JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Association between Socioeconomic Status and Altered Appearance Distress, Body Image, and Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer patients experience a variety of altered appearance - such as loss or disfigurement of breasts, discolored skin, and hair loss - which result in psychological distress that affect their quality of life. This study aims to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic status on the altered appearance distress, body image, and quality of life among Korean breast cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Loneliness in HIV-infected smokers.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Loneliness is common in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Lonely people smoke at higher rates than the general population, and loneliness is a likely contributor to the ongoing smoking epidemic among PLWH. We explored factors associated with loneliness in a cohort of 272 PLWH smokers enrolled in two separate tobacco treatment trials. Loneliness was independently associated with lack of a spouse or partner, lower educational attainment, "other or unknown" HIV exposure category, depression, anxiety, recent alcohol consumption, and higher daily cigarette consumption. Referral to group therapy reduced loneliness, whereas referral to an individual web-based tobacco treatment did not.
Related JoVE Video
Self-Efficacy to Quit in HIV-Infected Smokers.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tobacco use is epidemic among persons living with HIV (PLWH), and several studies have shown self-efficacy (SE) to be a predictor of successful cessation. This study examined sociobehavioral correlates of SE and its predictive value for successful cessation in a group of PLWH smokers.
Related JoVE Video
Body mass index, sex, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Hispanic/Latino adults: Hispanic community health study/study of Latinos.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
All major Hispanic/Latino groups in the United States have a high prevalence of obesity, which is often severe. Little is known about cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among those at very high levels of body mass index (BMI).
Related JoVE Video
Age and meteorological factors in the occurrence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a metropolitan city.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between meteorological factors and occurrence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) according to age.
Related JoVE Video
Thrombosis and recanalization of small saccular cerebral aneurysm : two case reports and a suggestion for possible mechanism.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reports of thrombosis and recanalization of cerebral aneurysm are rare. We report two cases of small, saccular aneurysms in which spontaneous thrombosis had occurred during the preparation for endovascular coiling. Also, we review reported cases and propose the presumed pathogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of secondary outcomes in nested case-control study designs.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One of the main perceived advantages of using a case-cohort design compared with a nested case-control design in an epidemiologic study is the ability to evaluate with the same subcohort outcomes other than the primary outcome of interest. In this paper, we show that valid inferences about secondary outcomes can also be achieved in nested case-control studies by using the inclusion probability weighting method in combination with an approximate jackknife standard error that can be computed using existing software. Simulation studies demonstrate that when the sample size is sufficient, this approach yields valid type 1 error and coverage rates for the analysis of secondary outcomes in nested case-control designs. Interestingly, the statistical power of the nested case-control design was comparable with that of the case-cohort design when the primary and secondary outcomes were positively correlated. The proposed method is illustrated with the data from a cohort in Cardiovascular Health Study to study the association of C-reactive protein levels and the incidence of congestive heart failure.
Related JoVE Video
Health-related quality of life in Korean lymphoma survivors compared with the general population.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of lymphoma survivors, to compare it with that of the general population, and to identify its predictors in lymphoma survivors. We enrolled 837 participants (mean age, 54.6 years; mean time since diagnosis, 6.3 years) with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) (n?=?58) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (n?=?779) who had been treated at any of three Korean hospitals from 1989 through 2010. For controls, we selected 1,000 subjects randomly from a representative Korean population. We administered the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall, the HRQOL in both groups of survivors and the general population were comparable, but we observed clinically meaningful worse social functioning in NHL survivors (p?
Related JoVE Video
External dacryocystorhinostomy and transnasal canthopexy: new details of combined surgery.
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the authors' modified combined surgical technique for external dacryocystorhinostomy and transnasal canthopexy.
Related JoVE Video
Tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute liver failure, the fatal deterioration of liver function, is the most common indication for emergency liver transplantation, and drug-induced liver injury and viral hepatitis are frequent in young adults. Stem cell therapy has come into the limelight as a potential therapeutic approach for various diseases, including liver failure and cirrhosis. In this study, we investigated therapeutic effects of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (T-MSCs) in concanavalin A (ConA)- and acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury. ConA-induced hepatitis resembles viral and immune-mediated hepatic injury, and acetaminophen overdose is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in the United States and Europe. Intravenous administration of T-MSCs significantly reduced ConA-induced hepatic toxicity, but not acetaminophen-induced liver injury, affirming the immunoregulatory capacity of T-MSCs. T-MSCs were successfully recruited to damaged liver and suppressed inflammatory cytokine secretion. T-MSCs expressed high levels of galectin-1 and -3, and galectin-1 knockdown which partially diminished interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor ? secretion from cultured T-cells. Galectin-1 knockdown in T-MSCs also reversed the protective effect of T-MSCs on ConA-induced hepatitis. These results suggest that galectin-1 plays an important role in immunoregulation of T-MSCs, which contributes to their protective effect in immune-mediated hepatitis. Further, suppression of T-cell activation by frozen and thawed T-MSCs implies great potential of T-MSC banking for clinical utilization in immune-mediated disease.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of chemotherapy-induced alopecia distress on body image, psychosocial well-being, and depression in breast cancer patients.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) distress on body image, psychosocial well-being, and depression among breast cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Ki-67 as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objectives of this study were to assess the potential value of Ki-67 in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients and to suggest a reasonable cutoff value for classifying Ki-67 expression.
