JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluation of a 2-Channel Portable Device and a Predictive Model to Screen for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Laboratory Environment.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Various portable monitors for identifying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been investigated and reported to enable accurate recording of OSA severity. However, more information is needed from different populations. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a portable 2-channel sleep apnea device (SleepView) for screening OSA in the Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
Solving the Supply of Resveratrol Tetramers from Papua New Guinean Rainforest Anisoptera Species That Inhibit Bacterial Type III Secretion Systems.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The supply of (-)-hopeaphenol (1) was achieved via enzymatic biotransformation in order to provide material for preclinical investigation. High-throughput screening of a prefractionated natural product library aimed to identify compounds that inhibit the bacterial virulence type III secretion system (T3SS) identified several fractions derived from two Papua New Guinean Anisoptera species, showing activity against Yersinia pseudotuberculosis outer proteins E and H (YopE and YopH). Bioassay-directed isolation from the leaves of A. thurifera, and similarly A. polyandra, resulted in three known resveratrol tetramers, (-)-hopeaphenol (1), vatalbinoside A (2), and vaticanol B (3). Compounds 1-3 displayed IC50 values of 8.8, 12.5, and 9.9 ?M in a luminescent reporter-gene assay (YopE) and IC50 values of 2.9, 4.5, and 3.3 ?M in an enzyme-based YopH assay, respectively, which suggested that they could potentially act against the T3SS in Yersinia. The structures of 1-3 were confirmed through a combination of spectrometric, chemical methods, and single-crystal X-ray structure determinations of the natural product 1 and the permethyl ether analogue of 3. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the ?-glycoside 2 to the aglycone 1 was achieved through biotransformation using the endogenous leaf enzymes. This significantly enhanced the yield of the target bioactive natural product from 0.08% to 1.3% and facilitates ADMET studies of (-)-hopeaphenol (1).
Related JoVE Video
Injection seeded single-frequency pulsed Nd:YAG laser resonated by an intracavity phase modulator.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A reliable single frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is developed by using a lithium niobate crystal as the intracavity phase modulator. Successful injection seeding is performed by adopting an electro-optic crystal in an effectively simplified cavity arrangement. The laser is capable of producing 4.8 mJ pulse-energy at 400 Hz repetition rate with nearly Fourier-transform-limited spectral linewidth. The pulse duration is approximately 25 ns, and the beam quality factor M2 is less than 1.3.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery on Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Chinese Population with Obesity and T2DM.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bariatric surgery has been reported to be an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, this evidence was not enough for different populations. Thus, we conducted a follow-up study to evaluate the effect of bariatric surgery on OSA in a Chinese population with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Related JoVE Video
Mizoribine versus mycophenolate mofetil or intravenous cyclophosphamide for induction treatment of active lupus nephritis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most serious manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Although there have been substantial improvements in LN treatment over the last decade, the outcome remains unoptimistic in a considerable percentage of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mizoribine (MZR), a novel selective inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, as induction treatment for active LN in comparison with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and intravenous cyclophosphamide (CYC).
Related JoVE Video
Porous carbon nitride nanosheets for enhanced photocatalytic activities.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Porous carbon nitride nanosheets (PCNs) have been prepared for the first time by a simple liquid exfoliation method via probe sonication. These mesoporous nanosheets of around 5 nm in thickness combine several advantages including high surface area, enhanced light absorption and excellent water dispersity. It can be used as a versatile support for co-catalyst loading for photocatalytic dye degradation and water reduction. With 3.8 wt% Co3O4 loaded, PCNs can achieve more efficient photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B, compared with non-porous C3N4 nanosheets (CNs), bulk porous C3N4 (PCN) and bulk nonporous C3N4 (CN). With 1.0 wt% Pt loaded, CNs and PCN exhibit 7-8 times enhancement in H2 evolution than CN. Remarkably, PCNs with both porous and nanosheet-like features achieve 26 times higher activity in H2 evolution than CN. These significant improvements in photocatalytic activities can be attributed to the high surface area as well as better electron mobility of the two-dimensional nanostructure.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical management and perinatal outcome of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence in different stage].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To discuss the methods and outcomes of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence in different stage.
Related JoVE Video
Is low anticoagulation intensity more beneficial for patients with bileaflet mechanical mitral valves? a meta-analysis.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino)
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For the mitral valve replacement(MVR) patients using the lowest thrombogenic risk bileaflet valves (St. Jude Medical, Carbomedics and On-X Prosthetic Heart Valve), excellent results can be achieved by adopting the anticoagulation intensity(median INR<2.5)which is lower than the recommended intensity(INR:2.5~3.5). Our aim was to provide a pooled estimate of potential benefit from clinical studies using low anticoagulation intensity and high intensity in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Performances of a diode end-pumped GYSGG/Er,Pr:GYSGG composite laser crystal operated at 2.79 ?m.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate a comparative investigation on Er,Pr:GYSGG and GYSGG/Er,Pr:GYSGG composite crystals at 2.79 ?m. Simulating results show the highest temperatures are 369 K and 318 K, respectively. A maximum output power of 825 mW with slope efficiency of 19.2% and maximum laser energy of 3.65 mJ with slope efficiency of 22.7% are obtained in the GYSGG/Er,Pr:GYSGG composite crystal, which have an obvious improvement than those of Er,Pr:GYSGG crystal. The thermal focal lengths are respectively 41 and 62 mm when the pump power is 2.5 W. All these results indicate that the GYSGG/Er,Pr:GYSGG composite crystal has great advantages in reducing the influence of thermal effects and improving laser performances.
Related JoVE Video
Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenic analysis of Odontobutis yaluensis, Perciformes, Odontobutidae.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Odontobutis yaluensis was sequenced as to be 16,909?bp in length with (A?+?T) content of 55.73%, and it contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. The gene order and orientation are similar to some typical fish species. The data will provide the useful molecular information for phylogenetic relationships of O. yaluensis with Odontobutis potamophila first clustered into a small branch, and then with Odontobutis platycephala clade, and finally with Odontobutis sinensis clade. Odontobutidae and Rhyacichthyidae formed the sister group, and Eleotridae and Gobiidae formed the sister group.
Related JoVE Video
Does Water-jet Force Make a Difference in Fat Grafting: in Vitro and in Vivo Evidence of Improved Lipoaspirates Viability and Fat Grafts Survival.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent literatures reveal that water-jet assisted liposuction offers a new method to conventional liposuction techniques by using the gentle spray of fluid. However, there has not yet been a systematic, randomized, controlled study to demonstrate its effect on fresh lipoaspirates' vitality and postoperative fat survival. In this study, we compared the liposuction procedure with or without water-jet assistance respectively in a blinded way.
