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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Biologically-active laminin-111 fragment that modulates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in embryonic stem cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The dynamic interplay between the extracellular matrix and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) constitutes one of the key steps in understanding stem cell differentiation in vitro. Here we report a biologically-active laminin-111 fragment generated by matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) processing, which is highly up-regulated during differentiation. We show that the ?1-chain-derived fragment interacts via ?3?1-integrins, thereby triggering the down-regulation of MMP2 in mouse and human ESCs. Additionally, the expression of MMP9 and E-cadherin is up-regulated in mouse ESCs--key players in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We also demonstrate that the fragment acts through the ?3?1-integrin/extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer complex. This study reveals a previously unidentified role of laminin-111 in early stem cell differentiation that goes far beyond basement membrane assembly and a mechanism by which an MMP2-cleaved laminin fragment regulates the expression of E-cadherin, MMP2, and MMP9.
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Assessment of early occlusal caries pre- and post-sealant application--an imaging approach.
Lasers Surg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Clinicians have difficulty assessing and monitoring early occlusal caries. Traditional clinical exam and radiographs are unable to detect the subtle alterations in enamel indicative of de- or re-mineralization, particularly under dental sealants. Although clinicians have used laser fluorescence (LF) to address this gap, this modality has demonstrated weak correlation with histology. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II) has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, but since it is based on visual assessment, it is of no use in areas beneath the most commonly used dental sealants which are opaque. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emergent assessment tool which has demonstrated great promise in detecting and quantifying caries, including areas beneath commonly used dental sealants and composites. However, OCT has not yet been widely integrated into clinical dental practice, perhaps because OCT imaging does not provide an easily accessible diagnostic outcome for clinicians. The objective of this ex vivo study was to use OCT-images of sound and carious occlusal surfaces in combination with a simple algorithm to compare the caries detection ability of OCT with tools clinicians may be more familiar with (LF and radiography), and with an established valid and reliable clinical assessment tool (ICDAS-II).
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Novel methylation panel for the early detection of neoplasia in high-risk ulcerative colitis and Crohns colitis patients.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohns colonic disease are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the study was to analyze the methylation status of selected genes as a risk marker for CRC in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.
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Real-time subglottic stenosis imaging using optical coherence tomography in the rabbit.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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Subglottic stenosis (SGS) is a severe, acquired, potentially life-threatening disease that can be caused by endotracheal tube intubation. Newborns and neonates are particularly susceptible to SGS owing to the small caliber of their airway.
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Discovery of small-molecule enhancers of reactive oxygen species that are nontoxic or cause genotype-selective cell death.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels has been observed in many cancer cells relative to nontransformed cells, and recent reports have suggested that small-molecule enhancers of ROS may selectively kill cancer cells in various in vitro and in vivo models. We used a high-throughput screening approach to identify several hundred small-molecule enhancers of ROS in a human osteosarcoma cell line. A minority of these compounds diminished the viability of cancer cell lines, indicating that ROS elevation by small molecules is insufficient to induce death of cancer cell lines. Three chemical probes (BRD5459, BRD56491, BRD9092) are highlighted that most strongly elevate markers of oxidative stress without causing cell death and may be of use in a variety of cellular settings. For example, combining nontoxic ROS-enhancing probes with nontoxic doses of L-buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis previously studied in cancer patients, led to potent cell death in more than 20 cases, suggesting that even nontoxic ROS-enhancing treatments may warrant exploration in combination strategies. Additionally, a few ROS-enhancing compounds that contain sites of electrophilicity, including piperlongumine, show selective toxicity for transformed cells over nontransformed cells in an engineered cell-line model of tumorigenesis. These studies suggest that cancer cell lines are more resilient to chemically induced increases in ROS levels than previously thought and highlight electrophilicity as a property that may be more closely associated with cancer-selective cell death than ROS elevation.