Related JoVE Video
Corneal topographic and tomographic analysis of fellow eyes in unilateral keratoconus patients using Pentacam.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate topographic and tomographic changes in fellow eyes in unilateral keratoconus (KCN) patients by comparing them with normal eyes.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in US Hispanic/Latino adults: results from the NHANES 2007-2010 and HCHS/SOL studies.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody has been reported in Mexican Americans, but its prevalence in other US Hispanic/Latino groups is unknown. We studied 2 populations of US Hispanic/Latino adults; 3210 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 and 11 964 from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Age-standardized prevalence of HCV antibody was similar in NHANES 2007-2010 (1.5%) and HCHS/SOL (2.0%) but differed significantly by Hispanic/Latino background in HCHS/SOL (eg, 11.6% in Puerto Rican men vs 0.4% in South American men). These findings suggest that the HCV epidemic among US Hispanics/Latinos is heterogeneous.
Related JoVE Video
In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The potential hair growth-promoting activity of rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) and major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid, policosanol, ?-oryzanol, and ?-tocotrienol, were evaluated with the histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 mice. RB-SCE showed hair growth-promoting potential to a similar extent as 3% minoxidil, showing that the hair follicles were induced to be in the anagen stage. The numbers of the hair follicles were significantly increased. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were also significantly increased and that of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) decreased in RB-SCE-treated groups. Among the major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid and ?-oryzanol induced the formation of hair follicles according to examination of histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RB-SCE, particularly linoleic acid and ?-oryzanol, promotes hair growth and suggests RB-SCE can be applied as hair loss treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Protective effects of ginseng leaf extract using enzymatic extraction against oxidative damage of UVA-irradiated human keratinocytes.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
UVA is responsible for numerous biological effects on the skin, including premature aging characterized by wrinkles, leathery texture, and mottled pigmentation. The objective of this study was evaluating the protective effect of ginseng leaf extract prepared by Ultraflo L on skin from photodamage. Anti-wrinkle effect of ginseng leaf extract with or without Ultraflo L treatment were tested on human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) A. Ginseng leaves inhibited ROS generation, GHS depletion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 induced by UVA irradiation. The glutathione (GSH) content of the cells was significantly increased by over 25 ?g mL(-1) of Ultraflo-treated extract (UTGL) as well as by over 100 ?g mL(-1) of nonenzyme-treated extract (NEGL) compared to control. UTGL and NEGL treatments significantly decreased expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and 9 compared with control, but inhibitory effects of two groups on expression of MMPs were not significantly different. Overall, ULtraflo L-treated ginseng leaves inhibited ROS generation, GHS depletion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in UVA photodamaged HaCat cells. From these results, enzyme-treated ginseng leaf extract has advantages over untreated ginseng leaves and have potential as a skin protective ingredient against UVA-induced photodamage.
Related JoVE Video
The sundt encircling clip as a vascular rescue: a case report and a review of repair methods for arterial tearing.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Sundt encircling clip was developed to repair defects of the vessel wall. With the advent of microvascular techniques, most parts of the damaged vessel wall during aneurysm surgery can be repaired by primary closure or by the bypass technique. However, these methods are not always successful. Here, we illustrate two cases of surgical clipping with the Sundt encircling clip in the ruptured internal carotid artery trunk aneurysm. The Sundt clip provides prompt control of unexpected tearing of the vessel wall or aneurysm and plays an important role in vascular rescue during aneurysm surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Phrenic nerve stimulation for diaphragm pacing in a quadriplegic patient.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic hypoventilation due to injury to the brain stem respiratory center or high cervical cord (above the C3 level) can result in dependence to prolonged mechanical ventilation with tracheostomy, frequent nosocomial pneumonia, and prolonged hospitalization. Diaphragm pacing through electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve is an established treatment for central hypoventilation syndrome. We performed chronic phrenic nerve stimulation for diaphragm pacing with the spinal cord stimulator for pain control in a quadriplegic patient with central apnea due to complete spinal cord injury at the level of C2 from cervical epidural hematoma. After diaphragmatic pacing, the patient who was completely dependent on the mechanical ventilator could ambulate up to three hours every day without aid of mechanical ventilation during the 12 months of follow-up. Diaphragm pacing through unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation with spinal cord stimulator was feasible in an apneic patient with complete quadriplegia who was completely dependent on mechanical ventilation. Diaphragm pacing with the spinal cord stimulator is feasible and effective for the treatment of the central hypoventilation syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Optimized enzymatic dual functions of PaPrx protein by proton irradiation.
J. Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the effects of proton irradiation on the function and structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa peroxiredoxin (PaPrx). Polyacrylamide gel demonstrated that PaPrx proteins exposed to proton irradiation at several doses exhibited simultaneous formation of high molecular weight (HMW) complexes and fragmentation. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis revealed that the number of fragments and very low molecular weight (LMW) structures increased as the proton irradiation dose increased. The peroxidase activity of irradiated PaPrx was preserved, and its chaperone activity was significantly increased by increasing the proton irradiation dose. The chaperone activity increased about 3-4 fold after 2.5 kGy proton irradiation, compared with that of non-irradiated PaPrx, and increased to almost the maximum activity after 10 kGy proton irradiation. We previously obtained functional switching in PaPrx proteins, by using gamma rays and electron beams as radiation sources, and found that the proteins exhibited increased chaperone activity but decreased peroxidase activity. Interestingly, in this study we newly found that proton irradiation could enhance both peroxidase and chaperone activities. Therefore, we can suggest proton irradiation as a novel protocol for conserved 2-Cys protein engineering.
