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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Novel ruthenium sensitizers having different numbers of carboxyl groups for dye-sensitized solar cells: effects of the adsorption manner at the TiO? surface on the solar cell performance.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Two novel ruthenium sensitizers having multiple carboxyl groups ((TBA)[Ru{4'-(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-4,4?-dicarboxyterpyridine}(NCS)3] (TUS-21) and (TBA)[Ru{4'-(3-carboxyphenyl)-4,4?-dicarboxyterpyridine}(NCS)3] (TUS-37); TBA = tetrabutylammonium) have been synthesized as improved model sensitizers for the previously reported ruthenium sensitizer TUS-20 ((TBA)[Ru{4'-(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)terpyridine}(NCS)3]). The absorption maxima of two MLCT bands and the absorption onsets of TUS-21 and TUS-37 were shifted to longer wavelengths of about 30 nm in comparison to those of TUS-20 by introducing a carboxyl group to the each terminal pyridine ring of the terpyridine ligand. TUS-21 and TUS-37 showed quite similar adsorption behaviors to the TiO2 surface, and this adsorption behavior was found to be different from that of TUS-20. ATR-IR measurements revealed that TUS-21 and TUS-37 bind to the TiO2 surface by using two carboxyl groups at the 3-position of the phenyl ring and at one of the terminal pyridine rings of the terpyridine ligand, while TUS-20 is reported to bind by using two carboxyl groups at the 3,4-dicarboxyphenyl unit. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) with TUS-21 exhibited 10.2% conversion efficiency, which is much higher than that of the DSC with TUS-20 (7.5%), under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm(2)) irradiation.
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Pulsed Sagnac polarization-entangled photon source with a PPKTP crystal at telecom wavelength.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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We demonstrate pulsed polarization-entangled photons generated from a periodically poled KTiOPO(4) (PPKTP) crystal in a Sagnac interferometer configuration at telecom wavelength. Since the group-velocity-matching (GVM) condition is satisfied, the intrinsic spectral purity of the photons is much higher than in the previous scheme at around 800 nm wavelength. The combination of a Sagnac interferometer and the GVM-PPKTP crystal makes our entangled source compact, stable, highly entangled, spectrally pure and ultra-bright. The photons were detected by two superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) with detection efficiencies of 70% and 68% at dark counts of less than 1 kcps. We achieved fidelities of 0.981 ± 0.0002 for |?(-)? and 0.980 ± 0.001 for |?(+)? respectively. This GVM-PPKTP-Sagnac scheme is directly applicable to quantum communication experiments at telecom wavelength, especially in free space.
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Six-minute walk distance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission in patients with chronic heart failure.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are frequently readmitted to the hospital due to disease progression. Although a shorter 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) is correlated with poor prognosis, 6MWD is not considered a clinical indicator for predicting hospital readmission.We investigated whether 6MWD measured at the time of hospital discharge predicted readmission due to heart failure in CHF patients.Patients admitted to the hospital for the first time due to heart failure were enrolled. After 6MWD was measured at discharge, patients were followed-up for 3 years. Clinical characteristics, 6MWD and readmission due to heart failure were evaluated in 252 patients (68.5 ± 11.8 years old, 162 males). Significant factors that affected readmission were extracted and cut-off values were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves.Of 252 CHF patients, 103 were readmitted within 3 years. 6MWD at the time of discharge was significantly shorter in readmitted patients than non-readmitted patients (P < 0.001) and was a significant predictor of readmission (P < 0.001). The odds ratio for readmission was 1.22 (P < 0.001) with each 10-meter decrease in 6MWD. The 6MWD cut-off value was determined to be 390 meters, with a sensitivity of 0.75 and a specificity of 0.77.6MWD measured at the time of discharge is an independent predictor of hospital readmission in CHF patients, with a cut-off value of 390 meters.
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Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling for reduction of hepatic apolipoprotein B mRNA and plasma total cholesterol after administration of antisense oligonucleotide in mice.
