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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI as a predictor of vascular-targeted photodynamic focal ablation therapy outcome in prostate cancer post-failed external beam radiation therapy.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be employed as a focal therapy for prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially help identify tumour recurrence after failed external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of DCE-MRI to predict early response to PDT salvage treatment.
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Advances in engineering of high contrast CARS imaging endoscopes.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The translation of CARS imaging towards real time, high resolution, chemically selective endoscopic tissue imaging applications is limited by a lack of sensitivity in CARS scanning probes sufficiently small for incorporation into endoscopes. We have developed here a custom double clad fiber (DCF)-based CARS probe which is designed to suppress the contaminant Four-Wave-Mixing (FWM) background generated within the fiber and integrated it into a fiber based scanning probe head of a few millimeters in diameter. The DCF includes a large mode area (LMA) core as a first means of reducing FWM generation by ~3 dB compared to commercially available, step-index single mode fibers. A micro-fabricated miniature optical filter (MOF) was grown on the distal end of the DCF to block the remaining FWM background from reaching the sample. The resulting probe was used to demonstrate high contrast images of polystyrene beads in the forward-CARS configuration with > 10 dB suppression of the FWM background. In epi-CARS geometry, images exhibited lower contrast due to the leakage of MOF-reflected FWM from the fiber core. Improvements concepts for the fiber probe are proposed for high contrast epi-CARS imaging to enable endoscopic implementation in clinical tissue assessment contexts, particularly in the early detection of endoluminal cancers and in tumor margin assessment.
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Characterization of collagen in non-small cell lung carcinoma with second harmonic polarization microscopy.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Polarization second harmonic microscopy was used for collagen imaging in human non-small cell lung carcinoma and normal lung tissues ex vivo and revealed significant differences in the nonlinear susceptibility component ratio, demonstrating potential use in cancer diagnosis.
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Structure and mechanism of action of the hydroxy-aryl-aldehyde class of IRE1 endoribonuclease inhibitors.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the unfolded protein response and its dysfunction is linked to multiple diseases. The stress transducer IRE1? is a transmembrane kinase endoribonuclease (RNase) that cleaves mRNA substrates to re-establish ER homeostasis. Aromatic ring systems containing hydroxy-aldehyde moieties, termed hydroxy-aryl-aldehydes (HAA), selectively inhibit IRE1? RNase and thus represent a novel chemical series for therapeutic development. We solved crystal structures of murine IRE1? in complex with three HAA inhibitors. HAA inhibitors engage a shallow pocket at the RNase-active site through pi-stacking interactions with His910 and Phe889, an essential Schiff base with Lys907 and a hydrogen bond with Tyr892. Structure-activity studies and mutational analysis of contact residues define the optimal chemical space of inhibitors and validate the inhibitor-binding site. These studies lay the foundation for understanding both the biochemical and cellular functions of IRE1? using small molecule inhibitors and suggest new avenues for inhibitor design.
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Stimuli-responsive photoacoustic nanoswitch for in vivo sensing applications.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Photoacoustic imaging provides high-resolution images at depths beyond the optical diffusion limit. To broaden its utility, there is need for molecular sensors capable of detecting environmental stimuli through alterations in photoacoustic signal. Photosynthetic organisms have evolved ingenious strategies to optimize light absorption through nanoscale ordered dye aggregation. Here, we use this concept to synthesize a stimuli-responsive nanoswitch with a large optical absorbance and sensing capabilities. Ordered dye aggregation between light-harvesting porphyrins was achieved through intercalation within thermoresponsive nanovesicles. This causes an absorbance red-shift of 74 nm and a 2.7-fold increase in absorptivity of the Qy-band, with concomitant changes in its photoacoustic spectrum. This spectral feature can be reversibly switched by exceeding a temperature threshold. Using this thermochromic property, we noninvasively determined a localized temperature change in vivo, relevant for monitoring thermal therapies of solid tumors. Similar strategies may be applied alongside photoacoustic imaging, to detect other stimuli such as pH and enzymatic activity.
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Wide-field multiplexed imaging of EGFR-targeted cancers using topical application of NIR SERS nanoprobes.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Aim: As the possibilities of molecular imaging in personalized medicine evolve rapidly, the optical advantages of extremely narrow and intense spectral bands makes surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) an appealing candidate for multiplexed recognition of targeted biomarkers over other optical imaging modalities. Materials & methods: In this proof-of-concept study, we report wide-field Raman detection of lung cancer using multimodal SERS nanoprobes specific to the EGF receptor family, both in vitro and in vivo. Results: For the first time, we demonstrate wide-field multiplexed Raman imaging for cancer detection in vivo after topical application of a 'cocktail' of SERS nanoprobes. Conclusion: This advancement represents a key step towards sensitive wide-field Raman endoscopic imaging of multiple biomarkers for early and accurate diagnosis of EGF receptor-expressing tumors of different internal organs.
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Rapid ratiometric biomarker detection with topically applied SERS nanoparticles.
Technology (Singap World Sci)
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) offer the potential for rapid molecular phenotyping of tissues, thereby enabling accurate disease detection as well as patient stratification to guide personalized therapies or to monitor treatment outcomes. The clinical success of molecular diagnostics based on SERS NPs would be facilitated by the ability to accurately identify tissue biomarkers under time-constrained staining and detection conditions with a portable device. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments were performed to optimize the technology and protocols for the rapid detection (0.1-s integration time) of multiple cell-surface biomarkers with a miniature fiber-optic spectral-detection probe following a brief (5 min) topical application of SERS NPs on tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the simultaneous detection and ratiometric quantification of targeted and nontargeted NPs allows for an unambiguous assessment of molecular expression that is insensitive to nonspecific variations in NP concentrations.
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ABCB5 maintains melanoma-initiating cells through a proinflammatory cytokine signaling circuit.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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The drug efflux transporter ABCB5 identifies cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in diverse human malignancies, where its expression is associated with clinical disease progression and tumor recurrence. ABCB5 confers therapeutic resistance, but other functions in tumorigenesis independent of drug efflux have not been described that might help explain why it is so broadly overexpressed in human cancer. Here we show that in melanoma-initiating cells, ABCB5 controls IL1? secretion, which serves to maintain slow cycling, chemoresistant cells through an IL1?/IL8/CXCR1 cytokine signaling circuit. This CSC maintenance circuit involved reciprocal paracrine interactions with ABCB5-negative cancer cell populations. ABCB5 blockade induced cellular differentiation, reversed resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, and impaired tumor growth in vivo. Together, our results defined a novel function for ABCB5 in CSC maintenance and tumor growth.
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In vitro and in vivo effects of photodynamic therapy on metastatic breast cancer cells pre-treated with zoledronic acid.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a non-ionizing, minimally invasive drug-light treatment, has recently been shown to successfully ablate tumor within rat vertebrae with concurrent improvements in bone strength and architecture. The bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (zol), a current drug for patients with skeletal metastases, primarily works by inhibiting osteoclast activity, but direct anti-tumor effects have also been reported. However, it is unknown if or how pre-treatment with zol may alter the tumorcidal effect of PDT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PDT, both in vitro and in vivo, on zol-pretreated cancer cells.
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Quantitative monitoring of radiation induced skin toxicities in nude mice using optical biomarkers measured from diffuse optical reflectance spectroscopy.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Monitoring the onset of erythema following external beam radiation therapy has the potential to offer a means of managing skin toxicities via biological targeted agents - prior to full progression. However, current skin toxicity scoring systems are subjective and provide at best a qualitative evaluation. Here, we investigate the potential of diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) to provide quantitative metrics for scoring skin toxicity. A DOS fiberoptic reflectance probe was used to collect white light spectra at two probing depths using two short fixed source-collector pairs with optical probing depths sensitive to the skin surface. The acquired spectra were fit to a diffusion theory model of light transport in tissue to extract optical biomarkers (hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, scattering power and slope) from superficial skin layers of nude mice, which were subjected to erythema inducing doses of ionizing radiation. A statistically significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin (p < 0.0016) was found in the skin post-irradiation - confirming previous reports. More interesting, we observed for the first time that the spectral scattering parameters, A (p = 0.026) and k (p = 0.011), were an indicator of erythema at day 6 and could potentially serve as an early detection optical biomarker of skin toxicity. Our data suggests that reflectance DOS may be employed to provide quantitative assessment of skin toxicities following curative doses of external beam radiation.