Related JoVE Video
Vitrectomy combined with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection and macular laser photocoagulation for nontractional diabetic macular edema.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy of vitrectomy combined with intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) and macular laser photocoagulation for the treatment of nontractional diabetic macular edema (DME) refractory to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Healing of conjunctival wounds after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the healing course of conjunctival wounds in eyes undergoing 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and to determine when the potential for ocular surface fluid contamination is no longer a serious concern.
Related JoVE Video
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell gene expression patterns vary with culture conditions.
Blood Res
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because of the heterogeneity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), methods for cell expansion in culture and the effects on gene expression are critical factors that need to be standardized for preparing MSCs. We investigated gene expression patterns of MSCs with different seeding densities and culture times.
Related JoVE Video
Cosmetic outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site hysterectomy compared with multi-port surgery: randomized controlled trial.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare cosmetic satisfaction with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) compared with multi-port surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Thinner choroid and greater drusen extent in retinal angiomatous proliferation than in typical exudative age-related macular degeneration.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare choroidal thickness and extent and density of drusen between eyes with typical exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP).
Related JoVE Video
Immunogenicity of mycobacterial vesicles in humans: identification of a new tuberculosis antibody biomarker.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed. Mycobacteria produce membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain concentrated immune-modulatory factors that are released into the host. We evaluated the human immune responses to BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis MVs to characterize the antibody responses and identify potentially novel TB biomarkers. Serological responses to MVs were evaluated by ELISAs and immunoblots with sera from 16 sputum smear-positive, 12 smear-negative HIV uninfected pulmonary TB patients and 16 BCG vaccinated Tuberculin skin-test positive controls with and without latent tuberculosis infection. MVs from both BCG and M. tuberculosis induced similar responses and were strongly immunogenic in TB patients but not in controls. Several MV-associated antigens appear to induce robust antibody responses, in particular the arabinomanan portion of the cell wall glycolipid lipoarabinomannan. Three proteins at ? 36, 25, and 23 kDa were simultaneously recognized by sera from 16/16 smear-positive, 9/12 smear-negative TB patients and 0/16 controls. These results provide promise and encouragement that antibody responses to proteins enriched in MVs of pathogenic mycobacteria may constitute a novel TB biomarker signature that could have diagnostic information.
Related JoVE Video
Inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and BMI even after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate fruit and vegetable (FV) intake levels of US adult population and evaluate the association between FV intake and BMI status after controlling for confounding demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. We also sought to identify moderating factors.
Related JoVE Video
Cell death is induced by ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, independently of PPAR? in human glioma cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) regulates multiple signaling pathways, and its agonists induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, their role in cell death is unclear. In this study, the relationship between ciglitazone (CGZ) and PPAR? in CGZ-induced cell death was examined. At concentrations of greater than 30 ?M, CGZ, a synthetic PPAR? agonist, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis in T98G cells. Treatment of T98G cells with less than 30 ?M CGZ effectively induced cell death after pretreatment with 30 ?M of the PPAR? antagonist GW9662, although GW9662 alone did not induce cell death. This cell death was also observed when cells were co-treated with CGZ and GW9662, but was not observed when cells were treated with CGZ prior to GW9662. In cells in which PPAR? was down-regulated cells by siRNA, lower concentrations of CGZ (<30 ?M) were sufficient to induce cell death, although higher concentrations of CGZ (?30 ?M) were required to induce cell death in control T98G cells, indicating that CGZ effectively induces cell death in T98G cells independently of PPAR?. Treatment with GW9662 followed by CGZ resulted in a down-regulation of Akt activity and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in Bid cleavage. These data suggest that CGZ is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death independently of PPAR? in glioma cells, by down-regulating Akt activity and inducing MMP collapse.
Related JoVE Video
Free amino acid and phenolic contents and antioxidative and cancer cell-inhibiting activities of extracts of 11 greenhouse-grown tomato varieties and 13 tomato-based foods.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and bioactive compounds that benefit nutrition and human health. The nature and concentrations of these compounds are strongly influenced by varietal factors such as size and color as well as by processing. To better understand how these factors affect the concentration of nutrients and bioactive compounds, we analyzed 11 Korean tomato varieties grown under the same greenhouse conditions and 13 processed commercial tomato products for free amino acids and amino acid metabolites by HPLC, for individual phenolics by HPLC-MS, for total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, for antioxidative activity by the FRAP and DPPH methods, and for cancer cell-inhibiting effects by the MTT assay. We also determined the protein content of the tomatoes by an automated Kjeldahl method. The results show that there is a broad range of bioactive compounds across tomato varieties and products. Small tomatoes had higher contents of bioactive compounds than the large ones. The content of phenolic compounds of processed products was lower than that of fresh tomatoes. Tomato extracts promoted growth in normal liver (Chang) cells, had little effect in normal lung (Hel299) cells, mildly inhibited growth of lung cancer (A549) cells, and first promoted and then, at higher concentrations, inhibited growth in lymphoma (U937) cells. The relationship of cell growth to measured constituents was not apparent. Dietary and health aspects of the results are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation between chemokines released from umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enhance the engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) when they are cotransplanted in animal and human studies. However, the type of MSCs that preferentially facilitate the engraftment and homing of HSCs is largely unknown. The authors categorized UCB-MSCs as the least-effective MSCs (A) or most-effective MSCs (B) at enhancing the engraftment of HSCs, and compared the gene expression profiles of various cytokines and growth factors in the UCB-MSC populations. The most-effective UCB-MSCs (B) secreted higher levels of several factors, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12), regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES), epithelial growth factor (EGF), and stem cell factor (SCF), which are required for the engraftment and homing of HSCs. By contrast, levels of growth-related oncogene (GRO), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1), and interleukin-8 (IL-8), which are associated with immune inflammation, were secreted at higher levels in UCB-MSCs (A). In addition, there were no differences between the transcripts of the 2 UCB-MSC populations after interferon-gamma (IFN-?) stimulation, except for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1. Based on these findings, the authors propose that these chemokines may be useful for modulating these cells in a clinical setting and potentially for enhancing the effectiveness of the engraftment and homing of HSCs.