Related JoVE Video
Generalized dynamic scaling for quantum critical relaxation in imaginary time.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We study the imaginary-time relaxation critical dynamics of a quantum system with a vanishing initial correlation length and an arbitrary initial order parameter M_{0}. We find that in quantum critical dynamics, the behavior of M_{0} under scale transformations deviates from a simple power law, which was proposed for very small M_{0} previously. A universal characteristic function is then suggested to describe the rescaled initial magnetization, similar to classical critical dynamics. This characteristic function is shown to be able to describe the quantum critical dynamics in both short- and long-time stages of the evolution. The one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model is employed to numerically determine the specific form of the characteristic function. We demonstrate that it is applicable as long as the system is in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. The universality of the characteristic function is confirmed by numerical simulations of models belonging to the same universality class.
Related JoVE Video
Pedunculated cavernous hemangioma originating in the olfactory cleft.
Ear Nose Throat J
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sinonasal cavernous hemangioma is a rare condition that usually affects the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. We report the case of a 77-year-old man who presented with severe epistaxis, nasal congestion, and olfactory dysfunction. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity revealed the presence of a red-blue tumor that had almost completely filled the nasopharynx. Preoperatively, it was difficult to distinguish this lesion from a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. During endoscopic surgery, the tumor was found to originate in the left olfactory cleft, and it had a long peduncle that contained blood vessels. Postoperative histopathologic examination indicated that the mass was a cavernous hemangioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of an olfactory cleft cavernous hemangioma and the first case of olfactory cleft disease associated with a cavernous hemangioma to be reported in the English-language literature.
Related JoVE Video
NiCl2-Down-Regulated Antioxidant Enzyme mRNA Expression Causes Oxidative Damage in the Broiler(')s Kidney.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The kidney serves as a major organ of nickel (Ni) excretion and is a target organ for acute Ni toxicity due to Ni accumulation. There are no studies on the Ni or Ni compound-regulated antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression in animals and human beings at present. This study was conducted to investigate the pathway of nickel chloride (NiCl2)-caused renal oxidative damage by the methods of biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hundred and eighty one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Dietary NiCl2 elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) contents, and reduced the ability to inhibit hydroxy radical in the NiCl2-treated groups. Also, the renal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and mRNA expression levels were increased. The total antioxidant (T-AOC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes including copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were decreased, and the glutathione (GSH) contents as well were decreased in the kidney. Concurrently, the renal CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST, and GR mRNA expression levels were decreased. The above-mentioned results showed that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused renal oxidative damage by reducing mRNA expression levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, and then enhancing free radicals generation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA oxidation.
Related JoVE Video
The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cichlid fishes are famous for large, diverse and replicated adaptive radiations in the Great Lakes of East Africa. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cichlid phenotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five lineages of African cichlids: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), an ancestral lineage with low diversity; and four members of the East African lineage: Neolamprologus brichardi/pulcher (older radiation, Lake Tanganyika), Metriaclima zebra (recent radiation, Lake Malawi), Pundamilia nyererei (very recent radiation, Lake Victoria), and Astatotilapia burtoni (riverine species around Lake Tanganyika). We found an excess of gene duplications in the East African lineage compared to tilapia and other teleosts, an abundance of non-coding element divergence, accelerated coding sequence evolution, expression divergence associated with transposable element insertions, and regulation by novel microRNAs. In addition, we analysed sequence data from sixty individuals representing six closely related species from Lake Victoria, and show genome-wide diversifying selection on coding and regulatory variants, some of which were recruited from ancient polymorphisms. We conclude that a number of molecular mechanisms shaped East African cichlid genomes, and that amassing of standing variation during periods of relaxed purifying selection may have been important in facilitating subsequent evolutionary diversification.
Related JoVE Video
Plasmonic imaging of electrochemical oxidation of single nanoparticles.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Measuring electrochemical activities of nanomaterials is critical for creating novel catalysts, for developing ultrasensitive sensors, and for understanding fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. However, traditional electrochemical methods measure a large number of nanoparticles, which wash out the properties of individual nanoparticles. We report here a study of transient electrochemical oxidation of single Ag nanoparticles during collision with an electrode and voltammetry of single nanoparticles immobilized on the electrode using a plasmonic-based electrochemical current microscopy. This technique images both electrochemical reaction and size of the same individual nanoparticle, enabling quantitative examination of size-dependent electrochemical activities at single nanoparticle level. The imaging capability further allows detection of the reaction kinetics of each individual nanoparticle and analysis of the average behaviors of multiple nanoparticles. The average kinetics and size dependence can be accurately described by the Tafel equation, but there is a large variability between different nanoparticles, which underscores the importance of single nanoparticle analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Low prevalence of human papillomavirus in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese patients.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection status in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry and GenoArray HPV genotyping assays were used to evaluate the HPV infection status of 256 Chinese patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Long-term survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Immunostaining for p16 was prevalent in 6.6% (17/256) of patients, whereas HPV infection was detected in 9 of 256 (3.5%) patients using the HPV genotyping test. None of the p16-negative subjects were found to have HPV infection according to the HPV genotyping test. P16 positivity was more common among nonsmokers than smokers (16.3% vs. 4.7%, respectively; P?=?0.02). Among nine HPV-positive cases, seven were infected with HPV-16, one with HPV-33, and one with both HPV-16 and HPV-11. The 3-year overall survival rate was 87.5% for p16-positive/HPV-positive patients, 75.0% for p16-positive/HPV-negative patients, and 76.9% for p16-negative/HPV-negative patients (P?=?0.30). A very low rate of HPV infection was found among the study patients. HPV infection status may not be a useful prognostic marker for head and neck cancer patients. J. Med. Virol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptotic Protein (XIAP) reduces age-related neuronal degeneration in the mouse cochlea.
Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previously, we showed that age-related hearing loss (AHL) was delayed in C57BL6 mice overexpressing X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptotic Protein (XIAP), and the delayed AHL was associated with attenuated hair cell (HC) loss in XIAP-overexpressing mice. Similar to other reports, the HC loss in aged mice was restricted to the basal turn in this previous study, and occurred slightly at the apical end of the cochlea, showing considerably less spread than the frequency region of hearing loss. In the present study, we examined whether and how AHL is related to the degeneration of neuronal innervation of the cochlea and whether the overexpression of XIAP exerts a protective effect against age-related degeneration in both afferent and efferent cochlear neurites. In contrast to HC loss, degeneration of both afferent and efferent neurites spread to the middle turns of the cochlea. Moreover, XIAP-overexpressing mice lost fewer HC afferent dendrites and efferent axons, as well as fewer spiral ganglion neurons between 3 and?14 months of age in comparison with wild-type littermates. The results suggest that age-related degeneration of cochlear neurites may be independent of HC loss. Further, the inhibition of apoptosis by XIAP appears to reduce degeneration of both afferent and efferent cochlear neurites.
Related JoVE Video
[Complementary self-treatment for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the value of self-treatment for Posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (PC-BPPV). The treatment effect was compared between patients treated with modified Epley in outpatient clinic combined with self treatment at home and patients treated by modified Epley alone.