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ABCB5 is a limbal stem cell gene required for corneal development and repair.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Corneal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration are sustained by limbal stem cells (LSCs), and LSC deficiency is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Transplantation is often the only therapeutic option available to patients with LSC deficiency. However, while transplant success depends foremost on LSC frequency within grafts, a gene allowing for prospective LSC enrichment has not been identified so far. Here we show that ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 5 (ABCB5) marks LSCs and is required for LSC maintenance, corneal development and repair. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prospectively isolated human or murine ABCB5-positive LSCs possess the exclusive capacity to fully restore the cornea upon grafting to LSC-deficient mice in xenogeneic or syngeneic transplantation models. ABCB5 is preferentially expressed on label-retaining LSCs in mice and p63?-positive LSCs in humans. Consistent with these findings, ABCB5-positive LSC frequency is reduced in LSC-deficient patients. Abcb5 loss of function in Abcb5 knockout mice causes depletion of quiescent LSCs due to enhanced proliferation and apoptosis, and results in defective corneal differentiation and wound healing. Our results from gene knockout studies, LSC tracing and transplantation models, as well as phenotypic and functional analyses of human biopsy specimens, provide converging lines of evidence that ABCB5 identifies mammalian LSCs. Identification and prospective isolation of molecularly defined LSCs with essential functions in corneal development and repair has important implications for the treatment of corneal disease, particularly corneal blindness due to LSC deficiency.
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High-resolution angioscopic imaging during endovascular neurosurgery.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Endoluminal optical imaging, or angioscopy, has not seen widespread application during neurointerventional procedures, largely as a result of the poor imaging resolution of existing angioscopes. Scanning fiber endoscopes (SFEs) are a novel endoscopic platform that allows high-resolution video imaging in an ultraminiature form factor that is compatible with currently used distal access endoluminal catheters.
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Gut microbial metabolism drives transformation of MSH2-deficient colon epithelial cells.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been linked to deficiencies in mismatch repair and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) proteins, diet, inflammatory processes, and gut microbiota. However, the mechanism through which the microbiota synergizes with these etiologic factors to promote CRC is not clear. We report that altering the microbiota composition reduces CRC in APC(Min/+)MSH2(-/-) mice, and that a diet reduced in carbohydrates phenocopies this effect. Gut microbes did not induce CRC in these mice through an inflammatory response or the production of DNA mutagens but rather by providing carbohydrate-derived metabolites such as butyrate that fuel hyperproliferation of MSH2(-/-) colon epithelial cells. Further, we provide evidence that the mismatch repair pathway has a role in regulating ?-catenin activity and modulating the differentiation of transit-amplifying cells in the colon. These data thereby provide an explanation for the interaction between microbiota, diet, and mismatch repair deficiency in CRC induction. PAPERCLIP:
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Aggregate enhanced trimodal porphyrin shell microbubbles for ultrasound, photoacoustic, and fluorescence imaging.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Microbubbles (MBs) are currently used as ultrasound (US) contrast agents and as delivery vehicles for site-specific US-triggered drug and gene delivery. Multimodal US-based imaging methods have been applied preclinically to assess and validate the effectiveness and fate of MBs in imaging and therapy. Here we present the first intrinsically trimodal MBs by incorporating a dense concentration of porphyrin molecules within a MB shell, enabled by the use of a single porphyrin-lipid component. These MBs possess US, photoacoustic, and fluorescence properties that are demonstrated in solution and in a mouse tumor xenograft model. They also have potential to be extended to other imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging.
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Phenotypic screening and fragment-based approaches to the discovery of small-molecule bromodomain ligands.
Future Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Bromodomains are protein modules that bind to acetylated lysine residues and hence facilitate protein-protein interactions. These bromodomain-mediated interactions often play key roles in transcriptional regulation and their dysfunction is implicated in a large number of diseases. The discovery of potent and selective small-molecule bromodomain and extra C-terminal domain bromodomain ligands, which show promising results for the treatment of cancers and atherosclerosis, has promoted intense interest in this area. Here we describe the progress that has been made to date in the discovery of small-molecule bromodomain ligands, with particular emphasis on the roles played by phenotypic screening and fragment-based approaches. In considering the future of the field we discuss the prospects for development of molecular probes and drugs for the non-bromodomain and extra C-terminal domain bromodomains.
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Evaluation of one- and two-photon activated photodynamic therapy with pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester in human cervical, lung and ovarian cancer cells.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Two-photon activated photodynamic therapy (2-? PDT) has the potential of treating deeper tumors and/or improving tumor targeting. Here, we evaluated the one- and two-photon activated PDT efficacy of pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester (MPPa), a second-generation photosensitizer derived from chlorophyll a. We show that MPPa, when activated by femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at 674 nm, has high one-photon (1-?) PDT efficacy against cisplatin-sensitive human cervical (HeLa) and cisplatin-resistant human lung (A549) and ovarian (NIH:OVCAR-3) cancer cells. At a low light dose of 0.06 J cm(-2), the IC50 (the MPPa concentration required to kill 50% of the cells) was determined to be 5.3 ± 0.3, 3.4 ± 0.3 and 3.6 ± 0.4 ?M for HeLa, A549 and NIH:OVCAR-3 cells, respectively. More significantly, we also show that MPPa can be effectively activated by an 800 nm, 120 fs laser through 2-? excitation; at a light dose causing no measurable photocytotoxicity in the absence of photosensitizer, the corresponding IC50 values were measured to be 4.1 ± 0.3, 9.6 ± 1.0 and 1.6 ± 0.3 ?M, respectively. These results indicate that MPPa is a potent photosensitizer for both 1- and 2-? activated PDT with potential applications for difficult-to-treat tumors by conventional therapies.
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Orthotopic lung cancer murine model by nonoperative transbronchial approach.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The aim of this work was to establish a novel orthotopic human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) murine xenograft model by a nonsurgical, transbronchial approach.
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Revealing Cell-Surface Intramolecular Interactions in the BlaR1 Protein of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by NMR Spectroscopy.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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In methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ?-lactam antibiotic resistance is mediated by the transmembrane protein BlaR1. The antibiotic sensor domain BlaR(S) and the L2 loop of BlaR1 are on the membrane surface. We used NMR to investigate interactions between BlaR(S) and a water-soluble peptide from L2. This peptide binds BlaR(S) proximal to the antibiotic acylation site as an amphipathic helix. Acylation of BlaR(S) by penicillin G does not disrupt binding. These results suggest a signal transduction mechanism whereby the L2 helix, partially embedded in the membrane, propagates conformational changes caused by BlaR(S) acylation through the membrane via transmembrane segments, leading to antibiotic resistance.
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Stem cells and targeted approaches to melanoma cure.
Mol. Aspects Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Melanoma stem cells, also known as malignant melanoma-initiating cells, are identifiable through expression of specific biomarkers such as ABCB5 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 5), NGFR (nerve growth factor receptor, CD271) and ALDH (aldehyde dehydrogenase), and drive melanoma initiation and progression based on prolonged self-renewal capacity, vasculogenic differentiation and immune evasion. As we will review here, specific roles of these aggressive subpopulations have been documented in tumorigenic growth, metastatic dissemination, therapeutic resistance, and malignant recurrence. Moreover, recent findings have provided pre-clinical proof-of-concept for the potential therapeutic utility of the melanoma stem cell concept. Therefore, melanoma stem cell-directed therapeutic approaches represent promising novel strategies to improve therapy of this arguably most virulent human cancer.
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Focused ultrasound delivery of Raman nanoparticles across the blood-brain barrier: Potential for targeting experimental brain tumors.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2013
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Spectral mapping of nanoparticles with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) capability in the near-infrared range is an emerging molecular imaging technique. We used magnetic resonance image-guided transcranial focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) to reversibly disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) adjacent to brain tumor margins in rats. Glioma cells were found to internalize SERS capable nanoparticles of 50nm or 120nm physical diameter. Surface coating with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody or non-specific human immunoglobulin G, resulted in enhanced cell uptake of nanoparticles in-vitro compared to nanoparticles with methyl terminated 12-unit polyethylene glycol surface. BBB disruption permitted the delivery of SERS capable spherical 50 or 120nm gold nanoparticles to the tumor margins. Thus, nanoparticles with SERS imaging capability can be delivered across the BBB non-invasively using TcMRgFUS and have the potential to be used as optical tracking agents at the invasive front of malignant brain tumors.