Related JoVE Video
Histone methyltransferase SETD3 regulates muscle differentiation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Histone lysine methylation, as one of the most important factors in transcriptional regulation, is associated with a various physiological conditions. Using a bioinformatics search, we identified and subsequently cloned mouse SET domain containing 3 (SETD3) with SET (Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste and Trithorax) and Rubis-subs-bind domains. SETD3 is a novel histone H3K4 and H3K36 methyltransferase with transcriptional activation activity. SETD3 is expressed abundantly in muscular tissues and, when overexpressed, activates transcription of muscle-related genes, myogenin, muscle creatine kinase (MCK), and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6), thereby inducing muscle cell differentiation. Conversely, knockdown of SETD3 by shRNA significantly retards muscle cell differentiation. In this study, SETD3 was recruited to the myogenin gene promoter along with MyoD where it activated transcription. Together, these data indicate that SETD3 is a H3K4/K36 methyltransferase and plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of muscle cell differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
N-acetylcysteine and N-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuate Carboplatin-induced ototoxicity in dissociated spiral ganglion neuron cultures.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Carboplatin, a platinum-containing anti-cancer drug used to treat a variety of cancers, induces ototoxicity. Since, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) seem to be responsible for this toxicity, the antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (L-NAC), and NO synthetase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) were predicted to have protective effects against carboplatin ototoxicity. The aim of this study was to test for the protective effects of L-NAC and L-NAME on cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs).
Related JoVE Video
Illumina whole-genome complementary DNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation platform: assessing its performance in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and identifying invasion pattern-related genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-throughput gene expression profiling from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues has become a reality, and several methods are now commercially available. The Illumina whole-genome complementary DNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation assay (Illumina, Inc) is a full-transcriptome version of the original 512-gene complementary DNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation assay, allowing high-throughput profiling of 24,526 annotated genes from degraded and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded RNA. This assay has the potential to allow identification of novel gene signatures associated with clinical outcome using banked archival pathology specimen resources. We tested the reproducibility of the whole-genome complementary DNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation assay and its sensitivity for detecting differentially expressed genes in RNA extracted from matched fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cells, after 1 and 13 months of storage, using the human breast cell lines MCF7 and MCF10A. Then, using tumor worst pattern of invasion as a classifier, 1 component of the "risk model," we selected 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded oral squamous cell carcinomas for whole-genome complementary DNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation assay analysis. We profiled 5 tumors with nonaggressive, nondispersed pattern of invasion, and 7 tumors with aggressive dispersed pattern of invasion and satellites scattered at least 1 mm apart. To minimize variability, the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were prepared from snap-frozen tissues, and RNA was obtained within 24 hours of fixation. One hundred four down-regulated genes and 72 up-regulated genes in tumors with aggressive dispersed pattern of invasion were identified. We performed quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction validation of 4 genes using Taqman assays and in situ protein detection of 1 gene by immunohistochemistry. Functional cluster analysis of genes up-regulated in tumors with aggressive pattern of invasion suggests presence of genes involved in cellular cytoarchitecture, some of which already associated with tumor invasion. Identification of these genes provides biologic rationale for our histologic classification, with regard to tumor invasion, and demonstrates that the whole-genome complementary DNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation assay is a powerful assay for profiling degraded RNA from archived specimens when combined with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction validation.
Related JoVE Video
Glucose tolerance and antioxidant activity of spent brewers yeast hydrolysate with a high content of Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP).
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To elevate the Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) content in yeast, the yeast hydrolysate that was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis was subjected to various treatments. Flavourzyme-treated hydrolysate showed the highest CHP content (674.0 ?g/g) among the various proteases treatments. Ultrafiltration was selected as the best method for concentrating CHP in yeast hydrolysate, based on the yields and CHP contents. In addition, we evaluated the radical scavenge and glucose tolerance of yeast hydrolysate with a high content of CHP. Yeast hydrolysate showed intense scavenging abilities of both 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals. The IC(50) values of yeast hydrolysate on DPPH and ABTS radicals were 1.9 and 0.9 mg/mL, respectively. There were significant differences in glucose level between the diabetes-control and yeast hydrolysate group at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after injection in a type 1 diabetes model (P < 0.01). Also, there were significant differences in blood glucose levels between the 2 groups at 30, 60, and 100 min after injection in the type 2 diabetes group (P < 0.05). Therefore, it is possible to use the yeast hydrolysate with high levels of CHP as an antioxidative and/or antidiabetic material for the preparation of functional foods.