J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Second-generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) demonstrate excellent biological stability and in vitro/in vivo potency, and thus are considered to be attractive candidates for drugs to treat various diseases. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model of ASOs is desired for the design of appropriate PK and pharmacological studies. The objective of this study was to develop a PK-PD model to accurately simulate hepatic ASO concentration and its efficacy from plasma ASO concentration. After single subcutaneous administration of an ASO targeting hepatic apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) mRNA to mice, the ASO was absorbed rapidly and showed biphasic decline with time from the plasma and liver (t1/2: 1-3 and 81-183 h, Tmax: 0.25-0.50 and 4-8 h). After administration, hepatic Apo-B mRNA and plasma total cholesterol began decreasing at 4-8 and 8-24 h, and their Tmax values were observed at 24-72 and 72 h. To develop the PK-PD model based on the mechanisms of ASOs, we described the plasma and hepatic ASO concentration with linear two-compartment models. In addition, we inserted two indirect response models for mRNA and plasma total cholesterol. Model predictions from plasma ASO concentration gave excellent fits to the observed values of hepatic ASO concentration, Apo-B mRNA and plasma total cholesterol after single or multiple subcutaneous administrations. Our PK-PD model could accurately predict hepatic ASO concentrations and their efficacies from plasma ASO concentrations. This PK-PD model could be a useful tool for suggesting PK and pharmacological study protocols for various liver-targeted second-generation ASOs.
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Monolayer study by VSFS: in situ response to compression and shear in a contact.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Self-assembled octadecyltrichlorosilane ((OTS), CH3(CH2)17SiCl3) layers on hydroxyl-terminated silicon oxide (SiO2) were prepared. The monolayers were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements; their conformation was studied before, during, and after contact with a polymer (either PDMS or PTFE) surface using the vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) technique. During contact, the effect of pressure was studied for both polymer surfaces, but in the case of PTFE, the effect of shear rate on the contact was simultaneously studied. The VSFS response of the monolayers with pressure was almost entirely due to changes in the real area of contact with the polymer and therefore the Fresnel factors, whereas sliding caused disorder in the previously all-trans monolayer, as evidenced by a significant increase in the population of gauche defects.
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Quadriceps isometric strength as a predictor of exercise capacity in coronary artery disease patients.
Eur J Prev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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BACKGROUND: Quadriceps strength is related to exercise capacity in normal subjects and different patient populations, but the relationship between maximal quadriceps isometric strength (QIS) and different exercise capacity levels in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients has not been systematically evaluated yet. METHOD: We studied 621 patients (60.6?±?9.9 years, 538 males) with recent coronary artery bypass grafting or myocardial infarction, who underwent treadmill exercise testing, maximal QIS measurement (hand-held dynamometry), and coronary arteriography. Maximal QIS was expressed as absolute value (kg), %bodyweight, and %predicted maximum. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of maximal QIS, age, sex, number of diseased coronary vessels, peak systolic blood pressure, peak heart rate, brain natriuretic peptide, and left ventricular ejection fraction with 5, 7, and 10 estimated metabolic equivalents (eMETs) exercise capacity levels. RESULTS: Maximal QIS %bodyweight was the strongest predictor of exercise capacity in each eMETs category. Receiver-operating characteristics curves identified maximal QIS of 46, 51, and 59 % bodyweight as the best predictive cut offs for 5, 7 and 10?eMETs, respectively, with positive predictive values of 0.72, 0.66, and 0.67, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Maximal QIS is related with eMETs levels reached at exercise testing in CAD patients, and identified maximal QIS cut-off values for eMETs prediction may be used to set strength training goals according to patients needs with regard to habitual physical activity level. Hand-held dynamometry may meet the need of easiness of use and low cost required for strength evaluation in large-scale clinical trials.
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Stretching exercises enhance vascular endothelial function and improve peripheral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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The purpose of this study was to clarify the acute effects of a single session of stretching exercises on vascular endothelial function and peripheral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This study evaluated 32 patients (mean age, 66 ± 9 years) who received phase I cardiac rehabilitation after acute myocardial infarction. Five types of stretching exercises were performed on the floor: wrist dorsiflexion, close-legged trunk flexion, open-legged trunk flexion, open-legged lateral trunk bending, and cross-legged trunk flexion. Each exercise entailed a 30-second stretching followed by a 30-second relaxation, and was repeated twice. Low- and high-frequency components (LF and HF) of heart rate variability (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz; HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) were analyzed, and HF and LF/HF were used as indices of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous activities, respectively. Reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) index was measured and used as a parameter for vascular endothelial function. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcPO2) on the right foot and chest was also measured, and the Foot-tcPO2/Chest-tcPO2 ratio was used as a parameter for peripheral circulation. The HF, RH-PAT index, and Foot-tcPO2/Chest-tcPO2 ratio were significantly higher after the exercises than before (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.05, respectively). There was no significant difference in the LF/HF ratio measured before and after stretching exercises. These findings demonstrate that stretching exercises improve vascular endothelial function and peripheral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
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Widely tunable single photon source with high purity at telecom wavelength.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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We theoretically and experimentally investigate the spectral tunability and purity of photon pairs generated from spontaneous parametric down conversion in periodically poled KTiOPO(4) crystal with group-velocity matching condition. The numerical simulation predicts that the spectral purity can be kept higher than 0.81 when the wavelength is tuned from 1460 nm to 1675 nm, which covers the S-, C-, L-, and U-band in telecommunication wavelengths. We also experimentally measured the joint spectral intensity at 1565 nm, 1584 nm and 1565 nm, yielding Schmidt numbers of 1.01, 1.02 and 1.04, respectively. Such a photon source is useful for quantum information and communication systems.