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System and methods for wide-field quantitative fluorescence imaging during neurosurgery.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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We report an accurate, precise and sensitive method and system for quantitative fluorescence image-guided neurosurgery. With a low-noise, high-dynamic-range CMOS array, we perform rapid (integration times as low as 50 ms per wavelength) hyperspectral fluorescence and diffuse reflectance detection and apply a correction algorithm to compensate for the distorting effects of tissue absorption and scattering. Using this approach, we generated quantitative wide-field images of fluorescence in tissue-simulating phantoms for the fluorophore PpIX, having concentrations and optical absorption and scattering variations over clinically relevant ranges. The imaging system was tested in a rodent model of glioma, detecting quantitative levels down to 20 ng/ml. The resulting performance is a significant advance on existing wide-field quantitative imaging techniques, and provides performance comparable to a point-spectroscopy probe that has previously demonstrated significant potential for improved detection of malignant brain tumors during surgical resection.
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Genetically determined ABCB5 functionality correlates with pigmentation phenotype and melanoma risk.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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ABCB5 is a multidrug resistance (MDR) member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of active transporters and represents a marker for chemoresistant malignant melanoma-initiating cells. ABCB5 expression is closely linked to tumorigenicity and progression of diverse human malignancies, including melanoma, and is functionally required for tumor growth. Here, we genotyped 585 melanoma cases and 605 age-matched controls for 44 ABCB5 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to span a region covering 108.2kb of the gene on the 7p21.1 locus. We identified three SNPs that were associated with decreased melanoma risk in additive models: rs10231520 (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.98), rs17817117 (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.98), and rs2301641 (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.69-0.98). Additionally, the rs2301641 SNP was associated with non-red compared to red hair color (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.03) in controls. Twelve human melanoma cell lines were genotyped for the rs2301641 SNP, which encodes a non-synonymous ABCB5 amino acid change (K115E). Functional studies revealed that the E form associated with lower melanoma risk correlated significantly with decreased ABCB5 transport capacity (P<0.01) and increased melanin production (P<0.05). Our results identify novel associations of the ABCB5 K115E polymorphism with human pigmentation phenotype and melanoma risk and point to potential functional roles of ABCB5 in melanomagenesis. Moreover, they provide a first example that functional variation in a prospective cancer stem cell marker can be associated with disease risk for the corresponding malignancy.
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Rearrangement of 4-amino-3-halo-pyridines by nucleophilic aromatic substitution.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The reaction of 3-halo-4-aminopyridines with acyl chlorides and triethylamine is described. The pyridin-4-yl ?-substituted acetamide products were obtained in moderate to high yields. The presented rearrangement reaction, in which the presumed N-acylated intermediate reacts intramolecularly via nucleophilic aromatic substitution, results in a formal two-carbon insertion.
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Widefield quantitative multiplex surface enhanced Raman scattering imaging in vivo.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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In recent years numerous studies have shown the potential advantages of molecular imaging in vitro and in vivo using contrast agents based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), however the low throughput of traditional point-scanned imaging methodologies have limited their use in biological imaging. In this work we demonstrate that direct widefield Raman imaging based on a tunable filter is capable of quantitative multiplex SERS imaging in vivo, and that this imaging is possible with acquisition times which are orders of magnitude lower than achievable with comparable point-scanned methodologies. The system, designed for small animal imaging, has a linear response from (0.01 to 100 pM), acquires typical in vivo images in <10 s, and with suitable SERS reporter molecules is capable of multiplex imaging without compensation for spectral overlap. To demonstrate the utility of widefield Raman imaging in biological applications, we show quantitative imaging of four simultaneous SERS reporter molecules in vivo with resulting probe quantification that is in excellent agreement with known quantities (R²>0.98).
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Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, mitral valve prolapse and a familial variant involving the integrin-binding fragment of FBN1.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Mutations in Fibrillin 1 (FBN1) are associated with Marfan syndrome and in some instances with the MASS phenotype (myopia, mitral valve prolapse, borderline non-progressive aortic root dilatation, skeletal features, and striae). Potential confusion over diagnosis and management in patients with borderline features has been addressed through the revised Ghent nosology, which emphasizes the importance of aortic root dilatation and ectopia lentis as features of Marfan syndrome. The overlapping and more common mitral valve prolapse syndrome is precluded by ectopia lentis or aortic dilatation. Among these clinically related conditions, there is no compelling evidence that genotype predicts phenotype, with the exception of neonatal Marfan syndrome, mutations in which cluster within FBN1 exons 24-32. Recent reports also link two very different phenotypes to changes in FBN1. Heterozygous mutations in transforming growth factor ?-binding protein-like domain 5 (TB5) can cause acromicric or geleophysic dysplasias-and mutations in the TB4 domain, which contains an integrin binding RGD loop, have been found in congenital scleroderma/stiff skin syndrome. We report on a variant in an evolutionarily conserved residue that stabilizes the integrin binding fragment of FBN1, associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, mitral valve prolapse or apparently normal phenotype in different family members.
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Inherently multimodal nanoparticle-driven tracking and real-time delineation of orthotopic prostate tumors and micrometastases.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men and the second cause of male cancer-related deaths. There are currently three critical needs in prostate cancer imaging to personalize cancer treatment: (1) accurate intraprostatic imaging for multiple foci and extra-capsular extent; (2) monitoring local and systemic treatment response and predicting recurrence; and (3) more sensitive imaging of occult prostate cancer bone metastases. Recently, our lab developed porphysomes, inherently multimodal, all-organic nanoparticles with flexible and robust radiochemistry. Herein, we validate the first in vivo application of (64)Cu-porphysomes in clinically relevant orthotopic prostate and bony metastatic cancer models. We demonstrate clear multimodal delineation of orthotopic tumors on both the macro- and the microscopic scales (using both PET and fluorescence) and sensitively detected small bony metastases (<2 mm). The unique and multifaceted properties of porphysomes offers a promising all-in-one prostate cancer imaging agent for tumor detection and treatment response/recurrence monitoring using both radionuclide- and photonic-based strategies.
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The benefits of photodynamic therapy on vertebral bone are maintained and enhanced by combination treatment with bisphosphonates and radiation therapy.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to ablate tumors within vertebral bone and yield short-term improvements in vertebral architecture and biomechanical strength, in particular when combined with bisphosphonate (BP) treatment. Longer-term outcomes of PDT combined with current treatments for skeletal metastases are essential to understand its therapeutic potential. The objective of this study is to evaluate the response of vertebrae to PDT after a longer (6-week) time period, alone and combined with previous BP or radiation treatment (RT). Sixty-three female rnu/rnu rats were randomized to six treatment groups: untreated control, BP-only, RT-only, PDT-only, combined BP + PDT and combined RT + PDT. L2 vertebrae were structurally analyzed through µCT-based analysis, axial compressive load-to-failure testing and histological analysis of morphology, osteoid formation and osteoclast activity. Combined BP + PDT treatment yielded the largest improvements in bone architecture with combined RT + PDT treatment yielding similar findings, but of a lesser magnitude. Mechanically, ultimate force and stress were correlated to stereological parameters that demonstrated a positive structural effect from combinatory treatment. Increased osteoid formation was observed in both combination therapies without any significant differences in osteoclast activity. Overall, multimodality treatment demonstrated a sustained positive effect on vertebral structural integrity, motivating PDT as a minimally-invasive adjuvant treatment for spinal metastases.
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Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Direct monitoring of singlet oxygen (¹O?) luminescence is a particularly challenging infrared photodetection problem. ¹O?, an excited state of the oxygen molecule, is a crucial intermediate in many biological processes. We employ a low noise superconducting nanowire single-photon detector to record ¹O? luminescence at 1270 nm wavelength from a model photosensitizer (Rose Bengal) in solution. Narrow band spectral filtering and chemical quenching is used to verify the ¹O? signal, and lifetime evolution with the addition of protein is studied. Furthermore, we demonstrate the detection of ¹O? luminescence through a single optical fiber, a marked advance for dose monitoring in clinical treatments such as photodynamic therapy.