Related JoVE Video
Highly regio- and stereoselective synthesis of alkenylboronic esters by copper-catalyzed boron additions to disubstituted alkynes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The copper-catalyzed addition of bis(pinacolato)diboron to internal alkynes in the presence of methanol generates alkenylboron compounds with high levels of regio- and stereoselectivities. The catalytic efficiency is increased by using monodentate phosphine ligands, especially P(p-tolyl)(3) and a range of internal alkynes was borylated in good yields.
Related JoVE Video
Changes of ginsenoside content by mushroom mycelial fermentation in red ginseng extract.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 ?g/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 ?g/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 ?g/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 ?g/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 ?g/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 ?g/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 ?g/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 ?g/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 ?g/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 ?g/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods.
Related JoVE Video
Multi-level mixed effects models for bead arrays.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bead arrays are becoming a popular platform for high-throughput expression arrays. However, the number of the beads targeting a transcript and the variation of their intensities differ from sample to sample in these arrays. This property results in different accuracy of expression intensities of a transcript across arrays.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic application of metallic nanoparticles combined with particle-induced x-ray emission effect.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metallic nanoparticles (MNP) are able to release localized x-rays when activated with a high energy proton beam by the particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) effect. The exploitation of this phenomenon in the therapeutic irradiation of tumors has been investigated. PIXE-based x-ray emission directed at CT26 tumor cells in vitro, when administered with either gold (average diameter 2 and 13 nm) or iron (average diameter 14 nm) nanoparticles (GNP or SNP), increased with MNP solution concentration over the range of 0.1-2 mg ml(-1). With irradiation by a 45 MeV proton therapy (PT) beam, higher concentrations had a decreased cell survival fraction. An in vivo study in CT26 mouse tumor models with tumor regression assay demonstrated significant tumor dose enhancement, thought to be a result of the PIXE effect when compared to conventional PT without MNP (radiation-only group) using a 45 MeV proton beam (p < 0.02). Those receiving GNP or SNP injection doses of 300 mg kg(-1) body weight before proton beam therapy demonstrated 90% or 75% tumor volume reduction (TVR) in 20 days post-PT while the radiation-only group showed only 18% TVR and re-growth of tumor volume after 20 days. Higher complete tumor regression (CTR) was observed in 14-24 days after a single treatment of PT with an average rate of 33-65% for those receiving MNP compared with 25% for the radiation-only group. A lower bound of therapeutic effective MNP concentration range, in vivo, was estimated as 30-79 µg g(-1) tissue for both gold and iron nanoparticles. The tumor dose enhancement may compensate for an increase in entrance dose associated with conventional PT when treating large, solid tumors with a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) technique. The use of a combined high energy Bragg peak PT with PIXE generated by MNP, or PIXE alone, may result in new treatment options for infiltrative metastatic tumors and other diffuse inflammatory diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Dry elixir formulations of dexibuprofen for controlled release and enhanced oral bioavailability.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to achieve an optimal formulation of dexibuprofen dry elixir (DDE) for the improvement of dissolution rate and bioavailability. To control the release rate of dexibuprofen, Eudragit(®) RS was employed on the surface of DDE resulting in coated dexibuprofen dry elixir (CDDE). Physicochemical properties of DDE and CDDE such as particle size, SEM, DSC, and contents of dexibuprofen and ethanol were characterized. Pharmacokinetic parameters of dexibuprofen were evaluated in the rats after oral administration. The DDE and CDDE were spherical particles of 12 and 19 ?m, respectively. The dexibuprofen and ethanol contents in the DDE were dependent on the amount of dextrin and maintained for 90 days. The dissolution rate and bioavailability of dexibuprofen loaded in dry elixir were increased compared with those of dexibuprofen powder. Moreover, coating DDE with Eudragit(®) RS retarded the dissolution rate of dexibuprofen from DDE without reducing the bioavailability. Our results suggest that CDDE may be potential oral dosage forms to control the release and to improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble dexibuprofen.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors of ocular involvement in children with mitochondrial respiratory chain complex defect.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondrial dysfunction can present with various symptoms depending on the organ it has affected. This research tried to analyze the ophthalmologic symptoms and ophthalmologic examination (OE) results in patients with mitochondrial disease (MD).
Related JoVE Video
A nonthiazolidinedione peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? dual agonist CG301360 alleviates insulin resistance and lipid dysregulation in db/db mice.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been implicated in the treatment of metabolic disorders with different mechanisms; PPAR? agonists promote fatty acid oxidation and reduce hyperlipidemia, whereas PPAR? agonists regulate lipid redistribution from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat and enhance insulin sensitivity. To achieve combined benefits from activated PPARs on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, a number of PPAR?/? dual agonists have been developed. However, several adverse effects such as weight gain and organ failure of PPAR?/? dual agonists have been reported. By use of virtual ligand screening, we identified and characterized a novel PPAR?/? dual agonist, (R)-1-(4-(2-(5-methyl-2-p-tolyloxazol-4-yl)ethoxy)benzyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid (CG301360), exhibiting the improvement in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. CG301360 selectively stimulated transcriptional activities of PPAR? and PPAR? and induced expression of their target genes in a PPAR?- and PPAR?-dependent manner. In cultured cells, CG301360 enhanced fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake and it reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression. In db/db mice, CG301360 also restored insulin sensitivity and lipid homeostasis. Collectively, these data suggest that CG301360 would be a novel PPAR?/? agonist, which might be a potential lead compound to develop against insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative analysis of serum proteomes of patients with cardiovascular disease.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To monitor increases or decreases in cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related proteins that will be released from the deposits or plaque on the inner wall of blood vessels.