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Laser-induced jets of nanoparticles: exploiting air drag forces to select the particle size of nanoparticle arrays.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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In this study, we developed a new method-based on laser-induced jets of nanoparticles (NPs) and air drag forces-to select the particle size of NP arrays. First, the incident wavelength of an excimer laser was varied to ensure good photo-to-thermal energy conversion efficiency. We then exploited air drag forces to select NPs with sizes ranging from 5 to 50 nm at different captured distances. Controlling the jet distances allowed us to finely tune the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength. The shifting range of the LSPR wavelengths of the corresponding NP arrays prepared using the laser-induced jet was wider than that of a single NP or an NP dimer. We further calculated the relationship between the air drag force and the diameter of the NPs to provide good control over the mean NP size (capture size ? 300 ?m) by varying the capture distance. Laser-induced jets of NPs could also be used to fabricate NP arrays on a variety of substrates, including Si, glass, plastic, and paper. This method has the attractive features of rapid, large-area preparation in an ambient environment, no need for further thermal annealing treatment, ready control over mean particle size, and high selectivity in the positioning of NP arrays. Finally, we used this method to prepare large NP arrays for acting hot spots on surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrates, and 10(-12) M R6G can be detected. Besides, we also prepare small NP arrays to act as metal catalysts for constructing low-reflection, broadband light trapping nanostructures on Si substrates.
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Repeated in vivo exposure of cocaine induces long-lasting synaptic plasticity in hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus in mice.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Hypocretin (orexin), a neuropeptide synthesized exclusively in the perifornical/lateral hypothalamus, is critical for drug seeking and relapse, but it is not clear how the circuitry centred on hypocretin-producing neurons (hypocretin neurons) is modified by drugs of abuse and how changes in this circuit might alter behaviours related to drug addiction. In this study, we show that repeated, but not single, in vivo cocaine administration leads to a long-lasting, experience-dependent potentiation of glutamatergic synapses on hypocretin neurons in mice following a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) protocol. The synaptic potentiation occurs postsynaptically and probably involves up-regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors on hypocretin neurons. Phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is also significantly increased in hypocretin neurons in cocaine-treated animals, suggesting that CREB-mediated pathways may contribute to synaptic potentiation in these cells. Furthermore, the potentiation of synaptic efficacy in hypocretin neurons persists during cocaine withdrawal, but reverses to baseline levels after prolonged abstinence. Finally, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) triggered by a high-frequency stimulation is facilitated in hypocretin neurons in cocaine-treated mice, suggesting that long-lasting changes in synapses onto hypocretin neurons would probably be further potentiated by other stimuli (such as concurrent environmental cues) paired with the drug. In summary, we show here that hypocretin neurons undergo experience-dependent synaptic potentiation that is distinct from that reported in other reward systems, such as the ventral tegmental area, following exposure to cocaine. These findings support the idea that the hypocretin system is important for behavioural changes associated with cocaine administration in animals and humans.
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Donor age is a major determinant of success of oocyte donation/recipient programme.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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In recent years, particularly in developed countries, women have tended to delay childbirth until over 40 years of age. Our study aims to identify whether the donors age or recipients age influences the pregnancy and live birth rate following oocyte recipient cycles.
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Transfers of fresh blastocysts and blastocysts cultured from thawed cleavage embryos are associated with fewer miscarriages.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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The literature shows an inconsistent relationship between miscarriage and assisted reproduction treatment factors. This study assessed the association between miscarriage and transfer of fresh or thawed embryos at cleavage/blastocyst stages. A population study included 52,874 pregnancies following autologous cycles. The miscarriage rate was compared by groups of transferred embryos (fresh cleavage embryo, fresh blastocyst, thawed cleavage embryo, blastocyst from thawed cleavage embryo, thawed blastocyst), IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures, number of embryos transferred and womans demographics. The overall miscarriage rate was 18.7%. Women aged 35-39 years and ?40 years had a 51% and 177% increased hazard of miscarriage, respectively, compared with women <35 years. Women with history of miscarriage had 1.22 times hazard of miscarriage compared with those without previous miscarriage. Singleton pregnancies following fresh double-embryo transfer had 1.43 times higher rate of miscarriage than fresh single-embryo transfer. Fresh blastocyst transfer was associated with 8% less hazard of miscarriage than fresh cleavage-embryo transfer. Compared with pregnancies following thawed cleavage-embryo transfers, thawed blastocyst transfers were at 14% higher hazard of miscarriage. This study suggests that a practice model that includes transferring blastocysts and freezing cleavage embryos in fresh cycles would result in better outcomes.
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A permanent optical storage medium exhibiting ultrahigh contrast, superior stability, and a broad working wavelength regime.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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In this paper we demonstrate an optical storage medium having advantages of ultrahigh contrast, superior stability, and broadband working wavelengths. Combining a single shot of deep-ultraviolet (UV) laser illumination with a Au particle-assisted etching process, we formed broadband antireflective, one-dimensional silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) with selectively at specific positions. Optical measurements and three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (3D-FDTD) simulations revealed ultrahigh reflection contrast between the Au and the SiNWs for both far- and near-field regimes. Relative to typical organic-based storage media, Au films and SiNWs are more stable, both chemically and thermally; therefore, we suspect that this new storage medium would exhibit high stability toward moisture, sunshine, and elevated temperatures.