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Biologically-targeted detection of primary and micro-metastatic ovarian cancer.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of morbidity/mortality from gynecologic malignancy. Early detection of disease is difficult due to the propensity for ovarian cancer to disseminate throughout the peritoneum. Currently, there is no single accurate test to detect primary or recurrent ovarian cancer. We report a novel clinical strategy using PPF: a multimodal, PET and optical, folate receptor (FR)-targeted agent for ovarian cancer imaging. The capabilities of PPF were evaluated in primary human ovarian cancer cells, in vivo xenografts derived from primary cells and ex vivo patient omemtum, as the heterogeneity and phenotype displayed by patients is retained. Primary cells uptake PPF in a FR-dependent manner demonstrating approximately a 5- to 25-fold increase in fluorescence. By both PET and fluorescence imaging, PPF specifically delineated FR-positive, ovarian cancer xenografts, with similar tumor-to-background ratios of 8.91±0.91 and 7.94±3.94, and micro-metastatic studding (<1mm), which demonstrated a 3.5-fold increase in PPF uptake over adjacent normal tissue. Ex vivo patient omentum demonstrated selective uptake of PFF by tumor deposits. The ability of PPF to identify metastatic deposits <1mm could facilitate more complete debulking (currently, optimal debulking is <10mm residual tumor), by providing a more sensitive imaging strategy improving treatment planning, response assessment and residual/recurrent disease detection. Therefore, PPF is a novel clinical imaging strategy that could substantially improve the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer by allowing pre-, post- and intra-operative tumor monitoring, detection and possibly treatment throughout all stages of therapy and tumor progression.
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Posterior horn medial meniscal root repair with cruciate ligament/medial collateral ligament combined injuries.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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Many meniscal root tears remain unrepaired, potentially due to under-recognition and the technical challenge of repairing them. A great effort is made to preserve the native meniscus and restore the circumferential fibers for hoop stress resistance. It has been well demonstrated in the literature that failure to repair this will lead to increased contact pressures in the medial compartment and early degenerative changes in the articular cartilage. Our technique is one that allows the meniscus to resume its important role of knee stability. A thorough understanding of meniscal root anatomy, as well as repair techniques, is important for the cruciate ligament surgeon.
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Combined fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of cancer biomarkers in low- and high-grade glioma surgery.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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Biomarkers are indicators of biological processes and hold promise for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Gliomas represent a heterogeneous group of brain tumors with marked intra- and inter-tumor variability. The extent of surgical resection is a significant factor influencing post-surgical recurrence and prognosis. Here, we used fluorescence and reflectance spectral signatures for in vivo quantification of multiple biomarkers during glioma surgery, with fluorescence contrast provided by exogenously-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) following administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid. We performed light-transport modeling to quantify multiple biomarkers indicative of tumor biological processes, including the local concentration of PpIX and associated photoproducts, total hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, and optical scattering parameters. We developed a diagnostic algorithm for intra-operative tissue delineation that accounts for the combined tumor-specific predictive capabilities of these quantitative biomarkers. Tumor tissue delineation achieved accuracies of up to 94% (specificity = 94%, sensitivity = 94%) across a range of glioma histologies beyond current state-of-the-art optical approaches, including state-of-the-art fluorescence image guidance. This multiple biomarker strategy opens the door to optical methods for surgical guidance that use quantification of well-established neoplastic processes. Future work would seek to validate the predictive power of this proof-of-concept study in a separate larger cohort of patients.
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Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Collagen (type I) fibers are readily visualized with second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy though the molecular origin of the signal has not yet been elucidated. In this study, the molecular origin of SHG from type I collagen is investigated using the time-dependent coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock calculations of the hyperpolarizibilities of glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline. Two effective nonlinear dipoles are found to orient in-the-plane of the amino acids, with one of the dipoles aligning close to the pitch orientation in the triple-helix, which provides the dominant contribution to the SHG polarization properties. The calculated hyperpolarizability tensor element ratios for the collagen triple-helix models: [(Gly3)n]3, [(Gly-Pro2)n]3, and [(Gly-Pro-Hyp)n]3, are used to predict the second-order nonlinear susceptibility ratios, ?(zzz)(2)/?(iiz)(2) and ?(zii)(2)/?(iiz)(2) of collagen fibers. From SHG microscopy polarization in, polarization out (PIPO) measurements of type I collagen in human lung tissue, a theoretical method is used to extract the triple-helix orientation angle with respect to the collagen fiber. The study shows the dominant role of amino acid orientation in the triple-helix for determining the polarization properties of SHG and provides a method for determining the triple-helix orientation angle in the collagen fibers.
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Constitutive Extracellular Polysaccharide (EPS) Production by Specific Isolates of Crocosphaera watsonii.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Unicellular dinitrogen (N(2)) fixing cyanobacteria have only recently been identified in the ocean and recognized as important contributors to global N(2) fixation. The only cultivated representatives of the open ocean unicellular diazotrophs are multiple isolates of Crocosphaera watsonii. Although constituents of the genus are nearly genetically identical, isolates have been described in two size classes, large ?5??m and small ?3??m cell diameters. We show here that the large size class constitutively produces substantial amounts of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) during exponential growth, up to 10 times more than is seen in the small size class, and does so under both N(2) fixing and non-N(2) fixing conditions. The EPS production exceeds the amount produced by larger phytoplankton such as diatoms and coccolithophores by one to two orders of magnitude, is ?22% of the total particulate organic C in the culture, and is depleted in N compared to cellular material. The large difference in observed EPS production may be accounted for by consistently higher photochemical efficiency of photosystem II in the large (0.5) vs. small (?0.35) strains. While it is known that Crocosphaera plays an important role in driving the biological carbon (C) pump through the input of new nitrogen (N) to the open ocean, we hypothesize that this species may also contribute directly to the C cycle through the constitutive production of EPS. Indeed, at two stations in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, ?70% of large Crocosphaera cells observed were embedded in EPS. The evolutionary advantage of releasing such large amounts of fixed C is still unknown, but in regions where Crocosphaera can be abundant (i.e., the warm oligotrophic ocean) this material will likely have important biogeochemical consequences.
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Analysis of inorganic nitrogen and related anions in high salinity water using ion chromatography with tandem UV and conductivity detectors.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Over 97% of the Earths water is high salinity water in the form of gulfs, oceans, and salt lakes. There is an increasing concern for the quality of water in bays, gulfs, oceans, and other natural waters. These waters are affected by many different sources of contamination. The sources are, but not limited to, groundwater run-off of nitrogen containing fertilizer, pesticides, cleaning agents, solid wastes, industrial waters, and many more. The final destinations of these contaminants are rivers, lakes, and bayous that eventually will lead to bays, gulfs, and oceans. Many industries depend on the quality of these waters, such as the fishing industry. In addition to wild marine life, there are large aquariums and fish and shrimp farms that are required to know the quality of the water. However, the ability of these industries to monitor their processes is limited. Most analytical methods do not apply to the analysis of high salinity waters. They are dependent on wet chemistry techniques, spectrophotometers, and flow analyzers. These methods do not have the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity when compared to ion chromatography (IC). Since the inception of IC, it has become a standard practice for determining the content of many different water samples. Many IC methods are limited in the range of analytes that can be detected, as well as the numerous sample sources of which the methods are applicable. The main focus of current IC methods does not include high salinity waters. This research demonstrates an ion chromatographic method that has the ability to determine low level concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and related anions (nitrite-N, nitrate-N, phosphorous-P, sulfate, bromide, chloride, sulfide, fluoride, ammonia, calcium, and magnesium) in a single run using a combination of UV and conductivity detectors. This method is applicable to various waters, and uses both freshwater and high salinity water samples.
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The future of medical diagnostics: review paper.
Head Neck Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2011
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While histopathology of excised tissue remains the gold standard for diagnosis, several new, non-invasive diagnostic techniques are being developed. They rely on physical and biochemical changes that precede and mirror malignant change within tissue. The basic principle involves simple optical techniques of tissue interrogation. Their accuracy, expressed as sensitivity and specificity, are reported in a number of studies suggests that they have a potential for cost effective, real-time, in situ diagnosis.We review the Third Scientific Meeting of the Head and Neck Optical Diagnostics Society held in Congress Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria on the 11th May 2011. For the first time the HNODS Annual Scientific Meeting was held in association with the International Photodynamic Association (IPA) and the European Platform for Photodynamic Medicine (EPPM). The aim was to enhance the interdisciplinary aspects of optical diagnostics and other photodynamic applications. The meeting included 2 sections: oral communication sessions running in parallel to the IPA programme and poster presentation sessions combined with the IPA and EPPM posters sessions.