Related JoVE Video
Conformational changes in BAK, a pore-forming proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, upon membrane insertion and direct evidence for the existence of BH3-BH3 contact interface in BAK homo-oligomers.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During apoptosis, the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins BAK and BAX form large oligomeric pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Apoptotic factors, including cytochrome c, are released through these pores from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytoplasm where they initiate the cascade of events leading to cell death. To better understand this pivotal step toward apoptosis, a method was developed to induce membrane permeabilization by BAK in the membrane without using the full-length protein. Using a soluble form of BAK with a hexahistidine tag at the C terminus and a liposomal system containing the Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid lipid analog that can bind hexahistidine-tagged proteins, BAK oligomers were formed in the presence of the activator protein p7/p15Bid. In this system, we determined the conformational changes in BAK upon membrane insertion by applying the site-directed spin labeling method of EPR to 13 different amino acid locations. Upon membrane insertion, the BH3 domains were reorganized, and the alpha5-alpha6 helical hairpin structure was partially exposed to the membrane environment. The monomer-monomer interface in the oligomeric structure was also mapped by measuring the distance-dependent spin-spin interactions for each residue location. Spin labels attached in the BH3 domain were juxtaposed within 5-10 A distance in the oligomeric form in the membrane. These results are consistent with the current hypothesis that BAK or BAX forms homodimers, and these homodimers assemble into a higher order oligomeric pore. Detailed analyses of the data provide new insights into the structure of the BAX or BAK homodimer.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of steeping solution and storage temperature on the color change of garlic.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the browning of garlic under different steeping conditions and storage temperatures. The brown indices of steeped garlics showed lowest values (7.3 and 7) in 25% and 50% EtOH at 7 d of storage. The degree of browning of steeped garlics was lowest (10.2 in 25% EtOH and 10.4 in 50% EtOH) in the samples soaked for 8 h at 13 d of storage. As the storage temperature was increased from 10 to 40 degrees C, the brown indices of garlics revealed an increasing trend relative to storage time regardless of steeping treatment. Overall, the kinetic parameters showed relatively low R(2) and irregular reaction constants, but the k(o) values showed an increasing trend with temperature under a zero-order model. The highest polyphenol content within the garlic bulbs was seen in controls (without steeping treatment, 588.9 microg/g), than 0% EtOH (water, 392.5 microg/g), than 25% EtOH (211.3 microg/g), and finally 50% EtOH (155.6 microg/g). The polyphenol oxidase activity of garlic showed a similar trend to that of polyphenol content. However, the texture properties of garlics steeped with 25% and 50% did not change.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of toric intraocular lenses and peripheral corneal relaxing incisions to treat astigmatism during cataract surgery.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate and compare toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and spherical IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions to manage astigmatism during phacoemulsification.
Related JoVE Video
Lrmp/Jaw1 is expressed in sweet, bitter, and umami receptor-expressing cells.
Chem. Senses
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-mediated calcium (IP3-Ca2+) signal cascade is an essential process in sweet, bitter, and umami taste signal transduction. Although the main components of this cascade have been identified, the candidate regulators of them in taste tissues are still unclear. In an effort to identify genes involved in taste signal transduction, we found that a gene encoding lymphoid-restricted membrane protein (Lrmp/Jaw1) was expressed in mouse taste tissues. Here we report that Lrmp/Jaw1 is specifically expressed in sweet, bitter, and umami taste receptor-expressing cells of mouse circumvallate, foliate, and fungiform papillae. In addition to this specific expression patterns, we found that Lrmp/Jaw1 is associated with type III IP3 receptor (IP3R3) via its coiled-coil domain in the COS7 heterologous expression system. These results raise the possibility that Lrmp/Jaw1 interacts with IP3R3 in taste cells and suggest an important role for Lrmp/Jaw1 in the IP3-Ca2+ signal cascade in sweet, bitter, and umami taste signal transduction.
Related JoVE Video
Bis(imidazoline-2-thione)-copper(I) catalyzed regioselective boron addition to internal alkynes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
New catalytic systems based on a bis(1,3-disubstituted imidazoline 2-thione)-copper complex have been developed for the highly regioselective boration of internal alkynes.
Related JoVE Video
Field-induced cathodic oxidation of low-energy Ar-ion-bombarded silicon by AFM.
Ultramicroscopy
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Local oxidation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was studied on a 3keV Argon (Ar)-ion-bombarded silicon (Si) (100) substrate. Giant oxide features higher than 100nm were patterned by applying positive voltages to the tip with respect to the substrate. To analyze the growth rate of oxide features, we used the power-of-time law model. The growth rate of oxide features on an Ar-ion beam-bombarded silicon surface was increased approximately 1.8-fold compared to a common silicon surface. Furthermore, we obtained that the heights of oxide features increased as the exposure time to the tip decreased and the scan area increased.
Related JoVE Video
Category 2: Adult malocclusion with open bite.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This case report was displayed by the American Board of Orthodontics at the Annual Session of the American Association of Orthodontists, as an example of a successfully completed case from the 2006 ABO clinical exam.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced proton treatment in mouse tumors through proton irradiated nanoradiator effects on metallic nanoparticles.