Related JoVE Video
A multi-modal face recognition method using complete local derivative patterns and depth maps.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, we propose a multi-modal 2D + 3D face recognition method for a smart city application based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and various kinds of sensors. Depth maps are exploited for the 3D face representation. As for feature extraction, we propose a new feature called Complete Local Derivative Pattern (CLDP). It adopts the idea of layering and has four layers. In the whole system, we apply CLDP separately on Gabor features extracted from a 2D image and depth map. Then, we obtain two features: CLDP-Gabor and CLDP-Depth. The two features weighted by the corresponding coefficients are combined together in the decision level to compute the total classification distance. At last, the probe face is assigned the identity with the smallest classification distance. Extensive experiments are conducted on three different databases. The results demonstrate the robustness and superiority of the new approach. The experimental results also prove that the proposed multi-modal 2D + 3D method is superior to other multi-modal ones and CLDP performs better than other Local Binary Pattern (LBP) based features.
Related JoVE Video
Prostaglandin Derivatives: Nonaromatic Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ten new prostaglandin derivatives (PGs), sarcoehrendins A-J (1-10), together with five known analogues (11-15) were isolated from the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi. Compounds 4-8 represented the first examples of PGs featuring an 18-ketone group. The structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. All of the isolates and six synthetic analogues (3a, 3b, 4a, and 11a-11c) were screened for inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), which is a drug target for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compounds 2, 10, 11a, 11b, and 13-15 exhibited inhibition with IC50 values less than 10 ?M, and compound 15 (IC50 = 1.4 ?M) showed comparable activity to the positive control rolipram (IC50 = 0.60 ?M). The active natural PGs (2, 10, and 13-15) represent the first examples of PDE4 inhibitors without an aromatic moiety, and a preliminary structure-activity relationship is also proposed.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical analysis of 29 cases of cervical necrotizing fasciitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the experience of clinical features and treatment of deep cervical necrotizing fasciitis.
Related JoVE Video
Nocturnal snoring sound analysis in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in the Chinese Han population.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Loud snoring is one of the principle symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Snoring sound analysis is a potentially cost-effective, reliable alternative for the diagnosis of OSA. However, no investigation has determined the accuracy of snoring signal analysis for the diagnosis of OSA in the Chinese Han population. Therefore, we investigated whether whole-night snoring detection and analysis aids the diagnosis of OSA using a new snore analysis technique.
Related JoVE Video
Determination of the Absolute Configuration of Two Pairs of C-8?-?C-9' Linked Neolignan Enantiomers.
Chirality
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two pairs of new neolignan enantiomers, (±)-torreyayunan A (/) and (±)-torreyayunan B (/), featuring a rare C-8?-?C-9' linked skeleton, were isolated from leaves and twigs of Torreya yunnanensis. Their absolute configuration involving two chiral centers was determined by combined spectral and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation. This is the first report of the absolute configuration of this group of neolignans. Chirality 00:000-000, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Experimental and theoretical studies of H2O oxidation by neutral Ti2O4,5 clusters under visible light irradiation.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new photo excitation fast flow reactor system is constructed and used to investigate reactions of neutral TimOn clusters with H2O under visible (532 nm) light irradiation. Single photon ionization at 118 nm (10.5 eV) is used to detect neutral cluster distributions through time of flight mass spectrometry. TimOn clusters are generated through laser ablation of a titanium target in the presence of 4% O2/He carrier gas. Association products Ti2O4(H2O) and Ti2O5(H2O) are observed for reactions of H2O and TimOn clusters without irradiation. Under 532 nm visible light irradiation of the fast flow reactor, only the Ti2O5(H2O) feature disappears. This light activated reaction suggests that visible radiation can induce chemistry for Ti2O5(H2O), but not for Ti2O4(H2O). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT calculations are performed to explore the ground and first excited state potential energy surfaces (PES) for the reaction Ti2O5 + H2O ? Ti2O4 + H2O2. A high barrier (1.33 eV) and a thermodynamically unfavorable (1.14 eV) pathway are obtained on the ground state PES for the Ti2O5 + H2O reaction; the reaction is also thermodynamically unfavorable (1.54 eV) on the first singlet excited state PES. The reaction is proposed to occur on the ground state PES through a conical intersection ((S1/S0)CI), and to generate products Ti2O4 and H2O2 on the ground state PES. This mechanism is substantiated by a multi-reference ab initio calculation at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level. The S0-S1 vertical excitation energy of Ti2O4 (3.66 eV) is much higher than the 532 nm photon energy (2.33 eV), suggesting this visible light driven reaction is unfavorable for the Ti2O4 cluster. The TDDFT calculated optical absorption spectra of Ti2O4 and Ti2O5 further indicate that Ti2O5 like structures on a titanium oxide surface are the active catalytic sites for visible light photo-catalytic oxidation of water.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I allele polymorphisms in common marmosets.
Tissue Antigens
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Currently, little information is available for major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I that conditions the T-cell response of marmosets. In this study, 471 clones of MHC-I cDNA sequences were isolated from 12 marmosets. Twenty full-length sequences of class I G (Caja-G) alleles were obtained from these marmosets, 15 of them were novel. Among these 20 Caja-G alleles, 10 were found in individual animals while the rests were in two to four marmosets, but none was common to all animals. Ten marmosets possessed one to three Caja-G alleles, and two marmosets carried five or six alleles, which suggested that the Caja-G locus was duplicated in marmoset's genome. The high polymorphisms of Caja-G sequences provided important information helpful for understanding the cellular immune response in virus-infected marmosets.
Related JoVE Video
Specific deficiency of Plzf paralog, Zbtb20, in Sertoli cells does not affect spermatogenesis and fertility in mice.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ztbt20 is a POK family transcription factor and primarily functions through its conserved C2H2 Krüppel type zinc finger and BTB/POZ domains. The present study was designed to define the function of the Zbtb20, in vivo, during mouse spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that ZBTB20 protein was localized specifically in the nuclei of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. To investigate its role during spermatogenesis, we crossed Amh-Cre transgenic mice with Zbtb20 floxp mice to generate conditionally knockout mice (cKO) in which Zbtb20 was specifically deleted in Sertoli cells. The cKO mice were fertile and did not show any detectable abnormalities in spermatogenesis. Taken together, though specific deletion of transcription factor Zbtb20 in Sertoli cells has no apparent influence on spermatogenesis, its specific localization in Sertoli cells makes Zbtb20 a useful marker for the identification of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative study of the efficacy of the canalith repositioning procedure versus the vertigo treatment and rehabilitation chair.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vertigo treatment and rehabilitation chair (TRV) may be suggested as the first choice for patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (p-BPPV).
Related JoVE Video
Biomarker responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to soils contaminated with di-n-butyl phthalates.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the impact of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to DBP for 28 days. DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. We found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly inhibited in the 100 mg kg(-1) treatment group on day 28. After 21 days of treatment, GST activity in 10-50 mg kg(-1) treatment groups was markedly stimulated compared to the control group. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cells. GSH content increased in the treatment group that received 50 mg kg(-1) DBP from 7 days of exposure to 28 days. These results suggest that DBP induces serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. However, DBP concentration in current agricultural soil in China will not constitute any threat to the earthworm or other animals in the soil.