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Anti-allergic effects of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (?-oligoglucosyl quercetin 3-O-glucoside), quercetin 3-O-glucoside, ?-oligoglucosyl rutin, and quercetin, when administered orally to mice.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Quercetin, a flavonol distributed widely in edible and medicinal plants, has beneficial biological activities in vitro. However, the low water solubility of quercetin limits its bioavailability to exhibit activity in vivo. We evaluated the anti-allergic effects of quercetin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin, IQC), ?-oligoglucosyl rutin (?OR), and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (?-oligoglucosyl isoquercitrin; EMIQ) in the murine ear passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction using ovalbumin as an antigen. The substances to be tested were dissolved or suspended in water, and administered orally to mice (4 mmol 10 ml?¹ kg?¹). EMIQ exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the PCA reaction. We detected 600 ?M IQC and 95.1 ?M Q3Glcn in the plasma of mice 30 min after EMIQ treatment, suggesting that IQC and Q3Glcn might be the genuine active compounds mediating the anti-allergic effects of EMIQ. Oral treatments of quercetin and ?OR at this dosage exhibited no anti-allergic effect, and IQC showed less effect than EMIQ. Since IQC and quercetin cannot completely dissolve in water at this concentration, the water solubilities of these substances might affect their biological activities. ?OR dissolved well in water at the concentration used but plasma concentrations of quercetin metabolites in mice orally treated with ?OR were low, suggesting that ?OR might not be converted to IQC or quercetin by the enzymes in small intestine and thus not exhibit any activity. Glycosyl conjugation of quercetin with specific sugar motifs is an effective strategy to improve the biological activity of quercetin in vivo.
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The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic assessment of the hypotensive effect after coadministration of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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The interactive hypotensive effect of the combination treatment of losartan (LOS) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) was assessed using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Intravenous coadministration of these drugs showed a prolonged and enhanced time-course of the hypotensive effect. A population PK analysis revealed the delayed elimination of LOS after coadministration. The time-course of the plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured, and showed a more continuative time profile after coadministration compared with the administration of LOS alone. An indirect response model was applied to describe the relationship between the PK of LOS and the PRA profile, and the E(max) value for the increase of the PRA by LOS was increased with the dose of HCTZ. Blood pressure was linked to the PRA through an effect compartment. The model successfully described the relationship between the doses of LOS and HCTZ and their interactive hypotensive effect. These results indicate that the interaction for blood pressure in the combination treatment of LOS and HCTZ can be estimated using the doses of the drugs and the PRA-mediated PK-PD model.
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Effects of prolonged expiration breathing on cardiopulmonary responses during incremental exercise.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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This study was designed to clarify the effects of breathing with prolonged expiration on cardiopulmonary responses and autonomic nervous activity during incremental exercise. Eleven healthy men were randomly assigned to breathing mode: a prolonged expiration breathing with a 2-s inspired time and 4-s expired time and a spontaneous breathing without any constraints. Oxygen uptake (V(O2)), ventilation efficiency (V(E)/V(CO2)) and rate pressure product were measured. Low- (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of blood pressure and heart rate variability were analyzed to assess sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities, respectively. V(E)/V(CO2), rate pressure product and LF were significantly lower, and [Formula: see text] and HF were significantly higher during exercise with prolonged expiration than with spontaneous breathing. Striking effects of prolonged expiration breathing included the improvement of ventilation efficiency, the suppression of sympathetic nervous activity and the activation of parasympathetic one during incremental exercise. Furthermore, prolonged expiration breathing may have suppressed the exercise-induced increase in myocardial V(O2).