Phys Med Biol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The impact of protons on metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) produces the potent release of MNP-induced secondary electrons and characteristic x-rays. To determine the ability of secondary radiations to enhance proton treatment, the therapeutic irradiation of tumors was investigated in mice receiving 100-300 mg MNPs/kg intravenously prior to single dose, 10-41 Gy, proton irradiation. A proton beam was utilized to irradiate nanoparticles with a single Bragg peak set to occur inside a tumor volume (fully absorbed) or to occur after the beam had traversed the entire body. The dose-dependent increase in complete tumor regression (CTR) was 37-62% in the fully-absorbed irradiation group or 50-100% in the traversing irradiation group, respectively, compared with the proton-alone control mice (p < 0.01). One year survival was 58-100% versus 11-13% proton alone. The dose-dependent increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species level was 12-36% at 10 Gy compared with the proton-alone control cell. Therapeutic effective drug concentration that led to 100% CTR with a proton dose of 31 Gy was measured either 41 µg Au/g tissue or 59 µg Fe/g tissue. MNP-based proton treatment increased not only percent CTR and survival in vivo but also ROS generation in vitro, suggesting tumor dose enhancement from secondary radiation as one potent pathway of therapeutic enhancement.
Related JoVE Video
Fermenting red ginseng enhances its safety and efficacy as a novel skin care anti-aging ingredient: in vitro and animal study.
J Med Food
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-aging potential and skin safety of red ginseng (RG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) using Lactobacillus brevis for use as cosmetic ingredients. Concentrations of uronic acid, polyphenols, and flavonoids, and antioxidant activities were greater in FRG compared to RG. The contents of total ginsenosides were not significantly different. However, the ginsenoside metabolite content was higher in FRG (14,914.3??g/mL) compared to RG (5697.9??g/mL). The tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of FRG was 27.63??g/mL, and more potent compared with RG (34.14??g/mL), (P<.05). The elastase inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of FRG was 117.07??g/mL also higher compared with RG (157.90??g/mL). In a primary skin irritation test, 10% RG and 10% FRG were classified as practically nonirritating materials. In a skin sensitization test, the RG group showed a sensitization rate of 100% and its mean evaluation score of irritation was 1.4, whereas the FRG group showed 20% and 0.2%, respectively. By fermentation of RG, FRG has increased contents of ginsenoside metabolites, such as Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, F2, Rg2, and flavonoids content. Therefore, FRG offers increased anti-wrinkle efficacy, whitening efficacy, and reduced toxicological potency compared to RG.
Related JoVE Video
Etoposide sensitizes neuroblastoma cells expressing caspase 8 to TRAIL.
Cell Biol Int Rep (2010)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] is a promising agent for clinical use since it kills a wide range of tumour cells without affecting normal cells. We provide evidence that pretreatment with etoposide significantly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via up-regulation of DR5 (death receptor 5 or TRAIL-R2) expression in the caspase 8 expressing neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-MC. In addition, sequential treatment with etoposide and TRAIL increased caspases 8, 9 and 3 activation, Mcl-1 cleavage and Bid truncation, which suggests that the ability of etoposide and TRAIL to induce apoptosis is mediated through activation of an intrinsic signalling pathway. Although TRAIL-R2 expression increased in IMR-32 cells in response to etoposide treatment, cell death was not increased by concurrent treatment with TRAIL compared with etoposide alone, because the cells lacked caspase 8 expression. Restoration of caspase 8 expression by exposure to IFN? (interferon ?) sensitizes IMR-32 cells to TRAIL. Moreover, pretreatment with etoposide increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in caspase 8 restored IMR-32 cells through activation of a caspase cascade that included caspases 8, 9 and 3. These results indicate that the etoposide-mediated sensitization of neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL is associated with an increase in TRAIL-R2 expression and requires caspase 8 expression. These observations support the potential use of a combination of etoposide and TRAIL in future clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
Cosmesis and body image after single-port access surgery for gynaecologic disease.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about patient satisfaction with single-port access (SPA) surgery for gynaecologic disease related to body image and cosmesis.
Related JoVE Video
Establishment of a bioluminescent imaging-based in vivo leukemia model by intra-bone marrow injection.
Int. J. Oncol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In vivo leukemia mouse models are usually generated by intraperitoneal (IP) or intravenous (IV) injection of leukemia cells. However, the pattern of leukemia development observed can be inconsistent. This study investigated injection directly into bone marrow [intra-bone marrow transplantation (IBMT)], the natural microenvironment of leukemia. A bioluminescent imaging-based leukemia animal model has been established by direct injection of a bioluminescent leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM/fLuc) into NOD/SCID mouse tibia bone marrow and compared with models established by IP and IV routes. The comparison revealed that a bioluminescent in vivo leukemia model established via IBMT could recapitulate leukemia more faithfully and facilitate improved quantification of leukemia engraftment kinetics with a wider range of bioluminescent intensity than IP or IV. IBMT of bioluminescent leukemic cells allowed quantification of dose-dependent responses to anti-leukemic drugs, thus validating this model as a potential preclinical anti-leukemic drug screening system. IBMT-leukemia cells isolated from peripheral blood of the model mice and then injected into new recipients successfully established a second generation IBMT in vivo model and demonstrated the reproducibility of the model. Bioluminescent imaging-based analysis of this IBMT-leukemia model could provide a means for the comprehensive evaluation of treatment responses with enhanced sensitivity in preclinical studies.