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Haplotype-based study of the association of alcohol-metabolizing genes with alcohol dependence in four independent populations.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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Ethanol is metabolized by 2 rate-limiting reactions: alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) convert ethanol to acetaldehyde that is subsequently metabolized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Approximately 50% of East Asians have genetic variants that significantly impair this pathway and influence alcohol dependence (AD) vulnerability. We investigated whether variation in alcohol metabolism genes might alter the AD risk in four non-East Asian populations by performing systematic haplotype association analyses to maximize the chances of capturing functional variation.
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Disease and phenotype gene set analysis of disease-based gene expression in mouse and human.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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The genetic contributions to common disease and complex disease phenotypes are pleiotropic, multifactorial, and combinatorial. Gene set analysis is a computational approach used in the analysis of microarray data to rapidly query gene combinations and multifactorial processes. Here we use novel gene sets based on population-based human genetic associations in common human disease or experimental genetic mouse models to analyze disease-related microarray studies. We developed a web-based analysis tool that uses these novel disease- and phenotype-related gene sets to analyze microarray-based gene expression data. These gene sets show disease and phenotype specificity in a species-specific and cross-species fashion. In this way, we integrate population-based common human disease genetics, mouse genetically determined phenotypes, and disease or phenotype structured ontologies, with gene expression studies relevant to human disease. This may aid in the translation of large-scale high-throughput datasets into the context of clinically relevant disease phenotypes.
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Nocturia.
Obstet Gynecol Surv
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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Nocturia is a common symptom in women which has profound negative impact on the quality of life. With the increase in aging population, nocturia is becoming an important clinical problem. A proper understanding of cardio-respiratory, metabolic, and neurological patho-physiology of nocturia is imperative for appropriate management of nocturia. When managing a patient with nocturia it is important to evaluate the patient as a whole rather than from urological perspective only. In this article we attempt to discuss the definition, etiology, clinical features and management of nocturia so that a comprehensive approach to management can be adopted when faced with a woman complaining of nocturia.
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Recurrent urinary stress incontinence: an overview.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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We review the literature regarding recurrent urinary stress incontinence (USI) following various anti-incontinence procedures and analyze possible risk factors for failure of different anti-incontinence procedures. Management options for recurrent USI and future trends are also covered.
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Efficient population assignment and outlier detection in human populations using biallelic markers chosen by principal component-based rankings.
BioTechniques
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Whole-genome studies of genetic variation are now performed routinely and have accelerated the identification of disease-associated allelic variants, positive selection, recombination, and structural variation. However, these studies are sensitive to the presence of outlier data from individuals of different ancestry than the rest of the sample. Currently, the most common method of excluding outlier individuals is to collect a population sample and exclude outliers after genome-wide data have been collected. Here we show that a small collection of 20-27 polymorphic Alu insertions, selected using a principal component-based method with genetic ancestry estimates, may be used to easily assign Africans, East Asians, and Europeans to their population of origin. In addition, we show that samples from a geographically and genetically intermediate population (in our study, samples from India) can be identified within the original sample of Africans, East Asians, and Europeans. Finally, we show that outlier individuals from neighboring geographic regions (in our study, Yemen and sub-Saharan Africa) can be identified. These results will be of value in preselection of samples for more in-depth analysis as well as customized identification of maximally informative polymorphic markers for regional studies.
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Transfer of a selected single blastocyst optimizes the chance of a healthy term baby: a retrospective population based study in Australia 2004-2007.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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The practice of single embryo transfer (SET) is highly accepted by clinicians in Australia. This study investigates whether the SET of blastocysts results in optimal perinatal outcomes.
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Better perinatal outcomes following transfer of fresh blastocysts and blastocysts cultured from thawed cleavage embryos: a population-based study.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Fresh embryo transfer results in higher live birth rates, while thawed embryo transfer appears to result in healthier babies. This study aims to investigate the association between the transfer of fresh or thawed embryos at the cleavage or blastocyst stage and the perinatal outcomes.