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?-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX concentration correlates with histopathologic markers of malignancy in human gliomas: the need for quantitative fluorescence-guided resection to identify regions of increasing malignancy.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2011
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Extent of resection is a major goal and prognostic factor in the treatment of gliomas. In this study we evaluate whether quantitative ex vivo tissue measurements of ?-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) identify regions of increasing malignancy in low- and high-grade gliomas beyond the capabilities of current fluorescence imaging in patients undergoing fluorescence-guided resection (FGR). Surgical specimens were collected from 133 biopsies in 23 patients and processed for ex vivo neuropathological analysis: PpIX fluorimetry to measure PpIX concentrations (C(PpIX)) and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry to assess tissue proliferation. Samples displaying visible levels of fluorescence showed significantly higher levels of C(PpIX) and tissue proliferation. C(PpIX) was strongly correlated with histopathological score (nonparametric) and tissue proliferation (parametric), such that increasing levels of C(PpIX) were identified with regions of increasing malignancy. Furthermore, a large percentage of tumor-positive biopsy sites (?40%) that were not visibly fluorescent under the operating microscope had levels of C(PpIX) greater than 0.1 µg/mL, which indicates that significant PpIX accumulation exists below the detection threshold of current fluorescence imaging. Although PpIX fluorescence is recognized as a visual biomarker for neurosurgical resection guidance, these data show that it is quantitatively related at the microscopic level to increasing malignancy in both low- and high-grade gliomas. This work suggests a need for improved PpIX fluorescence detection technologies to achieve better sensitivity and quantification of PpIX in tissue during surgery.
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Transforming a Targeted Porphyrin Theranostic Agent into a PET Imaging Probe for Cancer.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Porphyrin based photosensitizers are useful agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and fluorescence imaging of cancer. Porphyrins are also excellent metal chelators forming highly stable metallo-complexes making them efficient delivery vehicles for radioisotopes. Here we investigated the possibility of incorporating (64)Cu into a porphyrin-peptide-folate (PPF) probe developed previously as folate receptor (FR) targeted fluorescent/PDT agent, and evaluated the potential of turning the resulting (64)Cu-PPF into a positron emission tomography (PET) probe for cancer imaging. Noninvasive PET imaging followed by radioassay evaluated the tumor accumulation, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of (64)Cu-PPF. (64)Cu-PPF uptake in FR-positive tumors was visible on small-animal PET images with high tumor-to-muscle ratio (8.88 ± 3.60) observed after 24 h. Competitive blocking studies confirmed the FR-mediated tracer uptake by the tumor. The ease of efficient (64)Cu-radiolabeling of PPF while retaining its favorable biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and selective tumor uptake, provides a robust strategy to transform tumor-targeted porphyrin-based photosensitizers into PET imaging probes.
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Multimodal bacteriochlorophyll theranostic agent.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
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The complimentary ability of different noninvasive imaging technologies with therapeutic modalities can be used in tandem providing high-resolution and highly sensitive imaging of events at the molecular and cellular level providing a means for image-guided therapy. There is increasing interest in using porphyrin-based photosensitizers as theranostics to take advantages of their near-infrared fluorescent properties for imaging and their strong singlet oxygen generation abilities for photodynamic therapy. Here we report a targeted multimodal bacteriochlorophyll theranostic probe. This probe consists of a bacteriochlorophyll derivative, a pharmacokinetics modification peptide linker and folate for targeted delivery to folate receptor expressing cancer cells. We demonstrate its multimodal theranostic capability, its folate receptor targeting ability and its utility for both NIR fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy purposes both in vitro and in vivo.
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Lysine Nzeta-decarboxylation switch and activation of the beta-lactam sensor domain of BlaR1 protein of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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The integral membrane protein BlaR1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus senses the presence of ?-lactam antibiotics in the milieu and transduces the information to the cytoplasm, where the biochemical events that unleash induction of antibiotic resistance mechanisms take place. We report herein by two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments of the sensor domain of BlaR1 in solution and by determination of an x-ray structure for the apo protein that Lys-392 of the antibiotic-binding site is posttranslationally modified by N(?)-carboxylation. Additional crystallographic and NMR data reveal that on acylation of Ser-389 by antibiotics, Lys-392 experiences N(?)-decarboxylation. This unique process, termed the lysine N(?)-decarboxylation switch, arrests the sensor domain in the activated ("on") state, necessary for signal transduction and all the subsequent biochemical processes. We present structural information on how this receptor activation process takes place, imparting longevity to the antibiotic-receptor complex that is needed for the induction of the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
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ABCB5 identifies a therapy-refractory tumor cell population in colorectal cancer patients.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Identification and reversal of treatment resistance mechanisms of clinically refractory tumor cells is critical for successful cancer therapy. Here we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5) identifies therapy-refractory tumor cells in colorectal cancer patients following fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation therapy and provide evidence for a functional role of ABCB5 in colorectal cancer 5-FU resistance. Examination of human colon and colorectal cancer specimens revealed ABCB5 to be expressed only on rare cells within healthy intestinal tissue, whereas clinical colorectal cancers exhibited substantially increased levels of ABCB5 expression. Analysis of successive, patient-matched biopsy specimens obtained prior to and following neoadjuvant 5-FU-based chemoradiation therapy in a series of colorectal cancer patients revealed markedly enhanced abundance of ABCB5-positive tumor cells when residual disease was detected. Consistent with this finding, the ABCB5-expressing tumor cell population was also treatment refractory and exhibited resistance to 5-FU-induced apoptosis in a colorectal cancer xenograft model of 5-FU monotherapy. Mechanistically, short hairpin RNA-mediated ABCB5 knockdown significantly inhibited tumorigenic xenograft growth and sensitized colorectal cancer cells to 5-FU-induced cell killing. Our results identify ABCB5 as a novel molecular marker of therapy-refractory tumor cells in colorectal cancer patients and point to a need for consistent eradication of ABCB5-positive resistant tumor cell populations for more effective colorectal cancer therapy.
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Photodynamic therapy of cancer: an update.
CA Cancer J Clin
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved, minimally invasive therapeutic procedure that can exert a selective cytotoxic activity toward malignant cells. The procedure involves administration of a photosensitizing agent followed by irradiation at a wavelength corresponding to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of oxygen, a series of events lead to direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature, and induction of a local inflammatory reaction. Clinical studies revealed that PDT can be curative, particularly in early stage tumors. It can prolong survival in patients with inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life. Minimal normal tissue toxicity, negligible systemic effects, greatly reduced long-term morbidity, lack of intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, and excellent cosmetic as well as organ function-sparing effects of this treatment make it a valuable therapeutic option for combination treatments. With a number of recent technological improvements, PDT has the potential to become integrated into the mainstream of cancer treatment.
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Imaging of specific activation of photodynamic molecular beacons in breast cancer vertebral metastases.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Approximately 85% of patients with advanced cases will develop spinal metastases. The vertebral column is the most common site of breast cancer metastases, where overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) promotes the spread of cancer. Current therapies have significant limitations due to the high associated risk of damaging the spinal cord. An attractive alternative is photodynamic therapy providing noninvasive and site-selective treatment. However, current photosensitizers are limited by their nonspecific accumulation. Photodynamic molecular beacons (PP(MMP)B), activated by MMPs, offer another level of PDT selectivity and image-guidance preserving criticial tissues, specifically the spinal cord. Metastatic human breast carcinoma cells, MT-1, were used to model the metastatic behavior of spinal lesions. In vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates MMP specific activation of PP(MMP)B in MT-1 cells. Using a clinically relevant metastatic model, fluorescent imaging establishes the specific activation of PP(MMP)B by vertebral metastases versus normal tissue (i.e., spinal cord) demonstrating the specificity of these beacons. Here, we validate that the metastasis-selective mechanism of PP(MMP)Bs can specifically image breast cancer vertebral metastases, thereby differentiating tumor and healthy tissue.
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Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells: Biology and Therapeutic Implications.
Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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The hypothesis that cancer is driven by a subpopulation of tumor-initiating or cancer stem cells (CSC), defined by their selective ability for extensive self-renewal and capacity to give rise to nontumorigenic cancer cell progeny through differentiation, has been validated experimentally in diverse human malignancies. Translational relevance of the CSC hypothesis is underlined by emerging novel strategies designed to target all subpopulations within a given tumor in order to effect cancer eradication and improve patient outcomes. Colorectal cancer stem cells (CRSCs) have been identified and successfully isolated by several research groups based on distinct cell-surface marker characteristics. Identification of CRSC populations has led to a wave of discoveries describing novel self-renewal and drug resistance mechanisms in colorectal cancer that represent novel future therapeutic targets. In this review, we will discuss emerging CRSC-specific pathways and the therapeutic promise of targeting this cancer population in colorectal cancer patients.
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Genomic convergence among ERR?, PROX1, and BMAL1 in the control of metabolic clock outputs.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Metabolic homeostasis and circadian rhythms are closely intertwined biological processes. Nuclear receptors, as sensors of hormonal and nutrient status, are actively implicated in maintaining this physiological relationship. Although the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor ? (ERR?, NR3B1) plays a central role in the control of energy metabolism and its expression is known to be cyclic in the liver, its role in temporal control of metabolic networks is unknown. Here we report that ERR? directly regulates all major components of the molecular clock. ERR?-null mice also display deregulated locomotor activity rhythms and circadian period lengths under free-running conditions, as well as altered circulating diurnal bile acid and lipid profiles. In addition, the ERR?-null mice exhibit time-dependent hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, suggesting a role for ERR? in modulating insulin sensitivity and glucose handling during the 24-hour light/dark cycle. We also provide evidence that the newly identified ERR? corepressor PROX1 is implicated in rhythmic control of metabolic outputs. To help uncover the molecular basis of these phenotypes, we performed genome-wide location analyses of binding events by ERR?, PROX1, and BMAL1, an integral component of the molecular clock. These studies revealed the existence of transcriptional regulatory loops among ERR?, PROX1, and BMAL1, as well as extensive overlaps in their target genes, implicating these three factors in the control of clock and metabolic gene networks in the liver. Genomic convergence of ERR?, PROX1, and BMAL1 transcriptional activity thus identified a novel node in the molecular circuitry controlling the daily timing of metabolic processes.
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Quantitative and qualitative 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in skull base meningiomas.
Neurosurg Focus
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Complete resection of skull base meningiomas provides patients with the best chance for a cure; however, surgery is frequently difficult given the proximity of lesions to vital structures, such as cranial nerves, major vessels, and venous sinuses. Accurate discrimination between tumor and normal tissue is crucial for optimal tumor resection. Qualitative assessment of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence following the exogenous administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has demonstrated utility in malignant glioma resection but limited use in meningiomas. Here the authors demonstrate the use of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence guidance in resecting a skull base meningioma and elaborate on the advantages and disadvantages provided by both quantitative and qualitative fluorescence methodologies in skull base meningioma resection.
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Virus-tumor interactome screen reveals ER stress response can reprogram resistant cancers for oncolytic virus-triggered caspase-2 cell death.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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To identify therapeutic opportunities for oncolytic viral therapy, we conducted genome-wide RNAi screens to search for host factors that modulate rhabdoviral oncolysis. Our screens uncovered the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response pathways as important modulators of rhabdovirus-mediated cytotoxicity. Further investigation revealed an unconventional mechanism whereby ER stress response inhibition preconditioned cancer cells, which sensitized them to caspase-2-dependent apoptosis induced by a subsequent rhabdovirus infection. Importantly, this mechanism was tumor cell specific, selectively increasing potency of the oncolytic virus by up to 10,000-fold. In vivo studies using a small molecule inhibitor of IRE1? showed dramatically improved oncolytic efficacy in resistant tumor models. Our study demonstrates proof of concept for using functional genomics to improve biotherapeutic agents for cancer.
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Quantitative fluorescence in intracranial tumor: implications for ALA-induced PpIX as an intraoperative biomarker.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Accurate discrimination between tumor and normal tissue is crucial for optimal tumor resection. Qualitative fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), synthesized endogenously following ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration, has been used for this purpose in high-grade glioma (HGG). The authors show that diagnostically significant but visually imperceptible concentrations of PpIX can be quantitatively measured in vivo and used to discriminate normal from neoplastic brain tissue across a range of tumor histologies.
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Hypercalcemia: an unusual etiology of a common menopausal symptom.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2011
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To describe atypical vasomotor symptoms that were secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism.
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At the frontiers of surgery: review.
Head Neck Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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The complete surgical removal of disease is a desirable outcome particularly in oncology. Unfortunately much disease is microscopic and difficult to detect causing a liability to recurrence and worsened overall prognosis with attendant costs in terms of morbidity and mortality. It is hoped that by advances in optical diagnostic technology we could better define our surgical margin and so increase the rate of truly negative margins on the one hand and on the other hand to take out only the necessary amount of tissue and leave more unaffected non-diseased areas so preserving function of vital structures. The task has not been easy but progress is being made as exemplified by the presentations at the 2nd Scientific Meeting of the Head and Neck Optical Diagnostics Society (HNODS) in San Francisco in January 2010. We review the salient advances in the field and propose further directions of investigation.
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Homogenized tissue phantoms for quantitative evaluation of subsurface fluorescence contrast.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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The use of phantoms comprising diluted tissue homogenates with a buried capillary containing quantum dots is demonstrated as a method to investigate the optical and biophysical factors influencing the imaging of subsurface fluorescence contrast agents. Validation of the method is demonstrated using both liquid phantoms of known optical absorption and reduced scattering and Monte Carlo computer simulations of photon transport. Conclusions regarding the optimal excitation wavelength are given and quantified with respect to the tissue optical properties. The tissue homogenate method should be of value for quantitative optimization studies relevant to, for example, endoscopic imaging.
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Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase is a radiosensitizing target for head and neck cancer.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the eighth most common malignancy worldwide, comprising a diverse group of cancers affecting the head and neck region. Despite advances in therapeutic options over the last few decades, treatment toxicities and overall clinical outcomes have remained disappointing, thereby underscoring a need to develop novel therapeutic approaches in HNC treatment. Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD), a key regulator of heme biosynthesis, was identified from an RNA interference-based high-throughput screen as a tumor-selective radiosensitizing target for HNC. UROD knockdown plus radiation induced caspase-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HNC cells in vitro and suppressed the in vivo tumor-forming capacity of HNC cells, as well as delayed the growth of established tumor xenografts in mice. This radiosensitization appeared to be mediated by alterations in iron homeostasis and increased production of reactive oxygen species, resulting in enhanced tumor oxidative stress. Moreover, UROD was significantly overexpressed in HNC patient biopsies. Lower preradiation UROD mRNA expression correlated with improved disease-free survival, suggesting that UROD could potentially be used to predict radiation response. UROD down-regulation also radiosensitized several different models of human cancer, as well as sensitized tumors to chemotherapeutic agents, including 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and paclitaxel. Thus, our study has revealed UROD as a potent tumor-selective sensitizer for both radiation and chemotherapy, with potential relevance to many human malignancies.
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VEGFR-1 expressed by malignant melanoma-initiating cells is required for tumor growth.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Melanoma growth is driven by malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) identified by expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) member ABCB5. ABCB5(+) melanoma subpopulations have been shown to overexpress the vasculogenic differentiation markers CD144 (VE-cadherin) and TIE1 and are associated with CD31(-) vasculogenic mimicry (VM), an established biomarker associated with increased patient mortality. Here we identify a critical role for VEGFR-1 signaling in ABCB5(+) MMIC-dependent VM and tumor growth. Global gene expression analyses, validated by mRNA and protein determinations, revealed preferential expression of VEGFR-1 on ABCB5(+) tumor cells purified from clinical melanomas and established melanoma lines. In vitro, VEGF induced the expression of CD144 in ABCB5(+) subpopulations that constitutively expressed VEGFR-1 but not in ABCB5(-) bulk populations that were predominantly VEGFR-1(-). In vivo, melanoma-specific shRNA-mediated knockdown of VEGFR-1 blocked the development of ABCB5(+) VM morphology and inhibited ABCB5(+) VM-associated production of the secreted melanoma mitogen laminin. Moreover, melanoma-specific VEGFR-1 knockdown markedly inhibited tumor growth (by > 90%). Our results show that VEGFR-1 function in MMIC regulates VM and associated laminin production and show that this function represents one mechanism through which MMICs promote tumor growth.