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Enhancement of 2-photon absorption of a dye in a polymer microsphere based on an optical cavity effect.
Anal Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
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We examined optical cavity effects on the 2-photon absorption efficiency of a dye (Rohdamine B; RhB) doped in polymer microspheres (ion-exchanging resin and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)). When 1064 nm pulsed-laser light was irradiated on single polymer microspheres doped with RhB under an optical microscope, we clearly observed dye fluorescence from individual microspheres, although the dye was transparent at 1064 nm. We confirmed that the fluorescence intensity was proportional to the square of the laser power for excitation. In contrast, such fluorescence was not observed from RhB doped in a PMMA film, in which the enhancement of a light electric field by an optical cavity effect was never expected. Theoretical calculations indicated that the microsphere possessed several peak values of the quality factor (Q = 10(2)-10(5)) at around certain particle diameters under 1064 nm irradiation. This means that the electromagnetic field of incident light is enhanced through light confinement in a microsphere. Based on these results, we conclude that the 2-photon absorption probability of RhB would be considerably enhanced by the optical cavity effects of the microsphere.
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alpha-Oligoglucosylation of a sugar moiety enhances the bioavailability of quercetin glucosides in humans.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Dietary intake of quercetin is suggested to be potentially beneficial for the prevention of various diseases. We examined the effect of alpha-oligoglucosylation of the sugar moiety of quercetin monoglucoside on its bioavailability in humans. Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) was prepared by enzymatic deglycosylation and the subsequent of alpha-oligoglucosylation of quercetin 3-O-beta-rutinode (rutin). The plasma level of quercetin metabolites was instantly increased by oral intake of EMIQ and its absorption efficiency was significantly higher than that of isoquercitrin (quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside; Q3G), and rutin. The profile of plasma quercetin metabolites after EMIQ consumption did not differ from that after Q3G consumption. The apparent log P of EMIQ indicated that EMIQ is more hydrophilic than Q3G but less than quercetin 3,4-O-beta-diglucoside. These data indicated that enzymatic alpha-oligoglucosylation to the sugar moiety is effective for enhancing the bioavailability of quercetin glucosides in humans.
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Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin, alpha-oligoglucosyl quercetin 3-O-glucoside, is absorbed more easily than other quercetin glycosides or aglycone after oral administration in rats.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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Quercetin, a flavonol contained in various vegetables and herbal medicines, has various biological activities including anti-cancer, anti-allergic and anti-oxidative activities. However, low oral bioavailability of quercetin due to insolubility in water has limited its use as a food additive or dietary supplement. Since the water solubility is enhanced by glycosyl conjugation, in the present study, we evaluated the bioavailability of several quercetin glycosides with different sugar moieties in rats. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin, IQC) in suspension, and quercetin-3-O-maltoside (Q3M), quercetin-3-O-gentiobioside (Q3G), alpha-monoglucosyl rutin (alphaMR), alpha-oligoglucosyl rutin (alphaOR), and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (alpha-oligoglucosyl isoquercitrin, EMIQ) dissolved in water, were orally administered to rats under anesthesia. Bioavailability (F value) was calculated from the concentrations of total quercetin in plasma from 0 to 12 h after the administration. F value of quercetin was 2.0%, and those of IQC, Q3M and EMIQ were 12%, 30%, and 35%, respectively. Although Q3G, alphaMR and alphaOR have high water solubility, their F values were low (3.0%, 4.1%, 1.8%, respectively). In the in vitro study, the homogenate of rat intestinal epithelium rapidly hydrolyzed IQC, Q3M and EMIQ to quercetin, and alphaMR and alphaOR to rutin. However, it could not hydrolyze Q3G or rutin to quercetin. Elongation of alpha-linkage of glucose moiety in IQC enhances the bioavailability of quercetin, and intestinal epithelial enzymes such as lactase-phrolizin hydrolase or mucosal maltase-glucoamylase would play important roles in the hydrolysis and absorption of these flavonol glycosides.
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High-flux and broadband biphoton sources with controlled frequency entanglement.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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We report the high-flux and broadband generation of biphotons with controlled frequency entanglement. For the generation of the entangled state consisting of frequency-anticorrelated photons, we use PPMgSLT pumped by a continuous-wave (cw) laser. Meanwhile, the state consisting of frequency-correlated photons is produced from PPKTP under the extended phase-matching condition. Both states exhibited interference patterns with over 90% visibilities in two-photon interference experiments.