Related JoVE Video
The negative interplay between Aurora A/B and BRCA1/2 controls cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis via distinct regulation of cell cycle progression, cytokinesis, and tetraploidy.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is well known that the activation of Aurora A/B (Aur A/B) or inactivation of BRCA1/2 induces tumor formation. Others and we have reported that the mutual suppression between Aur A/B and BRCA1/2 may manipulate cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis, however, the interactive regulation and mechanism between these molecules are still elusive. In this study, by consecutive silencing of Aur A/B or/and BRCA1/2 with specific shRNAs, we showed that, in BRCA2-deficient pancreatic cancer cell line Capan-1 and in ovarian cancer cell line OVCA433, Aur A/B and BRCA1/2 inversely regulated the expression of each other likely through proteasome-mediated proteolysis but not through gene transcription. Aur A/B and BRCA1/2 conversely regulated cell cycle progression mainly through control of p53 and cyclin A. Moreover, the disruption of Aur A/B blocked abnormal cytokinesis and decreased cell multinuclearity and chromosome tetraploidy, whereas the deprivation of BRCA1/2 promoted the abnormal cytokinesis and enhanced the cell multinuclearity and tetraploidy. Furthermore, we showed by animal assays that the depletion of Aur A/B inhibited tumor growth of both cell lines, while the knockdown of BRCA1/2 promoted the tumor growth. However, the concurrent silencing of Aur A/B and BRCA1/2 diminished the effects of these molecules on the regulation of cell cycle, cytokinesis, and tetraploidy, leading to the burdened tumor sizes similar to those induced by scrambled shRNA-treated control cells. In summary, our study revealed that the negative interplay between Aur A/B and BRCA1/2 inversely controls the cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell multinuclearity, and tetraploidization to modulate tumorigenesis.
Related JoVE Video
The behavior of residual tumors and facial nerve outcomes after incomplete excision of vestibular schwannomas.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The authors evaluated the behavior of residual tumors and facial nerve outcomes after incomplete excision of vestibular schwannomas (VSs).
Related JoVE Video
Biochemical changes and oxidative stress induced by zearalenone in the liver of pregnant rats.
Hum Exp Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present research was to examine the toxic influence of different doses of zearalenone (ZEN) on the liver, especially oxidative stress induced by ZEN on the liver. A total of 48 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 treatments groups with 12 animals in each. The rats were fed with a normal diet treated with 0 mg/kg (control), 50 mg/kg (treatment 1), 100 mg/kg (treatment 2), or 150 mg/kg (treatment 3) ZEN in feed on gestation days (GDs) 0-7 and then all the rats were fed with a normal diet on GDs 8-20. The experimental period lasted 21 days. The results showed that exposure to ZEN induced increase in aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and decrease in total protein and albumin content in a dose-dependent manner and also induce decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and increase in malondialdehyde content in a dose-dependent manner in the serum and the liver. The increased transcription of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was detected in the liver after exposure to ZEN. These results suggested that ZEN not only caused damage in the liver of pregnant rats in a dose-dependent manner but also induced the messenger RNA expression of CYP2E1 in the liver.
Related JoVE Video
Blood-testis barrier and spermatogenesis: lessons from genetically-modified mice.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is found between adjacent Sertoli cells in the testis where it creates a unique microenvironment for the development and maturation of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in seminiferous tubes. It is a compound proteinous structure, composed of several types of cell junctions including tight junctions (TJs), adhesion junctions and gap junctions (GJs). Some of the junctional proteins function as structural proteins of BTB and some have regulatory roles. The deletion or functional silencing of genes encoding these proteins may disrupt the BTB, which may cause immunological or other damages to meiotic and postmeiotic cells and ultimately lead to spermatogenic arrest and infertility. In this review, we will summarize the findings on the BTB structure and function from genetically-modified mouse models and discuss the future perspectives.
Related JoVE Video
Determination of the absolute stereochemistry of two new aristophyllene sesquiterpenes: a combined theoretical and experimental investigation.
Chirality
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aristoyunnolins G (1) and H (2), two new diastereoisomeric sesquiterpenes featuring a rare aristophyllene skeleton, were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Aristolochia yunnanensis. Their absolute stereochemistry involving three chiral centers was determined by combined chemical, spectral, and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation methods.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on lipid profile in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is an independent risk factor for development of dyslipidemia. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line treatment for OSAS. However, it is unclear whether CPAP improves lipid metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of hearing results of malleovestibulopexy and total ossicular replacement prosthesis for chronic otitis media patients with a mobile stapes footplate.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to assess differences in hearing outcomes using the malleostapedotomy or malleovestibulopexy (MVP) and total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) techniques in chronic otitis media patients with a mobile stapes footplate.
Related JoVE Video
Unusual compression behavior of nanocrystalline CeO?.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The x-ray diffraction study of 12?nm CeO2 was carried out up to ~40?GPa using an angle dispersive synchrotron-radiation in a diamond-anvil cell with different pressure transmitting medium (PTM) (4:1 methanol: ethanol mixture, silicone oil and none) at room temperature. While the cubic fluorite-type structure CeO2 was retained to the highest pressure, there is progressive broadening and intensity reduction of the reflections with increasing pressure. At pressures above 12?GPa, an unusual change in the compression curve was detected in all experiments. Significantly, apparent negative volume compressibility was observed at P = 18-27?GPa with silicone oil as PTM, however it was not detected in other circumstances. The expansion of the unit cell volume of cubic CeO2 was about 1% at pressures of 15-27?GPa. To explain this abnormal phenomenon, a dual structure model (hard amorphous shell and relatively soft crystalline core) has been proposed.
Related JoVE Video
Prenylated coumarins: natural phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors from Toddalia asiatica.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the roots of Toddalia asiatica led to the isolation of seven new prenylated coumarins (1-7) and 14 known analogues (8-21). The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by combined chemical methods and chiral separation analysis. Compounds 1-5, named toddalin A, 3?-O-demethyltoddalin A, and toddalins B-D, represent an unusual group of phenylpropenoic acid-coupled prenylated coumarins. Compounds 1-21 and four modified analogues, 10a, 11a, 13a, and 17a, were screened by using tritium-labeled adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate ([3H]-cAMP) as substrate for their inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), which is a drug target for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compounds 3, 8, 10, 10a, 11, 11a, 12, 13, 17, and 21 exhibited inhibition with IC50 values less than 10 ?M. Toddacoumalone (8), the most active compound (IC50=0.14 ?M), was more active than the positive control, rolipram (IC50=0.59 ?M). In addition, the structure-activity relationship and possible inhibitory mechanism of the active compounds are also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Comprehensive variation discovery in single human genomes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Complete knowledge of the genetic variation in individual human genomes is a crucial foundation for understanding the etiology of disease. Genetic variation is typically characterized by sequencing individual genomes and comparing reads to a reference. Existing methods do an excellent job of detecting variants in approximately 90% of the human genome; however, calling variants in the remaining 10% of the genome (largely low-complexity sequence and segmental duplications) is challenging. To improve variant calling, we developed a new algorithm, DISCOVAR, and examined its performance on improved, low-cost sequence data. Using a newly created reference set of variants from the finished sequence of 103 randomly chosen fosmids, we find that some standard variant call sets miss up to 25% of variants. We show that the combination of new methods and improved data increases sensitivity by several fold, with the greatest impact in challenging regions of the human genome.