Related JoVE Video
Auditory characteristics and therapeutic effects of enzyme replacement in mouse model of the mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II is an X-linked metabolic disorder caused by dysfunction of iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S). This abnormality causes the progressive accumulation of incompletely degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the lysosomes. The auditory characteristics of MPS II in mouse models have not been reported. In this study, we evaluated the auditory characteristics of the MPS II in IDS knock-out (IDS-KO) mice. In addition, the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on hearing was studied. The IDS-KO mice had normal histology of the cochlea and retained good hearing at 7 weeks of age. However, at 17 weeks of age, the hearing thresholds of the IDS-KO mice were elevated and exudates were found in the middle ear. The hearing thresholds of the enzyme-treated IDS-KO (IDS-ERT) mice were similar to the wild-type (WT) mice at 17 weeks. Moreover, the microstructure of the inner ear was similar to the IDS-KO by transmission electron microscopy. The histology findings indicated that the microstructure of the inner ear was similar in comparisons between IDS-KO and IDS-ERT mice, even after 10 weeks of treatment. However, the hearing deficits in the MPS II mouse model can be prevented if ERT is started before the onset of hearing impairment.
Related JoVE Video
Perception, attitudes, preparedness and experience of chemotherapy-induced alopecia among breast cancer patients: a qualitative study.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regardless of its negative impact on quality of life, little is known about the importance of alopecia from the patients perspective. This study aimed to explore the whole experience of chemotherapy- induced alopecia among Korean breast cancer patients including perception, attitudes, preparedness, and changes after alopecia.
Related JoVE Video
Dormancy signatures and metastasis in estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancers can recur after removal of the primary tumor and treatment to eliminate remaining tumor cells. Recurrence may occur after long periods of time during which there are no clinical symptoms. Tumor cell dormancy may explain these prolonged periods of asymptomatic residual disease and treatment resistance. We generated a dormancy gene signature from published experimental models and applied it to both breast cancer cell line expression data as well as four published clinical studies of primary breast cancers. We found that estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cell lines and primary tumors have significantly higher dormancy signature scores (P<0.0000001) than ER- cell lines and tumors. In addition, a stratified analysis combining all ER+ tumors in four studies indicated 2.1 times higher hazard of recurrence among patients whose tumors had low dormancy scores (LDS) compared to those whose tumors had high dormancy scores (HDS) (p<0.000005). The trend was shown in all four individual studies. Suppression of two dormancy genes, BHLHE41 and NR2F1, resulted in increased in vivo growth of ER positive MCF7 cells. The patient data analysis suggests that disseminated ER positive tumor cells carrying a dormancy signature are more likely to undergo prolonged dormancy before resuming metastatic growth. Furthermore, genes identified with this approach might provide insight into the mechanisms of dormancy onset and maintenance as well as dormancy models using human breast cancer cell lines.
Related JoVE Video
Effective DNA/RNA co-extraction for analysis of microRNAs, mRNAs, and genomic DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retrospective studies of archived human specimens, with known clinical follow-up, are used to identify predictive and prognostic molecular markers of disease. Due to biochemical differences, however, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) DNA and RNA have generally been extracted separately from either different tissue sections or from the same section by dividing the digested tissue. The former limits accurate correlation whilst the latter is impractical when utilizing rare or limited archived specimens.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of statins on the recovery of olfactory function in a 3-methylindole-induced anosmia mouse model.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the importance of olfactory function, no effective medications have been identified to treat olfactory disorders. This study was performed to evaluate the functional recovery of olfaction damaged by 3-methylindole (3MI) in a mouse model with hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins).
Related JoVE Video
Public attitudes toward cancer and cancer patients: a national survey in Korea.
Psychooncology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regardless of improved survival rate, negative images and myths about cancer still abound. Cancer stigma may reduce patients life opportunities resulting in social isolation, decreased level of emotional well-being, and poor health outcomes. This study was aimed to evaluate public attitudes toward cancer and cancer patients and peoples willingness to disclose cancer diagnosis in South Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Mild Plasmodium falciparum malaria following an episode of severe malaria is associated with induction of the interferon pathway in Malawian children.
Infect. Immun.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infection with Plasmodium falciparum can lead to a range of severe to minimal symptoms, occasionally resulting in death in young children or nonimmune adults. In areas of high transmission, older children and adults generally suffer only mild or asymptomatic malaria infections and rarely develop severe disease. The immune features underlying this apparent immunity to severe disease remain elusive. To gain insight into host responses associated with severe and mild malaria, we conducted a longitudinal study of five children who first presented with severe malaria and, 1 month later, with mild malaria. Employing peripheral blood whole-genome profiling, we identified 68 genes that were associated with mild malaria compared to their expression in the severe malaria episode (paired Students t test, P < 0.05). These genes reflect the interferon (IFN) pathway and T cell biology and include IFN-induced protein transcripts 1 to 3, oligoadenylate synthetases 1 and 3, and the T cell markers cathepsin W and perforin. Gene set enrichment analysis identified Gene Ontology (GO) pathways associated with mild malaria to include the type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway (GO 0060337), T cell activation (GO 0042110), and other GO pathways representing many aspects of immune activation. In contrast, only six genes were associated with severe malaria, including thymidine kinase 1, which was recently found to be a biomarker of cerebral malaria susceptibility in the murine model, and carbonic anhydrase, reflecting the bloods abnormal acid base environment during severe disease. These data may provide potential insights to inform pathogenesis models and the development of therapeutics to reduce severe disease outcomes due to P. falciparum infection.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.