been reported in in vitro and in vivo studies of total hip prostheses. However, use of HXLPE in total knee prostheses is still controversial. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo polyethylene wear particle generation of HXLPE with that of conventional polyethylene in total knee prostheses of the same design. Synovial fluid was obtained from four knees with HXLPE inserts and three knees with conventional polyethylene inserts at 1 year after operation. Polyethylene particles were isolated and examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analyzer. The total number of particles in each knee was 0.28 +/- 0.12 x 10(6) in HXPLE group (mean +/- standard error) and 6.87 +/- 2.85 x 10(6) in conventional polyethylene group (p = 0.040). Particle size (equivalent circle diameter) was 0.64 +/- 0.07 microm in HXPLE group and 1.21 +/- 0.21 microm in conventional polyethylene group (p = 0.030). Particle shape (aspect ratio) was 1.33 +/- 0.10 in HXLPE and 1.88 +/- 0.19 in conventional polyethylene (p = 0.035). Thepercentage of particles of submicron size was greater than 90% in HXLPE group and 55% in conventional polyethylene group. Except for the material of the polyethylene insert, the design and material of prostheses were completely the same in both groups. The HXLPE insert generated fewer, smaller, and rounder polyethylene wear particles than the conventional polyethylene insert in the early stage after surgery.
Navigation systems have recently been developed to achieve highly reliable prosthetic alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, component alignment in the sagittal plane is less reliable than that in the coronal plane even when navigation systems are used. Previous reports examining men showed differences in targeted sagittal prosthetic alignments of TKA achieved using the conventional technique and various navigation systems. However, there have been few studies examining the use of this technique in women, who are the primary candidates for TKA.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.