Related JoVE Video
Natural phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitors from Crotalaria ferruginea.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the Chinese folk medicine Crotalaria ferruginea led to the isolation of a new isoflavonoid, 4'-hydroxy-2'-methylalpinum-isoflavone (1), and eight known analogs (2-9). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1, 2, 5, and 8 showed inhibitory activities against phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), a therapeutic target of asthma, with IC50 values ranging from 2.57 to 8.94 ?M. The possible action mechanism and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the active isoflavonoids were explored by using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods. Our study herein may explain the anti-inflammatory function of this plant in Chinese folk medicine.
Related JoVE Video
The polymorphism interleukin-8 -251A/T is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancers from a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emerging evidences show that interleukin-8 (IL-8) has important regulatory functions in tumorigenesis. IL-8 -251A/T is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-8 gene and affects IL-8 production. Analysis of previous studies on the association of -251A/T polymorphism with different cancer types remained to be illustrated. To further assess the effect of -251A/T polymorphism on cancer risks, we performed this meta-analysis, up to November 2013, of 12,917 cases with different cancer types and 17,689 controls from 47 published case-control designed studies. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 11.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. ORs with 95 % CIs for IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism and cancer were estimated using fixed- and random-effects models when appropriate. Significantly increased risks were found in overall under the models of A allele vs. T allele, AA vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT. Significantly elevated risks were observed in breast cancer under the models of A allele vs. T allele, AT vs. TT, AA/AT vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT, and in nasopharyngeal carcinoma under the models of AT vs. TT, AA/AT vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT. We found that significantly elevated risks were observed in the Asian population and hospital-based studies in all comparison models. Thus, this meta-analysis indicates that IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancers and may provide evidence-based medical certificate to study the cancer susceptibility.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by 6-[10'(Z)-heptadecenyl] salicylic acid from Syzygium tetragonum Wall via preventing nuclear translocation of NFATc1.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Syzygium tetragonum Wall is a Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, joint swelling and pain. By High Content Screening (HCS), 8 compounds (1-8) from Syzygium tetragonum Wall were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on the nuclear translocation of NFATc1 in EGFP-NFATc1 U2OS cells. Among them, 6-[10'(Z)-heptadecenyl] salicylic acid (8) exhibited a significant inhibitory activity. In RAW 264.7 cells, it could dose-dependently prevent nuclear NFATc1 translocation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL). The differentiation of osteoclasts from bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs) was significantly inhibited by 8 in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of TRAP, CtsK, and MMP9, key enzymes for the bone resorption secreted by osteoclasts, were also significantly down-regulated; and MMP9 activity was also obviously decreased. More importantly, the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts was dose-dependently suppressed by compound 8. Our results suggest that compound 8 can effectively inhibit osteoclastogenesis and bone erosion via preventing NFATc1 nuclear translocation and might be a promising drug candidate for relevant diseases.
Related JoVE Video
The origin of segmentation motor activity in the intestine.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The segmentation motor activity of the gut that facilitates absorption of nutrients was first described in the late 19th century, but the fundamental mechanisms underlying it remain poorly understood. The dominant theory suggests alternate excitation and inhibition from the enteric nervous system. Here we demonstrate that typical segmentation can occur after total nerve blockade. The segmentation motor pattern emerges when the amplitude of the dominant pacemaker, the slow wave generated by interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP), is modulated by the phase of induced lower frequency rhythmic transient depolarizations, generated by ICC associated with the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP), resulting in a waxing and waning of the amplitude of the slow wave and a rhythmic checkered pattern of segmentation motor activity. Phase-amplitude modulation of the slow waves points to an underlying system of coupled nonlinear oscillators originating in the networks of ICC.
Related JoVE Video
The role of the F-box gene TaFBA1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in drought tolerance.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Drought is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth and development. We identified a gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stress named TaFBA1. TaFBA1 encodes a putative 325-amino-acid F-box protein with a conserved N-terminal F-box domain and a C-terminal AMN1 domain. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that TaFBA1 transcript accumulation was upregulated by high-salinity, water stress, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. To evaluate the functions of TaFBA1 in the regulation of drought stress responses, we produced transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing TaFBA1. Under water stress conditions, the transgenic tobacco plants had a higher germination rate, higher relative water content, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), less chlorophyll loss, and less growth inhibition than WT. These results demonstrate the high tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought stress compared to the WT. The enhanced oxidative stress tolerance of these plants, which may be involved in their drought tolerance, was indicated by their lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, MDA content, and cell membrane damage under drought stress compared to WT. The antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the transgenic plants than in WT, which may be related to the upregulated expression of some antioxidant genes via overexpression of TaFBA1.
Related JoVE Video
Activation of invariant natural killer T cells impedes liver regeneration by way of both IFN-?- and IL-4-dependent mechanisms.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a major subset of lymphocytes found in the liver. These cells mediate various functions, including hepatic injury, fibrogenesis, and carcinogenesis. However, the function of iNKT cells in liver regeneration remains unclear. In the present study, partial hepatectomy (PHx) was used to study liver regeneration. ?-Galactosylceramide (?-GalCer), a specific ligand for iNKT cells, was used to induce iNKT cell activation. After PHx, two strains of iNKT cell-deficient mice, CD1d(-/-) and J?281(-/-) mice, showed normal liver regeneration. Injection of ?-GalCer before or after PHx, which rapidly stimulated interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin (IL)-4 production by iNKT cells, markedly inhibited liver regeneration. In vitro treatment with IFN-? inhibited hepatocyte proliferation. In agreement with this in vitro finding, genetic disruption of IFN-? or its downstream signaling molecule signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 significantly abolished the ?-GalCer-mediated inhibition of liver regeneration. In vitro exposure to IL-4 did not affect hepatocyte proliferation, but surprisingly, genetic ablation of IL-4 or its downstream signaling molecule STAT6 partially eliminated the inhibitory effect of ?-GalCer on liver regeneration. Further studies revealed that IL-4 contributed to ?-GalCer-induced iNKT cell expansion and IFN-? production, thereby inhibiting liver regeneration.
Related JoVE Video
Six new tetraprenylated alkaloids from the South China Sea gorgonian Echinogorgia pseudossapo.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Six new tetraprenylated alkaloids, designated as malonganenones L-Q (1-6), were isolated from the gorgonian Echinogorgia pseudossapo, collected in Daya Bay of Guangdong Province, China. The structures of 1-6 featuring a methyl group at N-3 and a tetraprenyl chain at N-7 in the hypoxanthine core were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1-6 were tested for their inhibitory activity against the phosphodiesterases (PDEs)-4D, 5A, and 9A, and compounds 1 and 6 exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against PDE4D with IC?? values of 8.5 and 20.3 µM, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
The Prognostic Value of Plasma Soluble ST2 in Hospitalized Chinese Patients with Heart Failure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
sST2 has been shown to be a risk predictor in heart failure (HF). Our aim was to explore the characteristics and prognostic value of soluble ST2 (sST2) in hospitalized Chinese patients with HF.