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Detrusor overactivity: an overview.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Detrusor overactivity (DO) is a common clinical problem having profound effects on the quality of life (QOL) of women. With the use of meshes in the antiincontinence surgery, a new onset of DO, de novo DO has become an important issue in postoperative QOL of women. A systematic review of English language literature was conducted from Pubmed and publications of the last 7 years were analyzed and presented in this review. Multiple pathological events in the urothelium, sub-urothelium and possibly in the detrusor muscle seem to underlie the pathophysiology of DO. A variety of approaches, from life style modification to minimal-invasive surgery are available to treat DO and it is the responsibility of the physician to properly select and apply these modalities with the ultimate aim in improving the QOL of the patients. It is imperative to know the various pathophysiological processes that underlie the causation of DO to select proper management approach.
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Systematic analysis, comparison, and integration of disease based human genetic association data and mouse genetic phenotypic information.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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The genetic contributions to human common disorders and mouse genetic models of disease are complex and often overlapping. In common human diseases, unlike classical Mendelian disorders, genetic factors generally have small effect sizes, are multifactorial, and are highly pleiotropic. Likewise, mouse genetic models of disease often have pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes. Moreover, phenotypic descriptions in the literature in both human and mouse are often poorly characterized and difficult to compare directly.
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Randomized comparison of tolterodine with vaginal estrogen cream versus tolterodine alone for the treatment of postmenopausal women with overactive bladder syndrome.
Neurourol. Urodyn.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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To investigate whether vaginal estrogen cream combined with tolterodine is more effective than tolterodine alone in the treatment of postmenopausal women with overactive bladder (OAB).
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Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative hepatitis B virus infection among mother-teenager pairs 13 years after neonatal hepatitis B virus vaccination.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
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It is unclear whether a mother who is negative for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) but positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) is at potential risk for mother-to-child transmission of HBV. This study, using a paired mother-teenager population, aimed to assess whether maternal HBsAg-negative HBV infection ((hn)HBI) is a significant source of child HBV infection (HBI). A follow-up study with blood collection has been conducted on the 93 mother-teenager pairs from the initial 135 pregnant woman-newborn pairs 13 years after neonatal HBV vaccination. Serological and viral markers of HBV have been tested, and phylogenetic analysis of HBV isolates has been done. The HBI prevalence was 1.9% (1 (hn)HBI/53) for teenage children of non-HBI mothers, compared with 16.7% (1 (hn)HBI/6) for those of (hn)HBI mothers and 2.9% (1 HBsAg-positive HBV infection [(hp)HBI]/34) for those of (hp)HBI mothers. Similar viral sequences have been found in one pair of whom both the mother and teenager have had (hn)HBI. In comparison with the (hp)HBI cases, those with (hn)HBI had a lower level of HBV load and a higher proportion of genotype-C strains, which were accompanied by differentiated mutations (Q129R, K141E, and Y161N) of the "a" determinant of the HBV surface gene. Our findings suggest that mother-to-teenager transmission of (hn)HBI can occur among those in the neonatal HBV vaccination program.
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Eco-friendly plasmonic sensors: using the photothermal effect to prepare metal nanoparticle-containing test papers for highly sensitive colorimetric detection.
Anal. Chem.
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Convenient, rapid, and accurate detection of chemical and biomolecules would be a great benefit to medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental sciences. Many chemical and biosensors based on metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed. However, as a result of the inconvenience and complexity of most of the current preparation techniques, surface plasmon-based test papers are not as common as, for example, litmus paper, which finds daily use. In this paper, we propose a convenient and practical technique, based on the photothermal effect, to fabricate the plasmonic test paper. This technique is superior to other reported methods for its rapid fabrication time (a few seconds), large-area throughput, selectivity in the positioning of the NPs, and the capability of preparing NP arrays in high density on various paper substrates. In addition to their low cost, portability, flexibility, and biodegradability, plasmonic test paper can be burned after detecting contagious biomolecules, making them safe and eco-friendly.
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Determination of serum aldosterone by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry: a liquid-liquid extraction method for the ABSCIEX API-5000 mass spectrometry system.
J. Clin. Pathol.
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Accurate serum aldosterone determination is critical to the screening and diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, the localisation of aldosterone producing tumours, and the investigation of other disorders of the renin-angiotensin system. Mass spectrometry offers a means to overcome problems with method-dependent bias between competitive immunoassays for aldosterone. The authors have developed a simple, sensitive and precise liquid-liquid extraction aldosterone method for the ABSCIEX API-5000 liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system.
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Nine-year objective and subjective follow-up of the ultra-lateral anterior repair for cystocele.
Int Urogynecol J
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The aim of this study was to determine the long-term objective and subjective outcomes of the native tissue ultra-lateral anterior repair for cystocele.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.