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The influence of oxygen depletion and photosensitizer triplet-state dynamics during photodynamic therapy on accurate singlet oxygen luminescence monitoring and analysis of treatment dose response.
Photochem. Photobiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2010
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To date, singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) luminescence (SOL) detection was predictive of photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment responses both in vitro and in vivo, but accurate quantification is challenging. In particular, the early and strongest part of the time-resolved signal (500-2000ns) is difficult to separate from confounding sources of luminescence and system noise, and so is normally gated out. However, the signal dynamics change with oxygen depletion during PDT, so that this time gating biases the (1)O(2) measurements. Here, the impact of gating was investigated in detail, determining the rate constants from SOL and direct pO(2) measurements during meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC)-mediated PDT of cells in vitro under well-controlled conditions. With these data as input, numerical simulations were used to examine PDT and SOL dynamics, and the influence of various time gates on cumulative SOL signals. It is shown that gating can underestimate the SOL at early treatment time points by ?40% and underestimate the cumulative SOL signal by 20-25%, representing significant errors. In vitro studies with both mTHPC and aminolevulinic acid-photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX demonstrate that rigorous analysis of SOL signal kinetics is then crucial in order to use SOL as an accurate and quantitative PDT dose metric.
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Facile synthesis of Raman active phospholipid gold nanoparticles.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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Gold nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes have shown promise for disease detection and diagnosis. To improve their structural and functional stability for in vivo applications, we synthesized a colloidal SERS gold nanoparticle that encapsulates Raman molecules adsorbed on 60 nm gold with a nonthiol phospholipid coating. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman and UV spectroscopy validated its reproducibility and stability. This novel lipid-based SERS probe provides a viable alternative to the PEGylation and silica coating strategies.
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Isolation of tumorigenic circulating melanoma cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been identified in several human malignancies, including malignant melanoma. However, whether melanoma CTC are tumorigenic and cause metastatic progression is currently unknown. Here, we isolate for the first time viable tumorigenic melanoma CTC and demonstrate that this cell population is capable of metastasis formation in human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments. The presence of CTC among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of murine recipients of subcutaneous (s.c.) human melanoma xenografts could be detected based on mRNA expression for human GAPDH and/or ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5), a marker of malignant melanoma-initiating cells previously shown to be associated with metastatic disease progression in human patients. ABCB5 expression could also be detected in PBMC preparations from human stage IV melanoma patients but not healthy controls. The detection of melanoma CTC in human-to-mouse s.c. tumor xenotransplantation models correlated significantly with pulmonary metastasis formation. Moreover, prospectively isolated CTC from murine recipients of s.c. melanoma xenografts were capable of primary tumor initiation and caused metastasis formation upon xenotransplantation to secondary murine NOD-scid IL2R?(null) recipients. Our results provide initial evidence that melanoma CTC are tumorigenic and demonstrate that CTC are capable of causing metastatic tumor progression. These findings suggest a need for CTC eradication to inhibit metastatic progression and provide a rationale for assessment of therapeutic responses of this tumorigenic cell population to promising emerging melanoma treatment modalities.
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Synthesis and characterization of highly photoresponsive fullerenyl dyads with a close chromophore antenna-C(60) contact and effective photodynamic potential.
J Mater Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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We report the synthesis of a new class of photoresponsive C(60)-DCE-diphenylaminofluorene nanostructures and their intramolecular photoinduced energy and electron transfer phenomena. Structural modification was made by chemical conversion of the keto group in C(60)(>DPAF-C(n)) to a stronger electron-withdrawing 1,1-dicyanoethylenyl (DCE) unit leading to C(60)(>CPAF-C(n)) with an increased electronic polarization of the molecule. The modification also led to a large bathochromic shift of the major band in visible spectrum giving measureable absorption up to 600 nm and extended the photoresponsive capability of C(60)-DCE-DPAF nanostructures to longer red wavelengths than C(60)(>DPAF-C(n)). Accordingly, C(60)(>CPAF-C(n)) may allow 2?-PDT using a light wavelength of 1000-1200 nm for enhanced tissue penetration depth. Production efficiency of singlet oxygen by closely related C(60)(>DPAF-C(2) (M)) was found to be comparable with that of tetraphenylporphyrin photosensitizer. Remarkably, the (1)O(2) quantum yield of C(60)(>CPAF-C(2) (M)) was found to be nearly 6-fold higher than that of C(60)(>DPAF-C(2) (M)), demonstrating the large light-harvesting enhancement of the CPAF-C(2) (M) moiety and leading to more efficient triplet state generation of the C(60)> cage moiety. This led to highly effective killing of HeLa cells by C(60)(>CPAF-C(2) (M)) via photodynamic therapy (200 J cm(-2) white light). We interpret the phenomena in terms of the contributions by the extended ?-conjugation and stronger electron-withdrawing capability associated with the 1,1-dicyanoethylenyl group compared to that of the keto group.
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Isolation and functional use of human NKT cells.
Curr Protoc Immunol
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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This unit details methods for the isolation, in vitro expansion, and functional characterization of human iNKT cells. The term iNKT derives from the fact that a large fraction of murine NKT cells recognize the MHC class I-like CD1d protein, are CD4+ or CD4-CD8- (double negative), and use an identical "invariant" TCRalpha chain, which is generated by precise Valpha14 and Jalpha281 (now renamed Jalpha18) rearrangements with either no N-region diversity or subsequent trimming to nearly identical amino-acid sequence (hence, iNKT). Basic Protocol 1 and Alternate Protocol 1 use multi-color FACS analysis to identify and quantitate rare iNKT cells from human samples. Basic Protocol 2 describes iNKT cell purification. Alternate Protocol 2 describes a method for high-speed FACS sorting of iNKT cells. Alternate Protocol 3 employs a cell sorting approach to isolate iNKT cell clones. A Support Protocol for secondary stimulation and rapid expansion of iNKT cells is also included. Basic Protocol 3 explains functional analysis of iNKT.
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Differences among heat-treated, raw, and commercial peanut extracts by skin testing and immunoblotting.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Peanut allergenicity has been reported to be influenced by heat treatment, yet the commonly available extracts for skin prick testing (SPT) are derived from raw extracts.
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Inter-related in vitro effects of androgens, fatty acids and oxidative stress in prostate cancer: a mechanistic model supporting prevention strategies.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids (FA) results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which have been postulated to play a key role in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer (PC). We previously reported that androgens increase FA uptake into PC cells. We thus examined if androgens that are known to induce ROS generation regulate FA oxidation in PC cells. The effects of the androgen-depleted medium, R1881 (synthetic androgen) and/or androgen receptor blocker, bicalutamide were examined in the human androgen-responsive but not dependent 22rv1 cells. R1881 supplementation significantly increased mitochondrial FA oxidation ((14)C-radiolabeled FA degradation studies), resulting in increased ROS production. Androgens increased the mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1), the rate limiting enzyme in the process of mitochondrial FA oxidation. Treatment with R1881 and bicalutamide inhibited these androgen regulated effects. Inhibition of mitochondrial ROS generation by two different inhibitors, rotenone and thenoyltrifluoroacetone, eliminated the androgen-induced ROS generation, to the same level as in cells deprived of androgens or treated with R1881 and bicalutamide. Taken together, androgens increase the mitochondrial oxidation of FA, leading to increased production of ROS that is associated with prostate cell proliferation and mutagenesis. These results therefore support the rationale for PC prevention using 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, dietary restrictions or anti-oxidants, each of which has different inhibitory but complementary effects.
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Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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Myocardial infarction leads to structural remodeling of the myocardium, in particular to the loss of cardiomyocytes due to necrosis and an increase in collagen with scar formation. Stem cell regenerative treatments have been shown to alter this remodeling process, resulting in improved cardiac function. As healthy myocardial tissue is highly fibrous and anisotropic, it exhibits optical linear birefringence due to the different refractive indices parallel and perpendicular to the fibers. Accordingly, changes in myocardial structure associated with infarction and treatment-induced remodeling will alter the anisotropy exhibited by the tissue. Polarization-based linear birefringence is measured on the myocardium of adult rat hearts after myocardial infarction and compared with hearts that had received mesenchymal stem cell treatment. Both point measurement and imaging data show a decrease in birefringence in the region of infarction, with a partial rebound back toward the healthy values following regenerative treatment with stem cells. These results demonstrate the ability of optical polarimetry to characterize the micro-organizational state of the myocardium via its measured anisotropy, and the potential of this approach for monitoring regenerative treatments of myocardial infarction.