Related JoVE Video
In vivo overexpression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein protects against neomycin-induced hair cell loss in the apical turn of the cochlea during the ototoxic-sensitive period.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aminoglycoside-induced cochlear ototoxicity causes hair cell (HC) loss and results in hearing impairment in patients. Previous studies have developed the concept of an ototoxicity-sensitive period during which the cochleae of young mice are more vulnerable to auditory trauma than adults. Here, we compared neomycin-induced ototoxicity at the following four developmental ages in mice: postnatal day (P)1-P7, P8-P14, P15-P21, and P60-P66. We found that when neomycin was administered between P8 and P14, the auditory brainstem response threshold increase was significantly higher at low frequencies and HC loss was significantly greater in the apical turn of the cochlea compared to neomycin administration during the other age ranges. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data revealed that the expression of apoptotic markers, including Casp3 and Casp9, was significantly higher when neomycin was injected from P8 to P14, while the expression of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) gene was significantly higher when neomycin was injected from P60 to P66. Because XIAP expression was low during the neomycin-sensitive period, we overexpressed XIAP in mice and found that it could protect against neomycin-induced hearing loss at low frequencies and HC loss in the apical turn of the cochlea. Altogether, our findings demonstrate a protective role for XIAP against neomycin-induced hearing loss and HC loss in the apical turn of the cochlea during the ototoxic-sensitive period, and suggest that apoptotic factors mediate the effect of neomycin during the ototoxic-sensitive period.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective study of breast dynamic morphological changes after dual-plane augmentation mammaplasty with 3D scanning technique.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The dual-plane technique has been widely used in augmentation mammaplasty procedures. However, there are some concerns about aesthetic contour maintenance for long time after muscle releasing. This study aims to track and analyze breast dynamic morphological changes after dual-plane breast augmentation with three-dimensional (3D) scanning technique.
Related JoVE Video
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between serotonergic gene polymorphisms and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR) and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with susceptibility to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The associations, derived from sporadic, inconsistent, small-sample-size studies, need to be evaluated further in a meta-analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Selaginpulvilins A-D, New Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors with an Unprecedented Skeleton from Selaginella pulvinata.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Selaginpulvilins A-D (1-4), four new phenols with an unprecedented 9,9-diphenyl-1-(phenylethynyl)-9H-fluorene skeleton, together with four known selaginellins (5-8) were isolated from Selaginella pulvinata. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical correlation. The structure of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-8 exhibited remarkable inhibitory activities (IC50 values in the range of 0.11-5.13 ?M) against phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), a drug target for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Related JoVE Video
Generation and reactivity of putative support systems, Ce-Al neutral binary oxide nanoclusters: CO oxidation and C-H bond activation.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both ceria (CeO2) and alumina (Al2O3) are very important catalyst support materials. Neutral binary oxide nanoclusters (NBONCs), CexAlyOz, are generated and detected in the gas phase and their reactivity with carbon monoxide (CO) and butane (C4H10) is studied. The very active species CeAlO4 (?) can react with CO and butane via O atom transfer (OAT) and H atom transfer (HAT), respectively. Other CexAlyOz NBONCs do not show reactivities toward CO and C4H10. The structures, as well as the reactivities, of CexAlyOz NBONCs are studied theoretically employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The ground state CeAlO4 (?) NBONC possesses a kite-shaped structure with an OtCeObObAlOt configuration (Ot, terminal oxygen; Ob, bridging oxygen). An unpaired electron is localized on the Ot atom of the AlOt moiety rather than the CeOt moiety: this Ot centered radical moiety plays a very important role for the reactivity of the CeAlO4 (?) NBONC. The reactivities of Ce2O4, CeAlO4 (?), and Al2O4 toward CO are compared, emphasizing the importance of a spin-localized terminal oxygen for these reactions. Intramolecular charge distributions do not appear to play a role in the reactivities of these neutral clusters, but could be important for charged isoelectronic BONCs. DFT studies show that the reaction of CeAlO4 (?) with C4H10 to form the CeAlO4H?C4H9 (?) encounter complex is barrierless. While HAT processes have been previously characterized for cationic and anionic oxide clusters, the reported study is the first observation of a HAT process supported by a ground state neutral oxide cluster. Mechanisms for catalytic oxidation of CO over surfaces of AlxOy?MmOn or MmOn?AlxOy materials are proposed consistent with the presented experimental and theoretical results.
Related JoVE Video
[Endoscopic reconstruction skull base using pedicled nasoseptal flap and its anatomy measurement].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The harvesting procedures on cadaver heads and a radioanatomic study of measuring dimensions of skull base by endoscopic endonasal approach were performed. The measurements could do help to design the nasoseptal mucoperiosteum and improve the rate of repair success.
Related JoVE Video
Spectroscopic properties and diode end-pumped 2.79 ?m laser performance of Er,Pr:GYSGG crystal.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate a 968 nm diode end-pumped Er,Pr:GYSGG (Gd?.??Y?.??Sc?Ga?O??) laser at 2.79 ?m operated in the pulse and continuous-wave (CW) modes. The lifetimes for the upper laser level ?I??/ ? and lower level ?I??/? are 0.52 and 0.60 ms, respectively. The laser produces 284 mW of power in the CW mode, corresponding to the optical-to-optical efficiency of 14.8% and slope efficiency of 17.4%. The maximum laser energy achieved is 2.4 mJ at a repetition rate of 50 Hz and pulse duration of 0.5 ms, corresponding to a peak power of 4.8 W and slope efficiency of 18.3%. These results suggest that doping deactivator Pr3+ ions can effectively decrease the lower-level lifetime and improve the laser efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
[Bio-detection techniques based on magnetic signal of nanoparticles].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article summarizes biological detection techniques based on magnetic signal of magnetic nanoparticles and the research progress of these techniques in biomedicine. Biological detection based on magnetic nanoparticles is faster, more accurate and more convenient compared to traditional optical techniques and causes much attention. It can be classified into giant magneto resistive biosensor (GMR), magnetic relaxation switch (based on T2 relaxation time), AC susceptibility (based on Brownian relaxation) and magnetic lateral flow immunoassay. These techniques can be combined with nanotechnology, microfluidics, immunoassay and bio-chips and have wide application prospects in clinical diagnosis, biological detection, environmental monitoring and food security areas.