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Near-infrared continuous-wave light driving a two-photon photochromic reaction with the assistance of localized surface plasmon.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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We demonstrate that a photochromic reaction can be driven by irradiation from a weak, near-infrared continuous-wave (NIR-CW) laser light. A two-photon ring-opening photochromic reaction of a diarylethene (DE) derivative can be induced by irradiation with a NIR-CW laser light (lambda = 808 nm). An ultrathin polymer film doped with DE in its closed form was coated onto a gold-nanoparticle-integrated glass substrate. Upon irradiation of the sample with a CW laser at low fluence (0.1-4.0 W/cm(2)), we could clearly observe bleaching of the DE (ring-opening reaction). Following the IR irradiation, the bleached absorption could be reversibly recovered by applying UV irradiation (ring-closing reaction). We verified that the yield of the photochromic ring-opening reaction of the DE was proportional to the square of the irradiation fluence. The origin of this NIR-CW-induced two-photon photochromic reaction is an "enhancing effect" that acts on the electromagnetic field (localized surface plasmon) of the gold nanoparticles. The DE interacts with the surface plasmon and receives energy from two photons, which excites it to a state from which the ring-opening reaction can be initiated.
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Nickel-catalyzed formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond at the beta position of saturated ketones.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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Gone fishing: When propiophenone and related ethyl ketones are treated with morpholine in the presence of K(3)PO(4), chlorobenzene, and [Ni(cod)(2)]/PMe(3) catalyst, a carbon-nitrogen bond is formed selectively at the beta position (see scheme; cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene). Secondary amines were employed as substrates to give the corresponding beta-enaminones.
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Effect of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin, a flavonoid, on symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Flavonoids exert antiallergic and antioxidant effects. We investigated the efficacy of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ), a flavonoid, to relieve symptoms of pollinosis.
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Preventative effect of a flavonoid, enzymatically modified isoquercitrin on ocular symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis.
Allergol Int
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
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Flavonoids are nutrients that exert anti-allergic effects. We investigated the preventative effect of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ), a flavonoid, to relieve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis.
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Walking speed in patients with first acute myocardial infarction who participated in a supervised cardiac rehabilitation program after coronary intervention.
Int Heart J
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This study aimed to evaluate the degree of reduction in walking speed in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to age-matched community-dwelling people and identify factors associated with walking speed. The subjects were 210 middle-aged and 188 elderly patients with a first AMI (AMI group) and 198 age-matched community-dwelling people with no medical events (non-AMI group). We measured maximum walking speed in all subjects and collected clinical data, including that related to motor function, at the end of a supervised cardiac rehabilitation program in the AMI group. Data were analyzed based on age and sex. Walking speed in men and women in the middle-aged AMI subgroup decreased to 77.9% and 75.7% relative to that of the non-AMI subgroup matched by sex, respectively; walking speed in men and women in the elderly AMI subgroup decreased to 78.7% and 74.2% relative to that of the non-AMI subgroup matched by sex, respectively. Moreover, 6.4% of men and 23.8% of women in the middle-aged AMI subgroup, and 28.8% of men and 43.5% of women in the elderly AMI subgroup, had a slower walking speed compared to their respective non-AMI groups, which may contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. Stepwise multiple regression analysis for motor function revealed that only leg strength in the middle-aged AMI subgroup, and both leg strength and standing balance in the elderly AMI subgroup, were associated with walking speed, regardless of sex after adjusting for clinical characteristics. These results suggest that evaluation and management of walking speed are necessary in implementing effective disease management for patients with first AMI.
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Experimental activation of bound entanglement.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
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Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet, there is another type of entanglement, called "bound entanglement," which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate the experimental "activation" of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and local operations and classical communication. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement.
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Entangled photon generation in two-period quasi-phase-matched parametric down-conversion.
Opt Express
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We proposed and demonstrated a simple but deterministic scheme for generating polarization-entangled photon pairs at telecommunication wavelengths with type-II quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down-conversion (QPM-SPDC) having two poling periods. We fabricated a LiNbO3 crystal having two poling periods so as to generate entangled photons at two wavelengths, i.e., 1506 nm and 1594 nm. We characterized the two-photon polarization state with state tomography and confirmed that the state was highly entangled.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.