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Quantification of in vivo fluorescence decoupled from the effects of tissue optical properties using fiber-optic spectroscopy measurements.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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We present a method for tissue fluorescence quantification in situ using a handheld fiber optic probe that measures both the fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra. A simplified method to decouple the fluorescence spectrum from distorting effects of the tissue optical absorption and scattering is developed, with the objective of accurately quantifying the fluorescence in absolute units. The primary motivation is measurement of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX) concentration in tissue during fluorescence-guided resection of malignant brain tumors. This technique is validated in phantoms and ex vivo mouse tissues, and tested in vivo in a rabbit brain tumor model using ALA-PpIX fluorescence contrast.
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Topographic mapping of subsurface fluorescent structures in tissue using multiwavelength excitation.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Different colors of visible light penetrate to varying depths in tissue due to the wavelength dependence of tissue optical absorption and elastic scattering. We exploit this to map the contour of the closest surface of a buried fluorescent object. This uses a novel algorithm based on the diffusion theory description of light propagation in tissue at each excitation wavelength to derive metrics that define the depth of the top surface of the object. The algorithm was validated using a tissue-simulating phantom. It was then demonstrated in vivo by subsurface brain tumor topography in a rodent model, using the fluorescence signal from protoporphyrin IX that is preferentially synthesized within malignant cells following systemic application of aminolevulinic acid. Comparisons to histomorphometry in the brain post mortem show the spatial accuracy of the technique. This method has potential for fluorescence image-guided tumor surgery, as well as other biomedical and nonbiological applications in subsurface sensing.
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Oncolytic targeting of renal cell carcinoma via encephalomyocarditis virus.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Apoptosis is a fundamental host defence mechanism against invading microbes. Inactivation of NF-kappaB attenuates encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) virulence by triggering rapid apoptosis of infected cells, thereby pre-emptively limiting viral replication. Recent evidence has shown that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) increases NF-kappaB-mediated anti-apoptotic response in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) that commonly exhibit hyperactivation of HIF due to the loss of its principal negative regulator, von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor protein. Here, we show that EMCV challenge induces a strong NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression profile concomitant with a lack of interferon-mediated anti-viral response in VHL-null CCRCC, and that multiple established CCRCC cell lines, as well as early-passage primary CCRCC cultured cells, are acutely susceptible to EMCV replication and virulence. Functional restoration of VHL or molecular suppression of HIF or NF-kappaB dramatically reverses CCRCC cellular susceptibility to EMCV-induced killing. Notably, intratumoural EMCV treatment of CCRCC in a murine xenograft model rapidly regresses tumour growth. These findings provide compelling pre-clinical evidence for the usage of EMCV in the treatment of CCRCC and potentially other tumours with elevated HIF/NF-kappaB-survival signature.
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Use of nonobese diabetic mice to understand human type 1 diabetes.
Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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In 1922, Leonard Thompson received the first injections of insulin prepared from the pancreas of canine test subjects. From pancreatectomized dogs to the more recent development of animal models that spontaneously develop autoimmune syndromes, animal models have played a meaningful role in furthering diabetes research. Of these animals, the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is the most widely used for research in type 1 diabetes (T1D) because the NOD shares several genetic and immunologic traits with the human form of the disease. In this article, the authors discuss the similarities and differences in NOD and human T1D and the potential role of NOD mice in future preclinical studies, aiming to provide a better understanding of the genetic and immune defects that lead to T1D.
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Continuous docetaxel chemotherapy improves therapeutic efficacy in murine models of ovarian cancer.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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Ovarian cancer is known as the silent killer for being asymptomatic until late stages. Current first-line treatment consists of debulking surgery followed by i.v. chemotherapeutics administered intermittently, which leads to insufficient drug concentrations at tumor sites, accelerated tumor proliferation rates, and drug resistance, resulting in an overall median survival of only 2 to 4 years. For these reasons, more effective treatment strategies must be developed. We have investigated a localized, continuous chemotherapy approach in tumor models of human and murine ovarian cancers using the antineoplastic agent docetaxel. We show here that continuous docetaxel therapy is considerably more efficacious than intermittent therapy, resulting in a greater decrease in tumor burden and ascites fluid accumulation. Immunohistochemical analyses show that continuous chemotherapy abrogates tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis to the tumor microenvironment, leading to greater tumor cell death than intermittent docetaxel therapy. Overall, our results show greater therapeutic advantages of continuous over intermittent chemotherapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
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Facile synthesis of advanced photodynamic molecular beacon architectures.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Nucleic acid photodynamic molecular beacons (PMBs) are a class of activatable photosensitizers that increase singlet oxygen generation upon binding a specific target sequence. Normally, PMBs are functionalized with multiple solution-phase labeling and purification steps. Here, we make use of a flexible solid-phase approach for completely automated synthesis of PMBs. This enabled the creation of a new type of molecular beacon that uses a linear superquencher architecture. The 3 terminus was labeled with a photosensitizer by generating pyropheophorbide-labeled solid-phase support. The 5 terminus was labeled with up to three consecutive additions of a dark quencher phosphoramidite. These photosensitizing and quenching moieties were stable in the harsh DNA synthesis environment and their hydrophobicity facilitated PMB purification by HPLC. Linear superquenchers exhibited highly efficient quenching. This fully automated synthesis method simplifies not only the synthesis and purification of PMBs, but also the creation of new activatable photosensitizer designs.
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An acetylation switch modulates the transcriptional activity of estrogen-related receptor alpha.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Posttranslational modifications are instrumental to achieve gene- and tissue-specific regulatory outcomes by transcription factors. Nuclear receptors are dynamically modulated by several types of posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, methylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation. The estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha, NR3B1) is phosphorylated on multiple sites, and sumoylated in the amino-terminal region in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Here we demonstrate that ERRalpha interacts with and is acetylated by p300 coactivator associated factor (PCAF) in vitro and in mouse liver. Purified PCAF acetylated the DNA-binding domain of ERRalpha on four highly-conserved lysines. In addition, coexpression of PCAF reduced the transcriptional activity of ERRalpha and, reciprocally, a deacetylase screen identified histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) and sirtuin 1 homolog (Sirt1) as independent enhancers of ERRalpha transcriptional function. HDAC8 and Sirt1 were also demonstrated to interact directly with ERRalpha in vivo and to deacetylate and increase the DNA binding affinity of ERRalpha in vitro. The removal of PCAF increases the DNA binding of ERRalpha in vivo, whereas the removal of Sirt1 and HDAC8 decreases it as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Altogether, our results show that ERRalpha is an acetylated protein and imply the existence of a dynamic acetylation/deacetylation switch involved in the control of ERRalpha transcriptional activity.
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Invariant natural killer T cells: linking inflammation and neovascularization in human atherosclerosis.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory lipid storage disease of large arteries, is complicated by cardiovascular events usually precipitated by plaque rupture or erosion. Inflammation participates in lesion progression and plaque rupture. Identification of leukocyte populations involved in plaque destabilization is important for effective prevention of cardiovascular events. This study investigates CD1d-expressing cells and invariant NKT cells (iNKT) in human arterial tissue, their correlation with disease severity and symptoms, and potential mechanisms for their involvement in plaque formation and/or destabilization. CD1d-expressing cells were present in advanced plaques in patients who suffered from cardiovascular events in the past and were most abundant in plaques with ectopic neovascularization. Confocal microscopy detected iNKT cells in plaques, and plaque-derived iNKT cell lines promptly produced proinflammatory cytokines when stimulated by CD1d-expressing APC-presenting ?-galactosylceramide lipid antigen. Furthermore, iNKT cells were diminished in the circulating blood of patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis. Activated iNKT cell-derived culture supernatants showed angiogenic activity in a human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1-spheroid model of in vitro angiogenesis and strongly activated human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1 migration. This functional activity was ascribed to IL-8 released by iNKT cells upon lipid recognition. These findings introduce iNKT cells as novel cellular candidates promoting plaque neovascularization and destabilization in human atherosclerosis.
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Prostate tissue composition and MR measurements: investigating the relationships between ADC, T2, K(trans), v(e), and corresponding histologic features.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
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To investigate relationships between magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measurements and the underlying composition of normal and malignant prostate tissue.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.