Related JoVE Video
O-atom transport catalysis by neutral manganese oxide clusters in the gas phase: reactions with CO, C2H4, NO2, and O2.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reactions of CO, C2H4, NO2, and O2 with neutral Mn(m)O(n) clusters in a fast flow reactor are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Single photon ionization at 118 nm is used to detect neutral cluster distributions through time of flight mass spectrometry. Mn(m)O(n) clusters are generated through laser ablation of a manganese target in the presence of 5% O2/He carrier gas. A strong size dependent reactivity of Mn(m)O(n) clusters is characterized. Reactions Mn2O5/Mn3O7 + CO ? Mn2O4/Mn3O6 + CO2 are found for CO oxidation by Mn(m)O(n) clusters, while only association products Mn2O(3-5)C2H4 and Mn3O(5-7)C2H4 are observed for reactions of C2H4 with small Mn(m)O(n) clusters. Reactions of Mn(m)O(n) clusters with NO2 and O2 are also investigated, and the small Mn2O(n) clusters are easily oxidized by NO2. This activation suggests that a catalytic cycle can be generated for the Mn2O5 cluster: Mn2O5 + CO + NO2 ? Mn2O4 + CO2 + NO2 ? Mn2O5 + CO2 + NO. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to explore the potential energy surfaces for the reactions Mn2O(4,5)/Mn3O7 + CO ? Mn2O(3,4)/Mn3O6 + CO2, Mn2O5 + C2H4 ? Mn2O4 + CH3CHO, and Mn2O4 + NO2 ? Mn2O5 + NO. Barrierless and thermodynamically favorable pathways are obtained for Mn2O5?Mn3O7 + CO and Mn2O4 + NO2 reactions. A catalytic cycle for CO oxidation by NO2 over a manganese oxide surface is proposed based on our experimental and theoretical investigations. The various atom related reaction mechanisms explored by DFT are in good agreement with the experimental results. Condensed phase manganese oxide is suggested to be a good catalyst for low temperature CO oxidation by NO2, especially for an oxygen rich sample.
Related JoVE Video
2.79 ?m high peak power LGS electro-optically Q-switched Cr,Er:YSGG laser.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A flash lamp pumped Cr,Er:YSGG laser utilizing a langasite (LGS) crystal as an electro-optic Q-switch is proposed and demonstrated. It is proved that a LGS crystal with relatively high damage threshold can be used as the electro-optic Q-switch at 2.79 ?m, and 216 mJ pulse energy with 14.36 ns pulse width is achieved. Its corresponding peak power of pulse can reach 15 MW, to our knowledge the best result at a 2.79 ?m wavelength.
Related JoVE Video
Selective, sensitive and fluorometric determination of urinary cytosine with 4-trifluoromethylbenzamidoxime and N,N-dimethylformamide.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytosine in urine is one of the biomarkers for the diagnosis of metabolic immunodeficiency. It has been mentioned that a high level of cytosine is found in urine of children having immunodeficiency. In this study, we have developed a fluorescence (fluorescence) derivatization reaction of cytosine using 4-trifluoromethylbenzamidoxime (4-TFMBAO) as a fluorogenic reagent.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extract of Aristolochia yunnanensis on cardiac fibrosis through extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and transforming growth factor ?/small mother against decapentaplegic signaling pathways.
Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aristolochia yunnanensis, known as Nan Mu Xiang in traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used to treat hypertension and chest pain. In this study, the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Nan Mu Xiang (NMX) on cardiac fibrosis was assessed in vitro by cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts with angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation, and in vivo by rats with abdominal aorta constriction (AAC). In cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts stimulated by AngII, NMX inhibited cardiac fibroblast proliferation, reduced the expression of fibronectin, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) in a dose-dependent manner; and suppressed AngII-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, C- rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (C-Raf), and small mother against decapentaplegic (Smad) 2. Similar results were also observed in AAC rats with intraperitoneal injection of NMX, which not only ameliorated myocardial fibrosis, but also improved cardiac function. The therapeutic effect of NMX on myocardial fibrosis is attributed mainly to the inhibition of ERK and the TGF-?/Smad signaling pathways. NMX may be a promising potential drug candidate for myocardial fibrosis.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic diversity of Odontobutis potamophila from different geographic populations inferred from mtDNA control region.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Odontobutis potamophila is a Chinese endemic species and an economically important fishery resource in the Yangtze River. The genetic variability of O. potamophila was studied based on the sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region from 150 individuals of five geographical populations including from Dangtu (n?=?30), Sheyang (n?=?30), Yuyao (n?=?30), Tai Lake nearby Dongxishan (n?=?30) and Minjiang (n?=?30). Among five populations, the genetic distance between Minjiang population and other populations (0.1186-0.1223) was larger than that among four populations except for Minjiang (0.0015-0.0198). In addition, 23 haplotypes were obtained and each population had special haplotypes. The samples from five sites had high haplotype diversity (0.80510) and low nucleotide diversity (0.04028). Through Tajimas D and Fus F neutral testing and mismatch distribution test among all geographical populations, O. potamophila did not undergo recent population expansion. During the population evolution, O. potamophila experienced a balanced selection function and maintained a stable state and population size. Moreover, the haplotype Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree was separated two haplotype groups. The NJ tree, TCS network and median-joining network could clearly separate the haplotypes of the specimens from different areas. Analysis of molecular variance and pairwise FST revealed an obvious genetic differentiation among different geographical populations, suggesting that O. potamophila in different geographical populations should be managed and conserved separately.
Related JoVE Video
[Design and development of an automatic rotatory chair for canalith repositioning maneuver].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper demonstrates a 3D rotatory chair and the development of control rotatory system based on PLC, corresponding software and user interface. The PLC-based three-dimensional rotatory chair has the advantage of maneuverability and stability according to the result of the experiment.
Related JoVE Video
Bioactive polyhydroxylated sterols from the marine sponge Haliclona crassiloba.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four new polyhydroxylated sterols, named halicrasterols A-D (1-4), together with six known analogs (5-10) were isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona crassiloba. Compounds 1 and 2 represented rare examples of steroids featuring 17(20)E-double bonds. The structures of 1-10 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. This is the first report of a steroid profile for this species. The antimicrobial activities of 1-10 were evaluated against a panel of bacterial and fungal strains in vitro, and compounds 4 and 9 showed moderate activity against some of the Gram-positive strains with MICs ranging from 4 to 32 ?g/mL.
Related JoVE Video
Topographic and quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced damage to peripheral innervation of mouse cochleae.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ototoxicity induced by aminoglycoside antibiotics appears to occur both in hair cells (HCs) and the cochlear nerves that innervate them. Although HC loss can be easily quantified, neuronal lesions are difficult to quantify because two types of afferent dendrites and two types of efferent axons are tangled beneath the hair cells. In the present study, ototoxicity was induced by gentamicin in combination with the diuretic agent furosemide. Neuronal lesions were quantified in cochlear whole-mount preparations combined with microsections across the habenular perforate (HP) openings to achieve a clear picture of the topographic relationship between neuronal damage and HC loss. Multiple immunostaining methods were employed to differentiate the two types of afferent dendrites and two types of efferent axons. The results show that co-administration of gentamicin and furosemide resulted in a typical dynamic pattern of HC loss that spread from the basal turn to the outer hair cells to the apex and inner hair cells, depending on the dose and survival time after drug administration. Lesions of the innervation appeared to occur at two stages. At the early stage (2-4 days), the loss of labeling of the two types of afferent dendrites was more obvious than the loss of labeled efferent axons. At the late stage (2-4 weeks), the loss of labeled efferent axons was more rapid. In the high-dose gentamicin group, the loss of outer HCs was congruent with afferent dendrite loss at the early stage and efferent axon loss at the late stage. In the low-dose gentamicin group, the loss of labeling for cochlear innervation was more severe and widespread. Thus, we hypothesize that the gentamicin-induced damage to cochlear innervation occurs independently of hair cell loss.
Related JoVE Video
Local gene transfection in the cochlea (Review).
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is much interest in the potential application of vector-induced gene therapeutic approaches to several forms of hearing disorders due to the poor efficacy of existing treatments. The cochlea is an ideal site for local gene transfection due to its anatomical encapsulation and fluid flow within its ducts. However, this requires the development of novel technologies in materials science and microbial supply vectors for target gene delivery. This review focuses on the introduction of various viral and non-viral vectors as well as injection approaches to transfecting cochlear cells in vivo. Finally, the perspective of local gene therapy was discussed. Therapeutic approaches using local gene transfection may provide a means of cochlear cell and tissue protection and treatment in cases of exogenous hearing loss and endogenous disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Catalytic oxidation of CO by N2O conducted via the neutral oxide cluster couple VO2/VO3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neutral vanadium and cobalt oxide clusters are generated at the same time employing a V-Co mixed target. Experimental results indicate that the reaction VO2 + N2O ? VO3 + N2 occurs in a fast flow reactor. This interpretation is further supported for a gas mixture of CO and N2O in the flow cell: regeneration of VO2 is observed for this case via the reaction VO3 + CO ? VO2 + CO2. A full catalytic cycle for the reaction N2O + CO ? N2 + CO2 is thus complete at room temperature enabled by the VO2/VO3 cluster couple. DFT calculations demonstrate that the entire catalytic process is overall barrierless and reproduce the experimental results quite well.
Related JoVE Video
Patulin induces pro-survival functions via autophagy inhibition and p62 accumulation.
Cell Death Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patulin (PAT) is one of the most common mycotoxins found in moldy fruits. Skin contact is one of the most likely exposure routes of PAT. Investigation of dermal toxicity of PAT is clearly needed and has been highlighted by WHO. In the present study, using human keratinocyte HaCaT cells as a model, we found that treatment with PAT caused an increased autophagosome accumulation. Measurements of autophagic flux demonstrated that the accumulation of autophagosomes by PAT was not directly due to enhanced autophagosome formation but due to inhibition of autophagosome degradation. Reductions in the activities of the lysosomal enzymes cathepsin B and cathepsin D by PAT might contribute to this inhibitory effect. Consistent with this, inhibition of autophagosome degradation by PAT resulted in accumulation of p62 that functioned as a pro-survival signal. The pro-survival function of p62 was found to be attributed to reactive oxygen species-mediated cytoprotective endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress exerted cytoprotective effect via extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2-dependent B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2-associated agonist of cell death inhibitory phosphorylation. Given the critical role of autophagy and its substrate p62 in carcinogenesis, our findings may have important implications in PAT-induced skin carcinogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
The efficacy of moxifloxacin-based triple therapy in treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent evidence shows that moxifloxacin could exert an antimicrobial effect against Helicobacter pylori in both in vitro and in vivo models. To systematically evaluate whether moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy could improve eradication rates and reduce side effects in first-line or second-line anti-H. pylori treatment, eligible articles were identified by searches of electronic databases. We included all randomized trials comparing moxifloxacin-based triple therapy with standard triple or quadruple therapy during H. pylori eradication treatment. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.0.10. Subanalysis/sensitivity analysis was also performed. We identified seven randomized trials (n=1263). Pooled H. pylori eradication rates were 79.03% (95%CI: 75.73-82.07) and 68.33% (95%CI: 64.44-72.04) for patients with moxifloxacin-based triple therapy or with standard triple or quadruple therapy, respectively (intention-to-treat analysis). The odds ratio (OR) was 1.82 (95%CI: 1.17-2.81), the occurrence of total side effects was 15.23% (95%CI: 12.58-18.20) and 27.17% (95%CI: 23.64-30.92) for groups with or without moxifloxacin, and the summary OR was 0.45 (95%CI: 0.26-0.77). In subgroup analyses, we noted that the second-line eradication rate in the moxifloxacin group was significantly higher than that in the quadruple therapy group (73.33 vs 60.17%, OR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.16-2.73, P<0.001). However, there was no difference in first-line eradication treatment. Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that moxifloxacin-based triple therapy is more effective and better tolerated than standard triple or quadruple therapy. Therefore, a moxifloxacin-based triple regimen should be used in the second-line treatment of H. pylori infection.
Related JoVE Video
Spectroscopic, diode-pumped laser properties and gamma irradiation effect on Yb, Er, Ho:GYSGG crystals.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate a diode end-pumped Yb, Er, Ho:Gd(1.17)Y(1.83)Sc(2)Ga(3)O(12) (GYSGG) laser operated at 2.79 ?m in continuous-wave mode. Spectral analysis shows that Yb(3+) and Ho(3+) act as sensitizer and deactivator ions, respectively. Pumping with a 967 nm laser diode produces the maximum output power of 411 mW, corresponding to optical-optical conversion and slope efficiencies of 11.6% and 13.1%, respectively. The minimum laser threshold is only 81 mW because of Ho(3+) doping. The laser properties are only slightly influenced by 100 mrad gamma irradiation. The Yb, Er, Ho:GYSGG crystal possesses excellent radiation resistance and is a potential laser gain medium in radiant environments.
Related JoVE Video
Neuregulin-1 protects against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through an Akt-dependent pathway.
Physiol Res
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In previous studies, it has been shown that recombinant human neuregulin-1(rhNRG-1) is capable of improving the survival rate in animal models of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy; however, the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. In this study, the role of rhNRG-1 in attenuating doxorubicin-induce apoptosis is confirmed. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were subjected to various treatments, in order to both induce apoptosis and determine the effects of rhNRG-1 on the process. Activation of apoptosis was determined by observing increases in the protein levels of classic apoptosis markers (including cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c, Bcl-2, BAX and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining). The activation of Akt was detected by means of western blot analysis. The study results showed that doxorubicin increased the number of TUNEL positive cells, as well as the protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cytochrome c, and reduced the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. However, all of these effects were markedly antagonized by pretreament with rhNRG-1. It was then further demonstrated that the effects of rhNRG-1 could be blocked by the phosphoinositole-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, indicating the involvement of the Akt process in mediating the process. RhNRG-1 is a potent inhibitor of doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, which acts through the PI3K-Akt pathway. RhNRG-1 is a novel therapeutic drug which may be effective in preventing further damage from occurring in DOX-induced damaged myocardium.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.